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2020-2021 年高考英语完形填空讲解练习:不能正确把握文章发展脉络而失分 技法指导 文章都是前后连贯,符合逻辑地向前延伸的,因此在解题中必须把握文章的走势,揣界文章字里行间的意义,选择与作者思路或意图相物合的选项,例如:上文有因为,下文必然有所以:上文有其然,下文必有其所以然。因此,考生在做完形填空时不需“随文应变”,不可“一意孤行”。要随着文段发展脉络,调整预测偏差。 精练必刷题: (一) Not a day when I have doubted my love for this girl. We got to enjoy our 42nd wedding anniversary, while 1 the beautiful Mayan towns this past week, where we had breakfast and I 2 some photos. I am so fortunate to have Anne enjoying these adventures as my 3 during the last 10 years that we have been travelling, photographing and exploring Central American countries. When Anne was in her early 30s, a strange 4 attacked her body. Within a couple of years her joints became inflexible and couldn't move 5 . The doctors foretold that she would probably be in a(n) 6 by her mid 40s ﹣ and we had all this 7 planned for our life once the kids 8 home. Anne 9 to make the best of it, and refuses to 10 the illness and the severe pain that she has at times. Her yearly 11 by her doctor, shows slow advancement 12 to the early years of the disease setting in. The doctor's 13 to Anne for the past few years is "keep doing what you are doing". Of course I am her right hand man, 14 for oncoming cars that she can't 15 her head to see, and putting her socks on because she can't reach her 16 . I have to stop at times as she 17 her breath. And so we have a pile of 18 while exploring, documenting, climbing volcanoes, and 19 endless miles in hilly towns and cities each day. Anyway this is the 20 of my life as we head on to 43 years of loving and supporting each other. 1.A.inspecting B.visiting C.approaching D.finding 2.A.developed B.selected C.enjoyed D.took 3.A.guide B.supporter C.partner D.fan 4.A.illness B.man C.feeling D.habit 5.A.separately B.freely C.regularly D.suddenly 6.A.position B.apartment C.wheelchair D.mess 7.A.holiday B.career C.wedding D.adventure 8.A.left B.came C.arrived D.stayed 9.A.offered B.expected C.agreed D.decided 10.A.think much of B.take care of C.give in to D.get rid of 11.A.planning B.monitoring C.performing D.treating 12.A.compared B.referred C.brought D.added 13.A.conclusion B.worry C.answer D.solution 14.A.allowing B.preparing C.watching D.longing 15.A.raise B.turn C.shake D.bend 16.A.legs B.ears C.hands D.feet 17.A.catches B.holds C.controls D.feels 18.A.debt B.fun C.difficulty D.work 19.A.saving B.running C.walking D.spreading 20.A.situation B.introduction C.tradition D.love (二) Smaller, Greener, Better During my 15 years as an administrator, I was a no﹣show at scientific conferences. Before that, my go﹣to conferences included Metals in Biology in Ventura, California. This past January, I went back to Ventura after a 15﹣year 1 . A lot of things struck me about how things have changed and how some things have stayed the same. One thing that is increasingly on people's minds is the future of scientific meetings. What has stayed 2 is that a conference of that style, with 200 scientists from around the world, is a vital form for scientific exchange. The participants ranged from graduate students to the pioneers in the field of bioinorganic chemistry. It was interesting to see how far a lot of the science has come. Some fields still have great 3 : Even though we know much more about the structures, we still wonder how the O﹣O bond forms in photosystem II(光合体系 II). One thing that has started to change 4 is the increasing number of women and people of color among conference speakers and participants. We are 5 close to solving the equity(公平) problems in science or science meetings, but the change in the 6 and atmosphere of meetings overall after 15 years is encouraging. This trend should continue, and more members should have speaking roles to showcase their science, and maybe small meetings could also require that a few talks be given by post doctors and early career faculty. When it comes to big meetings, the interchange among scientists 7 is still essential. But it's time for the scientific community to engage in frank talk about the 8 of meetings on the climate. Some conferences have been supporting digital poster sessions to 9 waste, but thousands of folks flying to these meetings is the real problem to focus on. It's time to think creatively about how to reduce the carbon footprint of meetings while 10 ﹣even improving﹣their value. What if we broke the large meetings into smaller, concurrent(同时发生的) ones at 11 sites where people could gather, sharing the drive or taking the train? Despite the big draw of large meetings, unless you're in the front rows of the big ballrooms where these are held, you're watching the speaker on a screen from the back or even in an overflow room. But in a concurrent sites model, 12 conferences could be spread across different sites. This approach would lower the cost of 13 conferences and thereby potentially increase the number and diversity of attendees. A group of graduate students piling into a 14 is much more democratic than having to decide who gets to fly. Scientific conferences are vital to scientists' collaboration. Continuing to improve them in terms of equity for both the participants and the climate is something we can't stop 15 to do. I volunteer to drive the first van. 1.A.pause B.persistence C.research D.administration 2.A.unbelievable B.unusual C.unreasonable D.unchanged 3.A.breakthroughs B.mysteries C.theories D.pioneers 4.A.to the contrary B.in the long run C.for the better D.beyond control 5.A.somewhat B.rather C.further D.nowhere 6.A.composition B.style C.interaction D.management 7.A.on the Internet B.on the surface C.in person D.in particular 8.A.importance B.focus C.findings D.impact 9.A.end up with B.cut down on C.give publicity to D.lay emphasis on 10.A.presenting B.documenting C.preserving D.processing 11.A.academic B.regional C.significant D.environmental 12.A.major B.interactive C.professional D.different 13.A.televising B.attending C.conducting D.hosting 14.A.ballroom B.playground C.van D.plane 15.A.neglecting B.proposing C.discouraging D.striving (一) 【答案】 1-5.BDCAB 6-10.CDADC 11-15.DADCB 16-20.DACCD 【解析】 本文为记叙文。文章讲述了作者和患有疾病行动不便的妻子周游世界的故事,他们拒绝向疾病屈服,共同面对困难,彼此支持。 1. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:上周我们庆祝了我们 42 年结婚纪念日,参观了美丽的玛雅城镇,在那里我们吃了早餐,还拍了一些照片。A. inspecting 检查;B. visiting 参观;拜访;C. approaching 接近;D. finding 发现。根据 the beautiful Mayan towns this past week 可知,上周我们参观了美丽的玛雅小镇。故选 B。 2. 考查动词词义辨析。句意见上。A. developed 开发;B. selected 选定;C. enjoyed 享受;D. took 拿走;拍摄。根据下文… we have been travelling, photographing and exploring Central American countries.可知,他们一起旅行和摄影。故选 D。 3. 考查名词词义辨析。句意:我很幸运,在过去的 10 年里,安妮作为我的伴侣,和我一起旅行、摄影、探索中美洲国家,她很享受这些冒险。A. guide 指南;B. supporter 支持者;C. partner 伙伴;伴侣;D. fan 粉丝。作者很幸运安妮作为伴侣 10 年来的陪伴,故选 C。 4. 考查名词词义辨析。句意:安妮 30 出头时,一种奇怪的疾病袭击了她的身体。A. illness 疾病;B. man 男人;C. feeling 感觉;D. habit 习惯。根据下文 the illness and the severe pain that she has at times 可知是疾病,故选A。 5. 考查副词词义辨析。句意:几年后,她的关节变得僵硬,不能自由活动。 A. separately 单独;B. freely 自由;C. regularly 定期;D. suddenly 突然。根据上文 Within a couple of years her joints became inflexible 可知是不能自由移动,故选 B。 6. 考查名词词义辨析。句意:医生们预言她可能在 40 多岁的时候坐在轮椅上---一旦孩子们离开家,我们就为 我们的生活计划好了所有的冒险。A. position 位置;B. apartment 公寓;C. wheelchair 轮椅;D. mess 一团糟。由前文可知她不能自由移动,医生预言她可能在 40 多岁的时候坐上轮椅,故选 C。 7. 考查名词词义辨析。句意见上。A. holiday 假日;B. career 事业;C. wedding 婚礼;D. adventure 冒险。根据上文 I am so fortunate to have Anne enjoying these adventures 可知是冒险,故选 D。 8. 考查动词词义辨析。句意见上。A. left 离开;B. came 来;C. arrived 到达;D. stayed 停留。一旦孩子们离开家,他们就为自己的生活计划好了所有的冒险。故选 A。 9. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:安妮决定好好生活,并拒绝向她时常所遭受的疾病和剧痛屈服。A. offered 提供;B. expected 期望;C. agreed 同意;D. decided 决定。根据 refuses to 10 the illness and the severe pain that she has at times.可知,安妮决定好好生活,故选 D。 10. 考查动词短语辨析。句意:安妮决定好好生活,并拒绝向她时常所遭受的疾病和剧痛屈服。A. think much of重视;B. take care of 照顾;C. give in to 屈服于;D. get rid of 摆脱。根据 refuses 可知,安妮拒绝向疾病和疼痛屈服,故选 C。 11. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:她每年接受医生的治疗,与发病初期相比进展缓慢。A. planning 规划;B. monitoring 监控;C. performing 表演;D. treating 治疗。由 by her doctor 可知,她每年接受治疗,故选 D。 12. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:她每年接受医生的治疗,与发病初期相比进展缓慢。A. compared 比较;B. referred 引用;C. brought 带来;D. added 添加;compared to 意为“与…相比”,与发病初期相比进展缓慢。故选 A。 13. 考查名词词义辨析。句意:过去几年医生对安妮的解决办法是“继续做你现在做的事”A. conclusion 结论;B. worry 担心;C. answer 回答;D. solution 解决方案。根据"keep doing what you are doing".可知,solution 这里指医生的“治疗方法”,故选 D。 14. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:当然,我是她的得力助手,注意她无法回头看即将行驶过来的汽车,帮她穿袜子,因为她够不到脚。A. allowing 允许;B. preparing 准备;C. watching 观察,注视;D. longing 渴望;根 据 oncoming cars 可知,作者留意观察她无法回头看即将行驶过来的汽车,故选 C。 15. 考查动词词义辨析。句意见上。A. raise 提高;B. turn 转身,转回头;C. shake 摇动;D. bend 弯曲。根据前文她的关节变得僵硬,不能自由活动。所以她无法回头看即将行驶过来的汽车。故选 B。 16. 考查名词词义辨析。句意见上。A. legs 腿;B. ears 耳朵;C. hands 手;D. feet 脚;根据上文 and putting her socks on 可知,是脚子穿在脚上。故选 D。 17. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:她喘不过气来的时候,我不得不停下来。A. catches 捕捉;B. holds 保持;C. controls 控制;D. feels 感觉。 catch one's breath 意为“喘息”,本句表示她喘不过气来。故选 A。 18. 考查名词词义辨析。句意:因此,我们在探索、记录、攀登火山、每天在丘陵城镇和城市中行走数不完的路程时,都有一大堆困难。A. debt 债务;B. fun 有趣;C. difficulty 困难;D. work 工作。由上下文可知,因为妻子的病情,他们有很多困难,故选 C。 19. 考查动词词义辨析。句意见上。A. saving 节约;B. running 跑步;C. walking 行走;D. spreading 扩散。根据 endless miles 可真,他们每天在丘陵城镇和城市中行走(walk)数不完的路程,故选 C。 20. 考查名词词义辨析。句意:不管怎么说,这是我的生命挚爱,因为我们即将迎来 43 年的爱与支持。A. situation情况;B. introduction 简介;C. tradition 传统;D. love 爱。根据上文 Not a day when I have doubted my love for this girl 可知是爱(love)。故选 D。 (二) 【答案】 1-5.ADBCD 6-10.BCDBC 11-15.ADBCD 【解析】 这是一篇夹叙夹议文。文章讲述了作者对于大型科学会议的看法,作者建议注重会议的环保,减少碳足迹,并提出了一些建议。 1. 考查名词词义辨析。句意:今年 1 月,在停顿了 15 年后,我回到了文图拉。A. pause 暂停;B. persistence 坚 持;C. research 研究;D. administration 管理。根据上文 I was a no-show at scientific conferences.可知作者暂停了 15 年出席科学会议。故选 A。 2. 考查形容词词义辨析。句意:保持不变的是,由来自世界各地的 200 名科学家参加的这种形式的会议是科学交流的重要形式。A. unbelievable 难以置信的;B. unusual 不寻常的;C. unreasonable 不合理的;D. unchanged 不变的。根据上文中 A lot of things struck me about how things have changed and how some things have stayed the same. 可知是没有改变的。故选 D。 3. 考查名词词义辨析。句意:有些领域仍然有很大的谜团:尽管我们对其结构有了更多的了解,但我们仍然想知道在光合体系 II 中 O﹣O 键是如何形成的。A. breakthroughs 突破;B. mysteries 谜团;C. theories 理论;D. pioneers 先驱者。根据下文 we still wonder how the O-O bond forms in photosystem II 可知是指某些领域中仍然存在的谜题。故选 B。 4. 考查介词短语辨析。句意:有一件事已经开始好转,那就是在会议发言人和与会者中,妇女和有色人种的人数越来越多。A. to the contrary 相反;B. in the long run 从长远来看;C. for the better 为了更好;D. beyond control 无法控制。根据下文 the increasing number of women and people of color 可知会议发言人和与会者中,妇女和有色人种的人数越来越多,这表明事情在向好的方向改变。故选 C。 5. 考查副词词义辨析。句意:我们离解决科学或科学会议的公平问题还差得远,但 15 年后会议的风格和气氛总体上的变化是令人鼓舞的。A. somewhat 有点;B. rather 而是;C. further 进一步;D. nowhere 任何地方都不,毫无结果。根据后文 close to solving the equity problems in science or science meetings 可知作者认为人们离解决科学或科学会议的公平问题还差得远,应用 nowhere。故选 D。 6. 考查名词词义辨析。句意:我们离解决科学或科学会议的公平问题还差得远,但 15 年后会议的风格和气氛总体上的变化是令人鼓舞的。A. composition 成分;B. style 风格;C. interaction 相互作用;D. management 管理。根据后文 and atmosphere of meetings 可知是指会议的风格和氛围。故选 B。 7. 考查介词短语辨析。句意:在大型会议上,科学家之间面对面的交流尤其重要。A. on the Internet 在互联网上;B. on the surface 表面上看;C. in person 当面;D. in particular 尤其是。结合后文 the scientific community to engage in frank talk 可知科学家在大型会议上面对面的交流仍然非常重要。故选 C。 8. 考查名词词义辨析。句意:但现在是科学界坦率讨论会议对气候影响的时候了。A. importance 重要性;B. focus专注;C. findings 调查结果;D. impact 影响;根据下文 It's time to think creatively about how to reduce the carbon footprint of meetings 可知是坦率讨论会议对气候的影响。故选 D。 9. 考查动词短语辨析。句意:一些会议一直在支持数字海报会议,以减少浪费,但成千上万的人坐飞机飞到这些会议上才是真正需要关注的问题。A. end up with 以……结束;B. cut down on 削减;切断;C. give publicity to 宣传;D. lay emphasis on 强调。根据后文宾语 waste 可知是支持减少浪费,故选 B。 10. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:现在是时候创造性地思考如何减少会议的碳足迹,同时保留甚至提高会议的价值。A. presenting 展示;B. documenting 记录;C. preserving 保存;D. processing 加工。根据后文 even improving-their value 以及上下文语境可知,在减少碳足迹的同时,要保留科学会议的价值。故选 C。 11. 考查形容词词义辨析。句意:如果我们把大型会议分成更小的,同时在学术地点举行会议,让人们可以聚集在一起呢?A. academic 学术的;B. regional 区域的;C. significant 重要的;D. environmental 环境的。根据上文内容可知文章主要讨论的是科学会议召开的问题,结合常识科学会议应当是在学术地点召开。故选 A。 12. 考查形容词词义辨析。句意:但是在并发站点模型中,不同的会议可以分布在不同的地点。A. major 主要的;B. interactive 交互的;C. professional 专业的;D. different 不同的。根据下文 conferences could be spread across different sites 可知是不同的会议可以分布在不同的地点。故选 D。 13. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:这种方法将降低出席会议的费用,从而有可能增加与会者的数量和多样性。A. televising 电视播送;B. attending 出席;C. conducting 指挥;D. hosting 举办。上文提到在并发站点模型中召开会议,这样是为了减少人们出席会议的费用。故选 B。 14. 考查名词词义辨析。句意:一群研究生挤进面包车,比决定谁能坐飞机参加会议更民主。A. ballroom 舞厅;B. playground 操场;C. van 货车;面包车;D. plane 飞机。根据下文 I volunteer to drive the first van 可知是面包车。故选 C。 15. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:继续改善会议在参与者公平和气候方面的问题,是我们不能停止奋斗的事情。A. neglecting 忽视;B. proposing 提议;C. discouraging 沮丧;D. striving 奋斗。根据上文 Scientific conferences are vital to scientists' collaboration.可知科学会议对科学家的合作至关重要,所以继续改进科学会议的召开是不能停止为之奋斗的事情。故选 D。

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