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Module 8

Unit 22 Environmental Protection

Ⅰ.品句填词
1.Unfortunately,many species are in danger of ________(灭绝) nowadays.
2.As the forests are being destroyed,the ________ (保护区)for them is becoming necessary.
3.Unless we can get more ________(财政,资金),we will close the hotel.
4.The scientists ________(计算) using various kinds of data when the spacecraft would reach the moon.
5.The murderer was ________(判刑) to death for what he had done.
6.Scientists are ________(宣称) a major breakthrough in the fight against cancer.
7.We’ve ________(分配) accommodation to reach of the refugees.
8.The owner ________(威胁)to drive us out of the pub if we got drunk.
9.The fruit is ________(超过)my reach.
10.We still don’t know exactly how the universe first came into ________(存在).
答案:1.extinction 2.conservation 3.finance 4.calculated 5.condemned 6.claiming 7.allocated 8.threatened 9.beyond 10.existence
Ⅱ.短语识境
refer to;trap;lead to;considerate;apart from;answer for;wrap up;carry off;all in all;on one’s behalf
1.Even such a small mistake would perhaps ________ disastrous consequences.
2.________,he is more learned than he was ten years ago.
3.That just about          it       for today.
4.My colleagues are now on vocation,so I’m attending the meeting ________.
5.Whatever you do now,you must ________ it one day.
6.You might be more ________ towards other people.
7.She was ________ in the burning house.
8.Don’t ________ this matter again,please.I don’t want to talk about it any more.
9.________the cost,building a house also takes up a lot of time.
10.She ________ the first prize in the singing competition.
答案:1.lead to 2.All in all 3.wraps;up 4.on their behalf 5.answer for 6.considerate
7.trapped 8.refer to 9.Apart from 10.carried off
Ⅲ.完成句子
1.那位老师轮流帮助每一位学生,此事占用了他大量的时间。
The teacher helped each of the children ________ ________,which took up a lot of his time.
2.一旦得到命令,消防队会立刻采取措施。
Once they got the order,the firefighters ________ ________ immediately.
3.在那儿他有太多难过的回忆,他永远离开了那个地方。
He had too many sad memories there and left the place ________ ________.
4.租金要提前3个月支付。
Rent shall be paid three months ________ ________.
5.在一定程度上我赞成你。
I agree with you ________ ________ ________.
答案:1.in turn 2.took action 3.for good 4.in advance 5.to some degree
Ⅳ.单项填空
1.—It’s a long time since I saw my sister.
—________ her this weekend?(2007•全国)
A.Why not visiting          B.Why not to visit
C.Why not visit             D.Why don’t visit
解析:考查交际用语。Why don’t you...?和Why not do...?表示提出建议,是“你为什么不做……”之意,解题方法探讨:交际用语是日常生活中的语言,用的最多。所以要求考生熟悉各种场景下运用什么样的语言来回答,并准确地掌握中西方文化的不同之处。
答案:C
2.I have offered to paint the house ________ a week’s accommodation.(2007•山东)
A.in exchange for  B.with regard to  C.by means of  D.in place of
解析:考查介词短语的辨析。句意为:作为一周住宿的交换条件,我已经主动提出粉刷房屋。with regard to“关于,至于”;by means of“通过……方法”;in place of“代替”;in exchange of“作为交换条件”。解题方法探讨:介词短语在高考中考查的频率很高。要求考生们在平时学习中熟记短语,加强练习。
答案:A
3.Elizabeth has already achieved success ________ her wildest dreams.(2008•陕西)
A.at  B.beyond  C.within  D.upon
解析:beyond one’s wildest dreams 为固定短语,意思是“超出某人的想象”。解题方法探讨:beyond属于用法较灵活的介词之一。但beyond所构成的短语都离不开beyond 的本意“超过”(某个数量,限度),所以记beyond短语时要发挥想象。
答案:B
4.We firmly believe that war never settles anything.It only ________ violence.(2007•浙江)
A.runs into  B.comes from  C.leads to  D.begins with
解析:句意为:我们认为战争不能解决任何问题,它只能导致暴力。lead to 意为“导致,引起”,解决方法探讨见第5题。
答案:C
5.—They’re quiet,aren’t they?
—Yes.They are accustomed ________ at meals.(2008•江苏)
A.to talk     B.to not talk     C.to talking     D.to not talking
解析:be accustomed to后跟动名词作宾语,动名词的否定形式应该在动名词的前面加not。解题方法探讨:to是不定式符号还是介词对考生来说是个难点。要求平时熟记to为介词的几个短语就可以了。
答案:D
6.—Who is that girl on ________ red bike?
—Lucy Jenkins,________ art students in ________ Beijing University.
A.a;an;the  B.the;an;/  C.the;the;/  D.a;the;/
解析:考查冠词。 第一个空是特指,表示“骑红色自行车的女孩”;第二个空是Lucy Jenkins的同位语, 表示泛指;Beijing University是专有名词,不加冠词。
答案:B
7.—Sorry,Mary.I was a bit rude to you just now.
—________,but don’t do that again.
A.Got it  B.Forget it  C.That’s all right  D.Take it easy
解析: 考查交际用语。本句是回答sorry,故选择Forget it“没关系”;Got it“明白了”;That’s all right“没什么”;Take it easy“别急,慢慢来”。
答案:B
8.We were late because the road was so ________ that we had to drive carefully at low speed.
A.spacious  B.smooth  C.rough  D.irregular
解析:考查形容词。由drive carefully at low speed可知前文意思应是“路不平”;rough“(道路等)崎岖的,不平的”;spacious“宽敞的”;smooth“平整的”;irregular“不规则的,没有规律的”。
答案:C
9.—Why not go on a picnic this weekend?
—Good idea.I will ________ you at seven on Saturday morning.
A.answer for     B.account for     C.look for     D.call for
解析:考查短语动词。call for sb.“去接某人”;answer for“对……负责”;account for“解释,说明”;look for“寻找”。
答案:D
10.There was mud and water everywhere,________ it hard to travel from place to place.
A.to make     B.made     C.having made     D.making
解析:考查非谓语动词。现在分词making作结果状语,表示前句所造成的结果。
答案:D
Ⅴ.阅读理解
We have met the enemy and he is ours.We bought him at a pet shop.When monkey­pox,a disease usually found in the African rain forest,suddenly turns up in children in the Americans Midwest,it’s hard not to wonder if the disease that comes from foreign animals is homing in on human beings.“Most of the infections (感染)we think of as human infections started in other animals,” says Stephen Morse director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness at Columbia University.
It’s not just that we’re going to where the animals are;we’re also bringing them closer to us.Popular foreign pets have brought a whole new disease to this country.A strange illness killed Isaksen’s pets,and she now thinks that keeping foreign pets is a bad idea.“I don’t think it’s fair to have them as pets when we have such a limited knowledge of them,”says Isaksen.
“Laws allowing these animals to be brought in from deep forest areas without stricter control need changing”,says Peter Schantz.Monkey­pox may be the_wake­up_call.Researchers believe infected animals may infect their owners.We know very little about these new diseases.A new bug(病毒)may be kind at first.But it may develop into something harmful(有害的).Monkey­pox doesn’t look a major infectious disease.But it is not impossible to pass the disease from person to person.
1.We learn from Paragraph 1 that the pet sold at the shop may ________.
A.come from Columbia  B.prevent us from being infected
C.enjoy being with children  D.suffer from monkey­pox
解析:推理判断题。从第一段We have met the enemy and he is ours.We bought him at a pet shop.When monkey­pox,a disease usually found in the African rain forest suddenly turns up in children in the Americans Midwest,可知,商店里买的宠物带有一种疾病。
答案:D
2.Why did Isaksen advise people not to have foreign pets?
A.They attack human beings.  B.We need to study native animals.
C.They can’t live out of the rain forest.  D.We do not know much about them yet.
解析:细节判断题。Isaksen’s pets and she now thinks that keeping foreign pets is a bad idea。
答案:D
3.What does the phrase “the wake­up call” in Paragraph 3 most probably mean?
A.A new disease.  B.A clear warning.
C.A dangerous animal.  D.A morning call.
解析:词义理解题。大多数感染(感染)认为人类感染始于其他动物,故养动物宠物的人很容易受到感染,故此研究者唤醒养动物宠物人的注意。
答案:B
4.The text suggests that in the future we ________.
A.may have to fight against more new diseases
B.may easily get infected by diseases from dogs
C.should not be allowed to have pets
D.should stop buying pets from Africa
解析:主题大意题。从最后一段可知,会有更多的病毒由动物传染给人,故此人类要不断与新的疾病作斗争。
答案:A

 

 


英语脱口秀

怎样用英语来点菜呢?下面我们一起来学习用地道的英语点菜吧。
【常用句型】
*预定餐馆
一般情况下,去饭店之前要预约:
1.A:Hello,this is the Park Restaurant. May I help you?
B:I’d like to make a reservation for eight people at 6∶00 tonight.
A:How many in your group?
B:We are a group of eight./I’d like to reserve a table for eight.
A:OK.
2.A:I’m sorry. We are all booked up tonight./I’m sorry. We are quite full tonight.
B:How long do we have to wait?
3.I’m sorry,but I have to cancel my reservation.
*点菜
1.如果要直接点菜,可以这么说:
May I have a menu,please?
May I order a glass of beer?
What kinds of desserts do you have?
I’d like to have some orange.
Please give me this one.
2.如果对当地的菜肴不熟悉,通常这么问:
What is the speciality of the restaurant?
Do you have any special meals today?
What would you recommend? I prefer something light.
3.可以让同来的人替你点菜,或者点和别人一样的菜:
I will leave it to you.
I will have the same as that one.
4.需要叫菜时,可以这么说:
Please take my order.
5.如果不急于点菜时,可以这么说:
Could I have a few more minutes?
*饭桌上
可以这么评价菜:
It smells good./It looks great./This looks delicious./My mouth is watering.
It doesn’t taste good.
It is spicy./It’s hot./It’s salty./It’s sweet./It’s too greasy./It’s too oily.
I’m very full./I couldn’t eat another bite./I have had enough.
*付款
可以采用不同的方式来结账:
Do you accept/take credit cards?
Bill,please./Where should I pay?
It’s on me./This is my treat./I’ll pay for it./I’ll treat you.
Let’s spilt the bill./Let’s divide the cost./We’d like to pay separately.
Keep the change./May I have a receipt(发票),please?
【小试身手】
补全对话:从A、B、C和D中选择适当的句子完成对话。
Woman:This is a really expensive place. ________
Man:Don’t worry about that. It’s on me.
Waiter:Good afternoon. ________
Man:Just the two of us.
Waiter:All right. Follow me please. Here is our menu with the specials listed on the right. I would especially recommend the lobster steak. The lobster is very fresh.
Woman:I think I will just have the soup and salad,please.
Man:What are you talking about? Why don’t we both get two lobster steaks? It sounds great. Waiter,we’d like two lobster steaks.
Waiter:Yes,sir.________
Woman:Medium rare,please.
Waiter:And you,sir?
Man:I will have the same as hers.
Waiter:Anything to drink today?
Man:Yes. I believe we will have two glasses of your best red wine.
Waiter:________
Man:Yes,thank you.
A.How would you like your steak done?
B.How many people today?
C.Very good,would that be all?
D.Are you sure you want to eat here?
Keys:DBAC
与感恩节有关的英语词汇
Talk Turkey:打开窗户说亮话,严肃谈某事
相传在北美殖民时期,一个白人和一个印第安人去打猎,事先说好了平分打到的猎物。结果一天下来只打到一只火鸡和一只鹧鸪。白人心里想要火鸡,但又不敢直接说,于是对印第安人说:“如果你想要火鸡,就拿去吧!鹧鸪虽小一些,味道却很鲜美;如果你喜欢鹧鸪,我就拿火鸡了。”印第安人一听就明白了,于是针锋相对地说:“你一直讲火鸡,现在让我也讲讲火鸡吧!”于是talk turkey演变成了“打开窗户说亮话,谈正经事,坦诚地说话”的意思了。如:1.If you are willing to talk turkey,the problem between us can be easily settled.如果你愿意实实在在地说话,那么我们之间的问题就可以很容易地解决。2.Generally he is an easy­going person,but when it comes to religious belief he talks turkey.一般来说,他是一个随和的人,但一谈到宗教信仰,他就正经起来。
have a turkey on (one’s) back喝醉酒
red as turkey cock气得满面通红
swell like a turkey cock气势汹汹的发作
Thanksgiving dinner感恩节正餐
Thanksgiving turkey感恩节火鸡
中国小吃,外国菜名
中式早点:
烧饼clay oven rolls;油条fried bread stick;韭菜盒fried leek dumplings;水饺boiled dumplings;蒸饺steamed dumplings;馒头steamed buns;饭团rice and vegetable roll;蛋饼egg cakes;皮蛋100year egg;咸鸭蛋salted duck egg;豆浆soybean milk
饭类:
稀饭rice porridge;白饭plain white rice;油饭glutinous oil rice;糯米饭glutinous rice;卤肉饭braised pork rice;蛋炒饭fried rice with egg
面类:
馄钝面wonton&noodles;刀削面sliced noodles;麻辣面spicy hot noodles;麻酱面sesame paste noodles
汤类:
鱼丸汤fish ball soup;贡丸汤meat ball soup;蛋花汤egg&vegetable soup;紫菜汤seaweed soup;酸辣汤hot&sour soup;馄饨汤wonton soup
大排档趣味英语翻译
烤串成了大家爱吃的街边美味,如果把烤串翻译成英文,还是比较有趣的,如果和你的国外朋友去吃烤串,不妨参考以下翻译。
肉串Skewer(lamb) 肉筋Tendon(lamb) 板筋Tendon(beef)
脆骨Cartilage 鸡心Chicken hearts 烧饼Griddle savoury cake
小腰Small kidney(lamb) 馒头片Crispy bun slices 鸡翅Chicken wing
大腰子Big kidney(lamb) 骨肉相连Cartilage&chicken
传统中文菜名的爆笑英文翻译
语言之间的互译本来就不是容易的事,要再碰上点本国特有的文化,简直有点翻译不通。直译绝对行不通,意译又导致语义不明确。如何在这两者之间求取一个平衡,就成了非常难搞定的事儿。想当年的鲁迅先生,虽然文才了得,但在翻译这上头,也做了个不尴不尬。可见翻译绝非易事啊。
中国的饮食文化堪称一绝,许多烹饪方法与食材都是外国人闻所未闻见所未见的。所以在菜名的翻译上,常常有笑话产生。前几年称北京旅游局对外发布了一个《中文菜名英文译法》,将大部分的中文菜名英文译法统一起来,在各大饭店推广,以便外国游客能真的看懂看全。这也算一件好事。具体到每个译法上看,有些菜名的翻译虽然是委屈求全,但要求更好恐怕也有点强人所难了。毕竟,语言文化上很多精髓都是只可意会不可言传的。
下面就拿一些常见的菜名来看看。
1.直译类,这类比较简单
锅贴     pot sticker(这个翻译非常直接,锅就是锅,贴就是贴)
酸辣汤      hot&sour soup(又辣又酸的汤)
春卷        spring rolls(春天的卷)
柠檬牛肉    lemon beef
炒杂菜      mixed vegetable(混合在一起的菜)
叫化鸡      beggars chicken(乞丐鸡)
四喜丸子    four joy meatballs(四个快乐的肉球)
清蒸鱼      steam fish
火锅        hot pot(热锅)
烤鸭        roasted duck
可以看到以上一些翻译,没有涉及文化内涵,而仅仅涉及制作方法或者口味的,似乎比较容易成功,而类似“四喜丸子”这样的菜名译法,看起来令人忍俊不禁。


2.音译类
馄饨        won ton
叉烧        char shiu
炒面        chow mein
捞面        lo mein
炒河粉      chow fun
豆腐        tofu
麻婆豆腐    mar?boh tofu
从这类翻译中我们可以看出中国文化远走他乡,在异国生根,被异国文化所包容接纳的一面。
3.曲译类
中国菜名中一些非常有诗意的元素,用英文实在无法体现出来。
白云凤爪     chicken leg(鸡脚)
四宝豆腐羹   steam tofu soup(蒸豆腐汤)
游龙戏凤     chicken,shrimp,squid/mixed vegetable(鸡,虾,鱿鱼,杂菜)
炒素丁       vegetable roll(菜卷子)
鸳鸯馒头      shanghai buns(上海馒头)
雪哈红莲      bird nest red bean soup(鸟窝红豆汤)
百年好合      red bean fresh lily bulb(红豆百合茎)
在以上菜名中,有一些综合了中国历史、戏曲、民俗等方面的内容于一身,用英文根本无法传递其中复杂的内涵,于是只好用所采用的食材来予以替代。而部分食材例如燕窝,英文翻译为“鸟窝,鸟巢”,则让人觉得非常难以接受。
其实在翻译菜名的过程中,专家已经将其分别归类,大概可以分为这么几种:第一,以主料开头。如“lemon beef”。第二,以烹饪方法开头,如“roasted duck”。第三,以口感开头,如“crispy chicken”。第四,以人名或地名开头,如“ma?boh tofu”。
有一些菜名相对于从前的翻译,已经有了很大的进步,一些创造性的译法,也让人感觉到了一丝幽默。比如“田园素小炒”成了“让素食主义者高兴的菜”。
形影不离的名词词组
1.king and queen国王和王后
Inside the pyramid are the rooms for the bodies of the kings and queens.
金字塔内是国王和王后的墓室。
2.knife and fork一副刀叉
My father put down his knife and fork and went out of the dining room.
我父亲放下刀叉,走出餐厅。
3.law and order治安
It is our duty to maintain law and order.我们的职责是维持治安。
4.lock and key锁和钥匙
常用于成语under lock and key,表示安全的地方,在锁着的地方
Gold is so valuable that it is often kept under lock and key.
金子那么宝贵,所以常保存在安全的地方。
5.men and women男男女女
Both men and women were invited.男男女女都被邀请了。
6.odds and ends七零八碎
The room is filled with odds and ends.这个房间里充满了零零碎碎的东西。
7.part and parcel重要部分
Nonalignment is the part and parcel of that country’s foreign policy.
不结盟是那个国家外交政策的重要内容。
8.pen and ink笔墨,书写工具
The children write with pen and ink.那些孩子用笔墨写字。
双语健康名言
First wealth is health.
健康是人生第一财富。——Emerson爱默生
Happiness lies,first of all,in health.
快乐首先在于有健康的身体。——G.W.Curtis柯蒂斯
Care killed the cat.
忧伤足以致命。——William Shakespeare莎士比亚
Early to bed and early to rise,makes a man healthy,wealthy and wise.早睡早起,使人健康、富有、明智。——Benjamin Franklin富兰克林
Health is better than wealth.
健康尤胜于财富。——Ray雷
A healthy mind is in a healthy body.
健全的精神,寓于健全的体格。——Juvenal朱文奴
One hour’s sleep before midnight is worth three after.
午夜前一小时的睡眠等于午夜后睡三小时。
——Herbert赫伯特
Prevention is better than cure.
预防胜于治疗。——Dickens狄更斯
Sickness is felt,but health not at all.
疾病是可以感觉到的,但健康则完全不觉得。——T.Fuller富勒
Health is the thing that makes you feel that now is the best time of the year.
健康是这样一个东西,它使你感到现在是一年中最好的时光。——Franklin P. Adams亚当斯
Cheerfulness is the best promoter of health.
快乐最利于健康。——Thomas Alva Addison爱迪生

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Module8Unit22 EnvironmentalProtectionⅠ.品句填词1.Unfortunately,manyspeciesareindangerof________(灭绝)nowadays.2.Astheforestsar

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