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The doorstep to the temple of wisdom is a knowledge of our own ignorance. If you want to master knowledge and have wisdom, you must study or read books.
If you hope to be wise you must start at the very beginning and learn to see things as they truly are. Problems need solutions. Solutions breed new problems. Wisdom can only be acquired by an inquiring mind (追根问底的人). If you don’t ask questions, you won’t receive the answers.
I find that the harder I work, the more luck I seem to have. Desire for knowledge is the stimulant of creativity.
1. a chat show ________________.
2. in detail _______________________.
3. widespread poverty ______________.
4. come down to ___________________.
5. rush hour _____________________.
I dont know (6)________ youve noticed (7)________ some students dont want to walk to school. It can be seen every day (8)________ their parents drive them to school. But nowadays, it should be brought to our notice (9)________ the air is seriously polluted. (10)________ can we do about it? Here I have a suggestion (11)________ we should ride on our bikes to school! (12)________ we can do it will not only have significant benefits for our health, (13)________ also help improve our environment. (14)________ we will have a better environment depends on (15)________ we can do for ourselves and for nature.
Alice was beginning to get very tired of sitting by her sister on the bank, and of having nothing to do; once or twice she had looked into the book her sister was reading, but it had no pictures or conversations in it, “and what is the use of a book,” thought Alice, “without pictures or conversation?”
So she was considering in her own mind (as well as she could, for the hot day made her feel very sleepy and stupid) whether the pleasure of making a daisy-chain (雏菊花环) would be worth the trouble of getting up and picking the daisies, when suddenly a white rabbit with pink eyes ran close by her.
There was nothing so very remarkable in that; but when the rabbit actually took a watch out of its waistcoat-pocket, and looked at it, and then hurried on, Alice started to her feet, for it flashed across her mind that she had never before seen a rabbit with either a waistcoat-pocket, or a watch to take out of it, and burning with curiosity, she ran across the field after it, and fortunately was just in time to see it pop down a large rabbit-hole under the bush.
The rabbit-hole went straight on like a tunnel for some way, and then dipped suddenly down, so suddenly that Alice had not a moment to think about stopping herself before she found herself falling down a very deep well.
Either the well was very deep, or she fell very slowly, for she had plenty of time as she went down to look about her and to wonder what was going to happen next. First, she tried to look down and make out what she was coming to, but it was too dark to see anything; then she looked at the sides of the well, and noticed that they were filled with cupboards and book-shelves; here and there she saw maps and pictures hung upon hooks. She took down a jar from one of the shelves as she passed; it was labeled “ORANGE MARMALADE”, but to her great disappointment it was empty; she did not like to drop the jar for fear of killing somebody, so managed to put it into one of the cupboards as she fell past it.
Down, down, down. Would the fall never come to an end? “I wonder how many miles Ive fallen by this time?” she said aloud. “I must be getting somewhere near tile, centre of the earth. Let me see: that would be four thousand miles down, I think. I wonder if I shall fall right through the earth! How funny itll seem to come out among the people that walk with their heads downward! The Antipathies, I think--but I shall have to ask them what the name of the country is, you know. Please, Ma am, is this New Zealand or Australia? And what an ignorant little girl shell think me for asking! No, itll never do to ask: perhaps I shall see it written up somewhere.”
Down, down, down. There was nothing else to do, when suddenly, thump! thump! Down she came upon a heap of sticks and dry leaves, and the fall was over.
16. What kind of books do you think will interest Alice most?
A. Books that her sister was reading. B. Books without pictures or conversation.
C. Books about white rabbits. D. Books with pictures and conversation.
17. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A. Alice did not like to drop the jar for fear of killing the white rabbit.
B. Alice managed to put the jar back into the shelf.
C. Alice ran after the white rabbit across the field out of curiosity.
D. The people on the opposite side of the earth walk with their heads downward.
18. Which is the right order of the story?
a. Alice jumped into a large hole.
b. She took down a jar from one of the shelves.
c. A white rabbit ran close by her.
d. Alice sat by her sister, doing nothing.
e. She fell upon some sticks and dry leaves.
A. d-c-a-b-e B. d-a-c-b-e C. a-b-e-c-d D. d-c-a--e-b
19. From the passage, we can see Alice is a(n) ___________ girl.
A. helpful and friendly B. curious and imaginative
C. brave and curious D. ignorant and pretty
20. The paragraph “In another moment down went Alice after it, never once considering how in the world she was to get out again.” can be put between ___________.
A. Paragraphs 1 and 2 B. Paragraphs 2 and 3
C. Paragraphs 3 and 4 D. Paragraphs 4 and 5
参考词汇：宣誓 make an oath
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The Value of Education
The length of your education is less important than its breadth, and the length of your life is less important than its depth. The whole point of teaching is that it is a way of shortening the slow process of learning under natural conditions. Education is what is left when you have forgotten everything you ever learned. Perhaps the most valuable result of all education is the ability to make yourself do the thing you have to do when it ought to be done, whether you like it or not. It is the first lesson that ought to be learned.
1. self-employed ____________________.
2. in public ________________________.
3. (be) in favour of __________________.
4. for example _____________________.
5. a formal letter____________________.
Charles Pink was a young (6)________ (Canada)who had a good house and he knew how to enjoy himself. Every Saturday, he went to the theatre and (7)________ (party)．His car was one of the best in his city. He had lots of (8)________ and one day he bought a plane. He learned to fly and flying became one of his main (9)________ (enjoy)．
One day about thirty (10)________ (year) ago, he set off in his small plane on a trip across (11)________ (Mexican)．At first everything went well, but when he was over the part of the country (12)________ engine of the little machine failed. Fortunately, Pink was flying at a good (13)________ (high) when the bad thing happened, and he had time to find a place to land. Below him he could see a number of (14)________ (field) which looked nice enough to land on, and he managed to bring his (15)________ down on one of them.
I’m glad to hear from you. You ask about my health in your last email. So I’m going to tell yo u about diet. I’m a very health person. That’s why we live near the sea and we often have fish. I don’t know exactly what my mother will cook for us tonight, and there will probable be fish and vegetables. And of course there will also be some rices. If you come to visit me in China on one day, you won’t eat many sweets. So I hope you don’t have sweet tooth.
I’m going to ask my father to take some photos for the football match and I’ll email them to you. I think you’ll like our team’s clothes.
The Joy of Living
Joy in living comes from having fine emotions, trusting them, giving them the freedom of a bird in the open. Joy in living can never be assumed as a pose, or put on from the outside a mask. People who have this joy don’t need to talk about it, they radiate（辐射，传播） it. They just live out their joy and let it splash（飞溅） its sunlight into other lives as nature as a bird sings.
We can never get it from working for it directly. It comes, like happiness, to those who are aiming at something higher. It’s a byproduct（副产品） of great, simple living. The joy of living comes from what we put into our living, not from what we seek to get from it.
1. in such situations ___________________.
2. hold the attention of the public _________________.
3. consist of ________________.
4. stand out ________________.
All big cities (6)________ (be) quite similar. Living in a modern Asian city (7)________ (be) not very different from living in an American city. The same cannot be said about living on farms, however.
In many parts of the world, farmers and their families (8)________ (live) in villages or towns. In the United States, however, each farm family (9)________ (live) on its own fields, often beyond the sight of any neighbors. Instead of traveling from a village to the fields every morning, American farmers (10)________ (stay) on their land throughout the week. They travel to the nearest town on Saturdays for shopping or on Sundays for church. The children ride on buses to large schools which (11)________ (serve) all of the farm families living in the area. In some areas, there (12)________ (be) small schools serving a few farm families, and the children walk to school. Of course life (13)________ (keep) changing for everyone, including farmers. Today there are cars, good roads, radios, and television sets. And of course there are modern machines for farming. All of these (14)________ (have) changed farm life.
For many years, however, farming in America (15)________ (be) often a lonely way of living. Farmers had to deal with their own problems, instead of getting help from others. They learned to try new methods, and to trust their own ideas instead of following older ways.
Martha had been working for Miller Laboratories for two years, but she was not happy there. Nothing significant had happened in the way of promotions or salary increases. Martha felt that her supervisor, a younger and less experienced person than her, did not like her. In fact, the supervisor often said unpleasant things to her.
One day, while talking with her friend Maria, she mentioned how discouraged she was. Maria gave her the name of her cousin who was the director of Human Resources Department for a large chemical company. Martha called him the next day and set up an interview on her lunch hour.
During the interview, Mr. Petri said, “You’re just the kind of person we need here. You’re being wasted in your other job. Give me a call in a day or two. I’m sure we can find a place for you in our organization.” Martha was so happy she almost danced out of the building.
That afternoon, Ruth Kenny, her supervisor, saw that Martha had come in ten minutes late from her lunch hour and she said, “Oh, so you finally decided to come back to work today?”
This was the last straw. She could not take another insult. Besides, Mr. Petri was right: she was being wasted in this job.
“Look,” she said angrily, “if you don’t like the way I work, I don’t need to stay here. I’ll go where I’m appreciated! Good-bye!” She took up her things and stormed out of the office.
That night she called Maria and told her what had happened and then asked Maria, “What do you think?”
“Well,” said Maria carefully, “are you sure about the other job?”
“Well, not exactly, but…”
Maria continued, “Will you be able to get a recommendation from Mrs. Kenny if you need one?”
“A recommendation? …from Mrs. Kenny?” hesitated Martha, in a worried tone.
“Martha, I hope you didn’t burn your bridges.” Maria said. “I think I would have handled it differently.”
16. Martha is unhappy in her job because _____.
A. she has not advanced B. the work is not significant
C. her supervisor is younger than she D. there is too much work with little payment
17. Which of the following statement is NOT true?
A. At her supervisor’s criticism, Martha lost her temper.
B. Mr. Petri felt Martha was not valued in her present job.
C. Martha’s interview with the director was on her lunch hour.
D. Martha got the name of the director through her cousin.
18. The phrase “the last straw” probably refers to _____.
A. the last opportunity B. the straw that saves Martha’s life
C. the last reminder D. the final unpleasant thing
19. What does Maria think of Martha’s decision?
A. Martha has handled the matter properly.
B. Martha shouldn’t have set the bridge on fire.
C. Martha should have found a new job before leaving.
D. Martha shouldn’t have lost her temper with her supervisor
引导时间状语从句的从属连词很多，如较基本的有before, after, when, while, as, since, till, until, as soon as 等：
Things were different when I was a child. 我小时候情况与现在不同。
We must strike while the iron is hot. 我们要趁热打铁。
(1) 表示“一…就”的从属连词：the moment, the minute, the second, the instant, immediately, directly, instantly, once, no sooner…than, hardly…when等。如：
Immediately he came I told him the news. 他一来我就把消息告诉了他。
The moment I saw him I knew there was no hope. 我一看到他就知道没希望了。
(2) 涉及time的几个从属连词：every time(每次)，each time(每次)，(the) next time(下次)，any time(随时)，the last time(上次)，the first time(第一次)。如：
Every time I see her I’ll think of it. 每次我看到她，我就想起这事。
Turn off the lights before you leave. 走前关灯。
(2) 与since 从句搭配的主句的时态通常是现在完成时态：
He has lived here since 1999. 自1999年以来，他就一直住在这儿。
Yesterday he told me that he hadn’t eaten anything since Tuesday. 他昨天告诉我自星期二以来他一直未吃任何东西。
主要的有if, unless, as [so] long as等：
As long as it doesn’t rain we can go. 只要不下雨，我们就可以去。
注：除以上基本的引导条件状语从句的从属连词外，还有的动词尤其是其分词形式(如suppose, supposing, provided, providing等)和介词短语(如in case, on condition that等)也可用作连词表示条件：
If case I forget, please remind me about it. 万一我忘记，请提醒我一下。
Suppose 和supposing 引导条件状语从句时，通常用于主句为疑问句的场合：
Suppose the boss saw you，what would he say? 如果老板看到你，他会怎样说?
In case he comes, let me know. 如果他来，告诉我一声。
注：有时也可见到 if you will 这样的说法，但那不是将来时态，而是表示意愿或委婉的请求(此处的 will是情态动词)：
If you will wait for a moment, I’ll go and tell the manager that you are here. 请等一下，我去告诉经理说你来了。
主要的有 in order that, so that, in case, for fear等：
Speak clearly so that they may understand you. 讲清楚些，以便他们能理解你。
注：so that 引导目的状语从句时有时可省略so而只用that，有时也可只用so：
Bring it closer that I might see it better. 拿近些，使我能看得清楚些。
He got up early so that he could catch the early bus. / He got up early so as to catch the early bus. 他起床很早以便赶上早班车。
He left an hour early for fear he might miss the train. / He left an hour early for fear of missing the train. 他提前一小时离开，以免错过火车。
3. in case的用法说明
In case he comes, let me know. 如果他来，告诉我一声。
Take your coat in case it rains (should rain). 带着雨衣以防下雨。
主要的有so that, so…that, such…that等：
He studied hard so that he passed the exam. 他学习用功，所以考试通过了。
I am so busy I have no time to write a letter. 我很忙，连写信的时间都没有。
正：He is so clever a child that we all like him. 这小孩很聪明，我们都喜欢他。
正：They are such clever children that we all like them. 这些孩子很聪明，我们都很喜欢。
误：They are so clever children that we all like them.
It’s such an interesting film that we all want to see it. 这电影很有趣，我们都想看。
It’s so interesting a film that we all want to see it. 这电影很有趣，我们都想看。
注：在much, many, little, few 这四个词前总是用so而不用such：
He had so many falls that he was black and blue all over. 他摔了许多跤，结果全身都是伤。
He earns so little money that he can hardly feed his family. 他赚的钱很少几乎不能养家糊口。
由so that和so…that引导的结果状语从句有时可与表结果的so as to和so…as to引出的不定式短语转换：
He arrived late so that he missed the train. / He arrived late so as to miss the train. 他到得很迟，结果未赶上火车。
4. so that引导目状语和结果状语的区别
(2) 形式上的区别：引导目的从句之前不用逗号(说话时也不停顿)，而结果从句之前则通常有逗号(说话时常有停顿)；有时引导结果状语从句时其前也可以没有逗号，此时可看从句中是否有 can中/ could, may / might, will /would 以及should等情态动词，如果没有，则多半是结果从句。比较：
We’ve come early so that the meeting can begin promptly. 我们来得很早，以便可以马上开会。(so that 引导目的状语从句)
We are all here now, so that the meeting can begin at last. 我们现在都到齐了，终于能开会了。 (so that 引导结果状语从句)
I am going to the lecture early so that I’ll get a good seat. 我想早点去听演讲，以便找个好座位。(so that 引导目的状语从句)
I went to the lecture early so that I got a good seat. 我去听演讲去得很早，所以找个好座位。(so that 引导结果状语从句)
正：So that he could buy a new car, he saved a lot of money. 他节省了一大笔钱，以便能买辆新车。(引导目的状语从句)
误：So that I could hardly stand, I was tired.(引导结果状语从句不能置于句首，可改为I was tired so that I could hardly stand. 我很累，几乎站不稳了。)
I’m so happy that you could visit us. 我很高兴你能来看望我们。(其中的so用于加强语气，相当于very)
It’s such a great pleasure th at you are here. 你在这里是非常令人高兴的事。(其中的that引导的是主语从句，句首的it为形式主语)
主要的有because, as, since, seeing (that), now (that), considering (that)等：
Since [As] we’ve no money, we can’t buy it. 由于我们没钱，我们无法购买它。
Seeing that it’s raining，we’d better stay indoors. 既然外边在下雨，我们最好待在室内。
I can’t tell you when you won’t listen. 既然你不想听，我就不告诉你了。
I didn’t go because I was afraid. 我没有去是因为怕。/ 我不是因为怕才去。
You shouldn’t get angry just because some people speak ill of you. 你不要因为有人说你坏话而生气。
汉语习惯上说“因为…所以…”，但英语习惯上却不能将 so与because 连用：
正：Because it was raining, we stayed at home. / It was raining, so we stayed at home.
误：Because it was raining, so we stayed at home.
4. because 从句与 because of短语的转换
Because引导的原因状语从句有时可与because of 短语转换：
I said nothing about it because his wife was there. / I said nothing about it because of his wife’s being there. 因为他妻子在那儿，我对此事只字未提。
主要的有although, though, even though, even if等：
Although he is poor, he’s still happy. 虽然他很穷，他仍然很快乐。
We’ll go even if it rains. 即使下雨我们也要去
(1) 用when 和while引导让步状语从句。不要认为when和while只引导时间状语从句，其实它们也可引导让步状语从句，意思是“尽管”或“虽然”：
She stopped when she ought to have continued. 尽管她应该继续下去，她却停住了。
While I understand what you say, I can’t agree with you. 虽然我理解你的意思，但我还是不同意。
I’ll do it whether you like it or not. 不管你是否喜欢，我都要做。
Whether we help him or not, he will fail. 不论我们帮助他与否, 他都将失败。
(3) 用whatever, whoever, however, whenever, wherever 等引导让步状语从句：
He does whatever she asks him to do. 她要他做什么，他就做什么。
2. whatever, however 等-ever词用法说明
Whatever you say, I believe you. 无论你说什么，我都相信你。
Whoever telephones, tell them I’m out. 不管是谁打电话，都说我出去了。
(2) 它们引导让步状语从句时，通常可换成no matter…，如说：
No matter what you say, I believe you. 无论你说什么，我都相信你。
However you travel, it’ll take you at least three days. 不管你怎么走，至少要三天。
However much he eats, he never gets fat. 无论他吃多少, 他都不发胖。
He was of some help, however small. 他总能帮些忙，不管多小的忙。
I’ll find him, wherever he is [may be]. 无论他在哪里，我都要找到他。
(5) whenever有时可引导时间状语从句，wherever 有时可引导地点状语从句：
Whenever we see him we speak to him. 每次见到他，我们都和他说话。
3. 为什么不能说 (al)though…but
误：Although it is dangerous, but I will try.
正：Although it is dangerous, I will try. / It is dangerous, but I will try.
不能将汉语的“虽然…但是…”直译为(al)though…but…，这是因为 (al)though 为从属连词，用于引导让步状语从句；而but在表示“但是”时，它是并列连词，用以连接两个句子使之成为并列句。由于在同一句中既用了从属连词(al)though，又用了并列连词 but，使得句子一半像复合句，一半像并列句，从而导致错误。正确的做法是，任意去掉 (al)though 和 but 中的一个，使之要么成为复合句，要么成为并列句。但是，如果就此认为although 永远不与but连用，这也是片面的，请看两例：
(1) But I didn’t know that then, although I learned it later. 但我当时的确不知道此事，尽管后来我还是知道了。
此句既用了并列连词 but，又用了从属连词 although，但它并未造成错误，原因是此句与上面所讨论的情形有所不同，即此句 but 用于 although 之前，but 在此仅起到与上文转折的作用，but 后的 I didn’t know that then, although I learned it later.仍为一个复合句。
(2) I tried doing the accounts, but although I knew some maths I found it very difficult. 我试着算这些账，但尽管我懂点数学，仍感到很困难。
此句将 but 与 although 用在一起，但此句也没有错误。该句从总体来看，它是一个以并列连词 but 连接的并列句，而在该并列句的后面一句又是一个包含让步状语从句 although I knew some maths 的复合句——这种句型就是所谓的并列复合句。此句也可改写为 I tried doing the accounts, but I found it very difficult although I knew some maths.
Poor though I am, I can afford it. 我虽穷，但这东西还是买得起的。
主要的有as, as if, as though等：
You must do as your parents tell you. 你必须按你父母说的去做。
They treated the child as if she were their own. 他们待这孩子像亲生的一样。
Nobody loves you like I do. 没有人像我这样爱你。
(2) 有时the way 也可用作连词，表示方式，与as的用法相似：
The didn’t do it the way we do now. 那时他们不像我们现在这样行事。
2. as if [as though] 从句与虚拟语气
一般说来，若as if 和as though 从句所表示的内容可能为事实，则用陈述语气，若为假设或不大可能为事实，则用虚拟语气。不过在非正式文体中，有时即使句意明确地表示不是事实，也可能用陈述语气：
He treats me as if I am [were] a stranger. 他待我有如陌生人。
主要的有where, wherever, everywhere, anywhere等：
Put the medicine where children can’t reach it. 把药放在孩子们拿不到的地方。
You can’t camp where [wherever, anywhere] you like these days. 如今你可不能随便在哪儿宿营。
She fell asleep while (he was) doing his homework. 他在做作业时睡着了。
He opened his mouth as if (he was) to speak. 他张开口，好像要说话似的。
I’d like to see you whenever (it’s) convenient. 在你方便的时候我想来看看你。
注：有些由if构成的省略结构，已属固定短语，如if any, if necessary, if possible, if not, if so：
If possible, I wish to go there next summer. 如果可能，我希望明年夏天去。
He may be busy. If so, I’ll call later. If not, can I see him now? 他可能很忙，要是这样，我以后再来拜访。要是不忙，我现在可以见他吗?