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2020-2021年高考英语完形填空讲解练习:利用语境进行推测

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时间:2020-09-14

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2021 年高考英语完形填空精讲精练——利用语境进行推测 技法指导 近几年高考英语完形填空的最大特点是重点考查语境理解。整篇完形填空就是一个大语境,里面存在若干“微语境”,既环环相扣,又交叉包容,另外,所词语境,就是指文章上下文之间的联系,它们之间形成相互提示或相互反衬的作用。正因为完形填空题主要考查考生对语境的理解能力,所以空格的间后多有的暗示(后文暗示前文的居多)。考生在做题时,一定要取系上下文, 结合语境辨析所给选项,从中选出最符合语境的选项。 精炼必刷题: (一) After I graduated from college I struggled to hunt for a job. I 1 everywhere but no one was interested in hiring me. 2 I found a job in a group home for mentally disabled adults. It wasn't 3 work. In daily life we were 4 the feeding, dressing and safety of our clients(客户).We had to help them on a schedule and help them to control their 5 when they acted out their emotions. It was a difficult job emotionally and I really wasn't ready for it. I didn't 6 going to work each day. One of our clients was a young man who couldn't talk. When he was 7 he would often act it out. He did 8 walking outside, however, 9 the other workers would often have me take him for a walk up the road to 10 him down. One day when we were out walking, I 11 felt something touch my fingers. The young man was trying to 12 my hand. Instead of 13 it away, I took his hand in mine and we walked along together in the sunshine. Then as we 14 to head back to the home I saw it. There was a light shining in his eyes. It was full of 15 and goodness. At that moment I saw who he really is! Little did I know that God would use that experience to help 16 me for my own two sons'autism (自闭症). It would help me see the 17 within them as well. It would help me learn that 18 them was not a duty but an honor. The disabled can 19 us so much in this life. They can show us the 20 that lies within each of us. They show us that light, love and kindness are the essential parts of our being. 1. A. consulted B. begged C. explored D. applied 2. A. Gradually B. Eventually C. Hopefully D. Naturally 3. A. interesting B. dirty C. easy D. demanding 4. A. responsible for B. worried about C. strict about D. familiar with 5. A. mind B. behavior C. mood D. fear 6. A. rely on B. give up C. look forward to D. pay attention to 7. A. annoyed B. excited C. embarrassed D. satisfied 8. A. oppose B. quit C. suggest D. enjoy 9. A. but B. for D. yet 10. A. get B. knock C. put D. calm 11. A. suddenly B. instantly C. constantly D. obviously 12. A. clap B. shake C. hold D. lift 13. A. throwing B. pushing C. blowing D. carrying 14. A. continued B. planned C. pretended D. turned 15. A. joy B. respect C. surprise D. anxiety 16. A. promise B. ask C. prepare D. exchange 17. A. innocence B. light C. luck D. energy 18. A. looking for B. thinking about C. cheering up D. caring for 19. A. teach B. give C. comfort D. challenge 20. A. passion B. virtue C. courage D. ability (二) The little boy turned to the old woman next to him, ‘‘Granny, are you sure I don’t have enough money?’’ She nodded. The little boy was still 1 the doll (洋娃娃) in his hand. I walked toward him, 2 who he wished to give this doll to. “Sister. She was sure that Santa Claus would bring a doll to her.” I told him that maybe Santa Claus would do so. But he replied to me 3 , “No, Santa Claus (圣诞老人) can’t bring it to her 4 she is now. I have to give the doll to my mommy so that she can give it to my sister when she 5 there. My sister has gone to be with God. Daddy says that Mommy is going to see God very soon too, 6 I thought she could take the doll with her to give it to my sister.’’ The little boy looked 7 at me, “I told Daddy to tell Mommy not to go yet. I need her to wait until I come back from the mall. I 8 she didn’t have to leave me, but Daddy says that she has to go to be with my little sister.” Then he looked 9 at the doll with sad eyes. I quickly 10 for my wallet. “Let’s check again, just in case you do have enough money for the doll!” “OK. I hope I do have enough.” I added some of my money to 11 without him seeing and we started to count it. There was enough for the doll and 12 some spare money. “Thank you God for giving me enough money!” He looked at me and 13 , “I wanted to have enough money to buy a white rose for my Mommy, but I didn’t dare to ask God 14 too much. But He gave me enough to buy the doll and a white rose. My mommy loves white roses.” 15 I remembered a local newspaper article two days ago, mentioning a drunk man in a truck hit a car 16 by a young woman and a little girl. The little girl 17 right away and the mother was 18 in a critical state. Two days 19 this encounter (偶然相遇) with the little boy, I read in the newspaper that the young 20 had passed away. 1.A.raising B.holding C.hiding D.tearing 2.A.considering B.understanding C.watching D.asking 3.A.proudly B.hurriedly C.sadly D.angrily 4.A.where B.what C.who D.when 5.A.comes B.finds C.goes D.leaves 6.A.so B.for C.but D.as 7.A.down B.on C.to D.up 8.A.think B.wish C.imagine D.find 9.A.then B.sadly C.again D.now 10.A.reached B.looked C.searched D.charged 11.A.myself B.him C.his D.them 12.A.still B.yet C.also D.even 13.A.nodded B.added C.laughed D.showed 14.A.to B.for C.in D.on 15.A.Now B.Therefore C.However D.Then 16.A.occupied B.controlled C.attacked D.owned 17.A.left B.died C.came D.killed 18.A.knocked B.treated C.left D.kept 19.A.after B.since C.until D.before 20.A.man B.girl C.boy D.woman (一) 【答案】 1-5 DBCAB 6-10.CADCD 11-15.ACBDA 16-20.CBDAB 【解析】 语篇解读:本文是一篇夫叙失议文,作者照顾病人的工作经历为今后照顾有自闭症的儿子积累了经验,这一段经历也让作者有了一些不同的感悟。 1.D 根据空前的“I struggled to hunt for a job”可推断作者到处申请工作,故选 D 项。 2.B 根据空前“I1everywhere but no one was interested in hiring me.”可知,作者找了很久都没找到工作,最后终于找到一份在群体家庭病房照顾病人的工作。 3. C 根据空前的“mentally disabled adults”以及空后所描述的作者的日常工作可推断,这不是一份容易的工作。第一段最后一句中的“difficult”也有提示。 4. A 根据空后的内容可知,作者和同事们日常常要负责客户们的吃饭、穿衣以及安全问题。 5. B 根据空后的“when they acted out their emotions”可知,他们还要帮助病人们在发泄情墙时控制他们的行为。 6. C 根据上一句的内容可知,这不是一件容易的工作,作者还没有准备好,因此她每天都不期待上班。 7. A 这个年轻人生气的时候,经常会发泄自己的情绪。 8. D 然而,他喜欢在外面散步。因此,同事们经常会让作者带这个年轻人去散步,这样才能让他冷静下来。 9. C 参见上题解析。 10. D 参见第 8 题解析, 11.A 散步的时候作者突然感到有什么东西碰到了自己的手指。 12.C 他正在试着抓位作者的手。 13.B 作者没有推开他的子,而是紧紧地提住他的手。 14.D 根据“head back to the home”可推断作者他们转身往回走。 15.A 作者的善待使他开心。 16.C 作者没有想到上帝会用这样的方式让她为照顾自己有自闭症的孩子做好了准备。 17.B 第 15 空前的“There was a light shining in his eyes.”有提示。 18.D 这让作者知道了照顾他们并不是责任而是荣幸。 19.A 残疾人可以教会我们很多东西。 20.B 他们让我们看到我们每个人内在的美德。 (二)【答案】 1-5.BDCAC 6-10.ADBCA 11-15.CDBBD 16-20.ABCAD 【解析】 这是一篇记叙文。文章主要讲述了作者偶遇一个小男孩,他想给车祸中去世的妹妹买礼物,但钱不够,作者偷偷的给他添了一些钱,帮助他实现愿望的感人故事。 1. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:小男孩手里还拿着洋娃娃。A.raising 举起;B.holding 拿着;C.hiding 藏;D.tearing撕开。通过上下文可知,小男孩是想买这个洋娃娃送给她的妹妹,但是他的钱不够,所以这里应该是手里拿着洋娃娃,想要带走。故选 B 项。 2. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:我走向他,问他想把这个娃娃给谁。A.considering 考虑;B.understanding 理解;C.watching 观看;D.asking 询问。通过下文可知,他告诉我想把娃娃送给妹妹,可推断出此处一定是我询问他要把娃娃送给谁。故选 D 项。 3. 考查副词词义辨析。句意:但他悲伤地回答我:“不,圣诞老人不能把它带到她现在的位置。”A.proudly自豪地;B.hurriedly 匆忙地;C.sadly 伤心地;D.angrily 生气地。通过下文可知,小男孩的妹妹因为车祸去世了,可推断出他此刻的心情应该是伤心的。故选 C 项。 4. 考查状语从句连接词。句意:但他悲伤地回答我:“不,圣诞老人不能把它带到她现在的位置。”A.where 在……地方;B.what 什么;C.who 谁;D.when 当……的时候。根据句意可知,_____ she is now 为地点状语从句,表示妹妹现在的位置,连接词应用 where。故选 A 项。 5. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:但他悲伤地回答我:“我必须把娃娃交给我的妈妈,这样她去那的时候就可以给我的妹妹了。”A.comes 来;B.finds 发现;C.goes 去;D.leaves 离开。通过下文可知,小男孩的妹妹因为车祸去世了,去和上帝在一起了,妈妈病情危重,可能也要死去了,可推断出妈妈可能也要去上帝那了。故选 C 项。 6. 考查连词词义辨析。句意:所以我想她可以带着洋娃娃给我的妹妹。A.so 所以;B.for 由于;C.but 但是;D.as 当……时。上一句爸爸说妈妈也要去上帝那了,所以我才让她把洋娃娃带给我的妹妹,两句之间是因果关系。故选 A 项。 7. 考查固定短语。句意:小男孩抬头看着我。A.down 向下;B.on 在……上;C.to 朝,向;D.up 向上。根据语境分析,我是大人,个子比较高,小男孩和我说话时应该是抬着头。look up at sb.意为“抬头看着某人”,为固定短语。故选 D 项。 8. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:我希望她不要离开我,但爸爸说她必须和我妹妹在一起。A.think 认为;B.wish希望;C.imaging 想象;D.find 发现。根据上下文分析,小男孩是希望妈妈不要离开他,且“主语+wish+(that)+从句主语+动词过去式(be 动词用 were)”,表示与现在事实相反的愿望,符合句意。故选 B 项。 9. 考查副词词义辨析。句意:然后他又用悲伤的眼神看着娃娃。A.then 然后;B.sadly 伤心地;C.again 再一次;D.now 现在。根据上文可知,在和作者说话之前,小男孩一直看着娃娃,可推断出和作者说完话后,他再一次看着娃娃,想要带走它。故选 C 项。 10. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:我快速地伸手去拿钱包。A.reached 伸手;B.looked 看;C.searched 搜索;D.charged控告。根据下文可知,小男孩的钱不够,我给他添了一些钱来买这个洋娃娃,所以我应该是伸手去拿钱包。reach for 意为“伸手去取”,为固定短语,符合句意。故选 A 项。 11. 考查代词词义辨析。句意:我在他没看到的情况下给他加了一些钱。A.myself 我自己;B.him 他;C.his 他的;D.them 他们。根据文意可知,我是在他不注意的时候,把我的钱放在了他的钱里面,这里 his 为名词性物主代词,代指他的钱。故选 C 项。 12. 考查副词词义辨析。句意:这有足够的钱来买洋娃娃,甚至还有一些闲钱。A.still 仍然;B.yet 还;C.also也;D.even 甚至。分析语境可知,小男孩本以为钱不够,但现在不仅够买洋娃娃,甚至还有余钱,even能表达出乎意料的语气,符合语境。故选 D 项。 13. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:他看着我补充说到:“我想有足够的钱给我妈妈买一朵白色的玫瑰花,但我不敢向上帝要求太多。”A.nodded 点头;B.added 补充说;C.laughed 笑;D.showed 展示。分析上文可知,男孩之前对我说想送给妹妹一个洋娃娃,这里又说想送给妈妈一朵白色玫瑰花,所以应该是补充说到。故选 B 项。 14. 考查固定短语。句意:他看着我补充说到:“我想有足够的钱给我妈妈买一朵白色的玫瑰花,但我不敢向上帝要求太多。”A.to 朝,向;B.for 由于;C.in 在……里面;D.on 在……上面。ask sb. for sth.意为“向某人要某物”,为固定短语,表示不敢向上帝要求太多,符合句意。故选 B 项。 15. 考查副词词义辨析。句意:然后我想起两天前当地报纸上的一篇报道。A.Now 现在;B.Therefore 因此;C.However 然而;D.Then 然后。根据上下文可知,遇到小男孩后,我想起了报纸上的文章,两件事是顺承关系。故选 D 项。 16. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:一个开着卡车的醉汉撞了一个载着一个年轻女子和一个小女孩的车。A.occupied使用,占用;B.controlled 控制;C.attacked 攻击;D.owned 拥有。根据文意可知,这里指年轻的女人和小女孩坐在被撞的车里,a car occupied by sb.意为“被某人占用的汽车”,符合句意。故选 A 项。 17. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:小女孩马上就死了,而母亲处于危急状态。A.left 离开;B.died 死亡;C.came来;D.killed 杀死。根据上文小男孩的话可知,小女孩已经死去了,去和上帝在一起了。故选 B 项。 18. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:小女孩马上就死了,而母亲处于危急状态。A.knocked 敲;B.treated 以……态度对待;C.left 离开;D.kept 保持。leave+宾语+形容词,意为“使……处于……的状态,这里说的是他的 妈妈车祸后处于危急的状态。故选 C 项。 19. 考查连词词义辨析。句意:在和小男孩相遇的两天后,我在报纸上看到那个年轻的女子去世了。A.after在……以后;B.since 自……以后;C.until 直到……为止;D.before 在……以前。通过上文可知,我见到小男孩的时候,他的妈妈还没死,可推断出是两天后的报纸上报道了她死去的新闻。故选 A 项。 20. 考查名词词义辨析。句意:在和小男孩相遇的两天后,我在报纸上看到那个年轻的女子去世了。A.man 男人;B.girl 女孩;C.boy 男孩;D.woman 女人。通过上文可知,出车祸的是一个年轻的女人和一个小女孩,小女孩立刻就死了,所以两天后,报纸上报道的应该是女人去世的消息。故选 D 项。 【点睛】 完形填空的解题技巧之一就是上下文推理法。“上下文推理法”是指根据对上下文的语义和整个语篇的理解,进行适当的推理判断,因此需重点注意挖空处的上下文语境,判断清楚所要表达的含义。例如,第 20 小题要求推断出谁去世了?浏览上文可知,出车祸的是一个年轻的女人和一个小女孩,小女孩立刻就死了,所以两天后,报纸上报道的应该是女人去世的消息。故选 D 项。

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