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2020-2021 年高考英语完形填空讲解练习:利用首句信息进行判断
技法指导
完形填空一般无标题,首句一般不设空,往往是全文的关键句,或者称为主导句,通常起着开启、概
括或贯穿全文的作用。记叙文首句往往介绍事件发生的时润、地点、人物或起因等细节信息,说明文和议
论文般通过文章首句点明全文的主题。 仔细分析文章的首句,往往维获取许多解题信息,从而节省考生的
做题时间。
1.利用首句可以帮助我们判断文章的体裁,捕捉文章的要素,预测文章的发展。
若首句交代了 when, where, who, what,即四个 W,那么就是记叙文,很可能就是一个故事,为了测试
语篇的理解能力,出题者特别注意选材的趣味性,其结尾往往出人意料,耐人寻味;若首句是提出或解释说
明某事物,一般来说是说明文;若首句提出一个论点,那么就是议论文。
[典例]
Recently, a man showed up at Denny's restaurant in Utah with a special request. And as it turned out, the reason
behind his particular 41 is a proof that kindness makes all things work together forever! The man asked if he
could be 42 (served) by a waitress who was a single mother. Though it seemed a bit strange, the restaurant owner
was 43 to meet his request and seated him in the service section belonging to a 44 (waitress) named
Crystal.
41.A.demand B. identity C. survey D. power
43.A.happy B. unfortunate C. confident D. unwilling
”Recently, a man showed up at Denny's restaurant in Utah with a special request“作为首段首句,包含着
两个关键词”restaurant”和"request”。"restaurant”表明故事发生的地点,”request"是推动文章情节发展的
主要因素。第 41 题的答案 demand 照应 request,为同义复现;第 43 题在餐厅”的背景下,餐厅老板虽
感到奇怪但仍”高兴地”满足他的要求并让其坐在 Crystal 的服务区域内。
答案:41.A 43.A
精炼必刷题:
(一)
Sometimes, we have difficulty in understanding others’ view about the world. 1 , I heard a funny story
about 2 the other day.
A( n) 3 named John was known for his 4 view about the role of the teacher. One of the other
lecturers arrived at work on that morning and 5 the main lecture theatre on the way to his class. He 6
to glance in and saw John giving a lecture in the room, John was gesturing 7 and eagerly writing on the board.
But when the other lecturer looked around the theatre, it was totally 8 . He was a little concerned about John's
sanity(神志), 9 he decided to talk about the 10 gently at morning tea later on.
"John," he said , "I saw you teaching in the lecture theatre this morning. But I noticed there didn't seem to be any
students.""Yes, that's right. 11 turned up, John replied with a smile.
“But you were 12 teaching,” the other man said, waiting for some 13 Sure enough," John
replied, “Well, they 14 me to teach, and that’s what I was doing!
"It was at this moment," the other lecturer told me, "That I realized teaching and 15 are two separate
things. ”
People's attitude to the whole world are 16 . That's where metaprograms (元程序)come in. When we
17 people around, we'll also notice that some people are different in the same way. These same differences are
metaprograms, and I think they are very useful for all types of 18 . When we are trying to communicate, we
are toying to 19 communication channels and take part in communication, not necessarily trying to 20
others or accept another person's values.
1.A.For example B.In addition C.On purpose D.In contrast
2.A.drawing B.teaching C.hunting D.working
3.A.author B.beginner C.actor D.lecturer
4.A.strong B.contrary C.funny D.wrong
5.A.came in B.searched for C.passed by D.looked around
6.A.managed B.pretended C.wished D.happened
7.A.bravely B.enthusiastically C.casually D.quietly
8.A.common B.empty C.new D.clean
9.A.but B.or C.so D.for
10.A.standard B.accident C.voice D.matter
11.A.All B.No one C.Someone D.Anybody else
12.A.still B.never C.always D.ever
13.A.silence B.explanation C.facts D.gifts
14.A.inspire B.permit C.pay D.force
15.A.answering B.searching C.observing D.learning
16.A.clear B.right C.different D.important
17.A.look at B.wait for C.believe in D.call on
18.A.equipment B.communication C.cultures D.words
19.A.remember B.close C.change D.open20.A.persuade B.concern C.appreciate D.forget
(二)
"Mum, can I invite my classmate Brett over to stay tomorrow night, please? It's Friday, and we don't have
any 1 . Can I, please?" Mum was sitting at the kitchen table. Dad was 2 next to her, resting his head on
his arms. Mum could 3 that James wanted so badly to have his friend over.
"I'm so sorry, James," she said.
"I'm never allowed to have friends come to the house? Why, Mum?" James asked sadly, almost in 4 .
"I know it's 5 for you," Mum said softly. "But I'm just worried other people might think we're a little. . .
strange. And then they would make fun of you. "
"No, they wouldn't, Mum," James protested. "We're not 6 at all. We're just ordinary people. "
Mum sighed heavily. "To tell you the truth, James, my neck has been so painful that it's given me a heavy
7 . And your poor father — he doesn't feel 8 . He really needs a rest. "
"I can help, Mum!" James said. " 9 I can make you and Dad feel better, can Brett come over? Please?"
"Well. . . " Mum began.
"Great! Thanks, Mum!" James almost shouted. "Just sit there, don't move. " He rushed over to the kitchen
drawer and 10 what he needed — two spanners(扳手). "Hang on, Mum," he said. "This won't take a second.
" After some 11 , James was finished. With a smile of 12 on his face he said, "There! How does that
feel?" "Oh, James," Mum said. "That's much better! How did you do it?"
"Easy," James said 13 . "Dad had tightened your neck bolts(螺栓) too much! I just 14 them slightly!
I learned that in robotic science at school. "
"What about your father? Can you 15 him?" asked Mum.
"I'll try," James replied. He 16 up Dad's hair at the back of his neck, and plugged the electric wire into
Dad's head. Then he turned the 17 on. Dad opened his eyes and 18 immediately. "He just let his 19
run too low, that's all," James said. "Shall I tell Brett to come over straight after school tomorrow?"
"I guess so," replied Mum. "Your friends will just have to 20 that we are a very unusual family. Thanks,
son!"
1.A.chance B.message C.homework D.difficulty
2.A.asleep B.reading C.alone D.standing3.A.explain B.see C.agree D.doubt
4.A.terror B.tears C.surprise D.silence
5.A.fair B.easy C.good D.hard
6.A.strange B.normal C.popular D.anxious
7.A.headache B.loss C.task D.day
8.A.ill B.funny C.sorry D.well
9.A.As B.If C.Since D.Before
10.A.kept B.controlled C.found D.returned
11.A.requests B.thoughts C.repairs D.instructions
12.A.sympathy B.satisfaction C.bitterness D.politeness
13.A.embarrassedly B.gratefully C.impatiently D.proudly
14.A.adjusted B.collected C.produced D.covered
15.A.greet B.accompany C.help D.ask
16.A.lifted B.caught C.gave D.filled
17.A.television B.power C.light D.gas
18.A.grew up B.lay down C.broke down D.sat up
19.A.food B.temperature C.battery D.blood
20.A.prove B.expect C.suspect D.accept
(一)
【答案】
1-5 A B D A C 6-10.D B B C D 11-15.B A B C D 16-20.C A B D A
【解析】
这是一篇记叙文。文章通过一位讲师对着没有人的大厅上课的故事,告诉我们人们对整个世界的态度是不
同的。这就是元程序的用武之地。当我们试图沟通的时候,我们是在试图打开沟通的渠道,参与到沟通中
来,而不是试图说服他人或接受他人的价值观。
1.考查介词短语辨析。句意:例如,有一天我听到一个关于教学的有趣故事。A. For example 例如;B. In
addition 此外;C. On purpose 故意;D. In contrast 与此相反。根据下文的故事是在给上文“Sometimes, we have
difficulty in understanding others’ view about the world.有时候,我们很难理解别人对世界的看法。”举出一
个例子。故选 A。2.考查动词词义辨析。句意:例如,有一天我听到一个关于教学的有趣故事。A. drawing 画;B. teaching
教;C. hunting 打猎;D. working 工作。根据下文 about the role of the teacher 可知是一个关于教学的故事。
故选 B。
3.考查名词词义辨析。句意:一位名叫约翰的讲师以他对教师角色的强烈观点而闻名。A. author 作者;B.
beginner 初学者;C. actor 演员;D. lecturer 讲师。根据下文 John giving a lecture in the room 可知约翰是一
个讲师。故选 D。
4.考查形容词词义辨析。句意:一位名叫约翰的讲师以他对教师角色的强烈观点而闻名。A. strong 强烈的;
B. contrary 相反的;C. funny 有趣的;D. wrong 错误的。根据句意可知选 A。
5.考查动词短语辨析。句意:另一位老师在那天早上上班,在去上课的路上经过主讲厅。A. came in 进来;
B. searched for 搜索;C. passed by 经过;D. looked around 环顾四周。根据下文 the main lecture theatre on the
way to his class 可知是经过主讲厅。故选 C。
6.考查动词词义辨析。句意:他碰巧往里瞥了一眼,看见约翰正在房间里讲课。A. managed 管理;B. pretended
假装;C. wished 希望;D. happened 发生。固定短语 happen to“偶然发生;碰巧”。故选 D。
7.考查副词词义辨析。句意:约翰热情而热切地在黑板上做着手势。A. bravely 勇敢地;B. enthusiastically
热情地;C. casually 随便地;D. quietly 安静地。根据下文 and eagerly 可知约翰非常热情地做手势。故选 B。
8.考查形容词词义辨析。句意:但当另一位演讲者环顾剧院时,却发现里面空无一人。A. common 共同的;
B. empty 空的;C. new 新的;D. clean 干净的。根据下文 But I noticed there didn't seem to be any students
可知大厅里没有人,是空的。故选 B。
9.考查连词辨析。句意:他有点担心约翰的神志不清,所以决定晚些时候在早茶时温和地谈论这件事。A.
but 但是;B. or 或者;C. so 因此;D. for 为了。根据句意可知前后为因果关系,故选 C。
10.考查名词词义辨析。句意:他有点担心约翰的神志不清,所以决定晚些时候在早茶时温和地谈论这件
事。A. standard 标准;B. accident 事故;C. voice 声音;D. matter 事件。此处特指他看到约翰对着没有人的
大厅发表演讲的事件。故选 D。
11.考查代词辨析。句意:“是的,没错。没有人来,约翰笑着回答。A. All 所有人;B. No one 没有人;C. Someone
某人;D. Anybody else 别人。根据上文 Yes, that's right.可知约翰承认了另一位讲师的话,没有人来听演讲。
故选 B。
12.考查副词词义辨析。句意:但是你仍然在上课。A. still 仍然;B. never 从不;C. always 总是;D. ever
曾经。根据上文可知没有人但是约翰还是在讲课。故选 A。
13.考查名词词义辨析。句意:另一个人说,等着听他解释。A. silence 沉默;B. explanation 解释;C. facts事实;D. gifts 礼物。另一个人不明白约翰的做法,因此等到解释。故选 B。
14.考查动词词义辨析。句意:约翰回答说:“他们付钱让我教书,我就是这么做的!”A. inspire 鼓舞;B. permit
允许;C. pay 支付;付钱;D. force 迫使。根据句意可知选 C。
15.考查动词词义辨析。句意:“就是在这个时候,”另一位老师告诉我,“我意识到教学和学习是两码事。”A.
answering 回答;B. searching 搜索;C. observing 观察;D. learning 学习。教书对应的是学习。故选 D。
16.考查形容词词义辨析。句意:人们对整个世界的态度是不同的。A. clear 清楚的;B. right 正确的;C. different
不同的;D. important 重要的。根据下文 some people are different in the same way 可知人们对世界的态度不
同。故选 C。
17.考查动词短语辨析。句意:当我们观察周围的人时,我们也会注意到有些人在相同的方面是不同的。
A. look at 看着;B. wait for 等待;C. believe in 相信;D. call on 号召。根据下文 people around 可知是看着周
围的人们。故选 A。
18.考查名词词义辨析。句意:这些相同的差异就是元程序,我认为它们对所有类型的通信都非常有用。
A. equipment 设备;B. communication 沟通;C. cultures 文化;D. words 话语。根据下文 we are trying to
communicate 可知是沟通,通信。故选 B。
19.考查动词词义辨析。句意:当我们试图沟通的时候,我们是在试图打开沟通的渠道,参与到沟通中来,
而不是试图说服他人或接受他人的价值观。A. remember 记住;B. close 关上;C. change 改变;D. open
打开。根据下文 take part in communication 可知是打开沟通的渠道。故选 D。
20.考查动词词义辨析。句意:当我们试图沟通的时候,我们是在试图打开沟通的渠道,参与到沟通中来,
而不是试图说服他人或接受他人的价值观。A. persuade 说服;B. concern 关心;C. appreciate 欣赏;D. forget
忘记。根据下文 others or accept another person's values 可知是试图说服他人或接受他人的价值观。故选 A。
(二)
【答案】
1-5.CABBD 6-10.AADBC 11-15.CBDAC 16-20.ABDCD
【解析】
这是一篇记叙文。詹姆斯恳求他妈妈让他的朋友 Brett 周六到他们家玩。妈妈说他们的家与别人的不同,爸
妈是机器人并且身体都不好。为了能够获得妈妈的同意,詹姆斯运用在学校里学到的机器人知识对他的爸妈
进行了“修理”。最终,詹姆斯得到了妈妈的同意。
1.考查名词词义辨析。句意:今天是星期五,我们没有任何家庭作业。 A. chance 机会;B. message 信息;C.
homework 家庭作业;D. difficulty 困难。根据 It’s Friday 今天是周五,没有家庭作业,所以选 C。
2.
考查动词词义辨析。句意:爸爸正在头枕在他的手臂上睡觉 A. asleep 入睡;B. reading 读;C. alone 独自;
D. standing 忍受。根据 resting his head on his arms 可知爸爸正在头枕在他的手臂上睡觉,所以爸爸正在睡
觉,所以选 A。
3.
考查动词词义辨析。句意:妈妈可以看出詹姆斯很迫切想让他的朋友过来。 A. explain 解释;B. see 看;C .
agree 同意;D .doubt 怀疑。根据上文詹姆斯的 Can I, please?的语气,妈妈可以看出詹姆斯很迫切想让他的朋
友过来,所以选 B。
4.
考查名词词义辨析。句意:他很伤心,几乎都哭了。 A. terror 害怕;B. tears 眼泪;C. surprise 惊喜;D. silence
沉默。根据上文 I’m so sorry, James 妈妈拒绝了詹姆斯的请求,所以他很伤心,几乎都哭了,所以选 B。
5.
考查形容词词义辨析。句意:这对你来说比较难。A. fair 公平的;B. easy 容易的;C. good 好的;D. hard 艰
难的。妈妈拒绝了詹姆斯的请求,所以对于詹姆斯来说很难做出决定。所以选 D。
6.
考查形容词词义辨析。句意:我们根本不奇怪。 A. strange 奇怪的;B. normal 正常的;C. popular 流行的;
D. anxious 焦急的。根据上文 But I’m just worried other people might think we’re a little... strange.可知,詹姆
斯说他们根本不奇怪。选 A。
7.
考查名词词义辨析。句意:说实话,詹姆斯,我的脖子疼得厉害,导致头也疼的厉害。A. headache 头痛;
B. loss 失去;C. task 任务;D. day 天。根据 my neck has been so painful 可知妈妈的脖子疼以至于引发了头
疼,所以选 A。
8.
考查形容词词义辨析。句意:爸爸也不舒服,他真的需要休息了。A. ill 生病的;B. funny 有趣的;C. sorry
抱歉的;D. well 好的。根据下文詹姆斯对他爸爸也进行了“修理”可知爸爸也感觉不舒服,所以选 D。
9.
考查连词词义辨析。句意:如果我能让你和爸爸感觉好点,能让 Brett 来吗? A. as 因为;B. if 如果;C. since自从;D. before 之前。分析句意可知,本句为 if 引导的条件状语从句。所以选 B。
10.
考查动词词义辨析。句意:他冲进了厨房找到了他需要的东西——两把扳手。 A .kept 保持;B .controlled
控制;C. found 找到;D. returned 回来。根据 what he needed—two spanners(扳手)可知他冲进了厨房找到了
他需要的东西——两把扳手,所以选 C。
11.
考查名词词义辨析。句意:在一番修理以后,詹姆斯结束了,根据下文可知,詹姆斯对妈妈进行了“修理”。 A.
requests 需要;B. thoughts 想法;C. repairs 修理;D. instructions 说明。根据 James was finished 在一番修理
以后,詹姆斯结束了。所以选 C。
12.
考查名词词义辨析。句意:干完了活,詹姆斯带有满意的表情,感觉怎么样? A. sympathy 同情;B. satisfaction
满意;C. bitterness 苦涩;D. politeness 礼貌。根据 How does that feel?”干完了活,詹姆斯带有满意的表情,
感觉怎么样?所以选 B。
13.
考查副词词义辨析。句意:妈妈感觉好多了,对詹姆斯进行了夸奖,他当然感到很自豪。A. embarrassedly 尴
尬地;B. gratefully 感激地;C. impatiently 不耐心地;D. proudly 骄傲地。根据 “Oh, James,” Mum said.“That’s
much better! How did you do it?”妈妈感觉好多了,对詹姆斯进行了夸奖,他当然感到很自豪,所以选 D。
14.
考查动词词义辨析。句意:螺栓太紧了,我只是轻轻的调节了它们! A. adjusted 调节;B. collected 收集;C.
produced 产生;D. covered 覆盖。根据 Dad had tightened your neck bolts(螺栓)too much!可知,螺栓太紧了,
我只是轻轻的调节了它们!所以选 A。
15.
考查动词词义辨析。句意:你爸爸呢,能帮一下他吗? A. greet 打招呼;B. accompany 陪伴;C. help 帮忙;
D. ask 要求。根据 What about your father?妈妈让詹姆斯帮助一下爸爸?故选 C。
16.
考查动词词义辨析。句意:詹姆斯掀起爸爸后脑勺的头发,把电线插入爸爸的脑中。 A. lifted 举起;B .caught
抓住;C. gave 给;D. filled 填满。根据 plugged the electric wire into Dad's head 可知,詹姆斯掀起爸爸后脑
勺的头发,把电线插入爸爸的脑中,lift up 固定搭配,意思是举起拿起,所以选 A。
17.考查名词词义辨析。句意:然后打开电源。 A. television 电视;B .power 电源;C. light 灯;D. gas 气。根据
上句的电线可知,本句是打开电源,所以选择 B。
18.
考查动词短语词义辨析。句意:爸爸睁开眼睛,坐了起来。 A. grew up 长大;B. lay down 躺下;C. broke down
倒下;D. sat up 坐起来。根据前文可知,可知,刚才爸爸在睡觉,现在他坐起来了,所以选 D。
19.
考查名词词义辨析。句意:爸爸电池的电量太低了。A. food 食物;B. temperature 温度;C. battery 电池;
D. blood 血液。根据 too low 可知,爸爸电池的电量太低了,所以选 C。
20.
考查动词词义辨析。句意:你的朋友们要接受我们这个不同寻常的家庭。A. prove 证明;B. expect 期望;
C. suspect 怀疑;D. accept 接受。根据 we are a very unusual family.詹姆斯的朋友们接受这个不同寻常的家庭。
因为这家人是机器人。所以选 D。
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2020-2021 年高考英语完形填空讲解练习:利用首句信息进行判断 技法指导 完形填空一般无标题,首句一般不设空,往往是全文的关键句,或者称为主导句,通常起着开启、概 括或贯穿全文的作用。记叙文首句往往介绍事件发生的时润、地点、人物或起因等细节信息,说明文和议 论文般通过文章首句点

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