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2020-2021年高考英语完形填空讲解练习:受思维定式影响而失分

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时间:2020-09-14

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2020-2021 年高考英语完形填空讲解练习:受思维定式影响而失分 技法指导 考试之前,考生做了大量的题目,考试不可避免地会在某些地方令考生有似曾相识的感觉,这原本是件好事,但考生的思维定式把这变成了一件坏事。有的考生看题还没过半,发现类似的题目老师讲解过,立即兴奋地动笔,有的同字基至常记忆老师讲过的解法来依葫芦画瓢,却不知试题的其他条件已经发生了变化,错解是必然结果。完形填空常见的有以下两种情况: (1)对一些单词形成的思维定式 有些同学学习英语单词过于简单化,仅记其汉语意思,而不深刻理解其实际用法和用法之间的细微差异。例如:表示“成功做某事”,不可以用 succeed to do sth.来表达。 (2)学习词组或习惯用语时受到思维定式的影响。 例如:学了 wait for 这个词组以后,有的学生在做题过程中只要碰到 wait,后面要接介词时就毫不犹豫地选择 for.但在“He stopped his car to wait at the red light.“中就不用 for. 精炼必刷题: (一) Scott loved his basketball team and always played hard for it. Last year, they had won the state finals. This year, they were finding things much 1 . Three 2 were left before the finals and Scott's team needed to 3 them all to go to the finals. They made two but near the 4 of the third game, they were behind by six points. Scott had also hurt his 5 when he fell on the court. ''Are you okay to 6 ?'' asked his coach. Scott looked at the injury on his knee. ''I'll be 7 ,'' he said. Scott knew the 8 of his decision. He could hurt his knee even more. Or he could 9 not to play. He knew that not playing might cause his team to 10 . As he rested before the final quarter, he decided to play through the pain. He 11 that he was going to win this game for the team he 12 . As the quarter began, he caught the ball after the other 13 made a mistake. He bounced the ball down the court and threw the ball into the basket. Scott 14 towards his coach. They were only four points behind now. Scott kept playing 15 during the final quarter. He 16 scored a three-point shot from the center of the court. With just two 17 left, Scott's team was still one point behind. Scott was passed the ball by his teammate. He 18 the pain in his knee and ran forward. He 19 towards the end of the court. His feet left the ground. He sent his shot into the basket and earned his side two points. The final whistle (哨音) blew seconds after. Scott's 20 decision had helped his team reach the finals. 1.A.cheaper B.easier C.faster D.harder 2.A.players B.games C.meetings D.weeks 3.A.challenge B.find C.change D.win 4.A.middle B.start C.end D.break 5.A.knee B.head C.hand D.foot 6.A.practice B.leave C.continue D.watch 7.A.proud B.slow C.honest D.fine 8.A.risks B.mistakes C.benefits D.reasons 9.A.imagine B.choose C.expect D.learn 10.A.worry B.argue C.stop D.lose 11.A.found B.agreed C.felt D.doubted 12.A.hated B.trained C.loved D.helped 13.A.friend B.team C.judge D.coach 14.A.smiled B.shouted C.cried D.returned 15.A.badly B.well C.slowly D.fast 16.A.never B.even C.always D.almost 17.A.teams B.quarters C.points D.minutes 18.A.ignored B.noticed C.remembered D.discovered 19.A.looked B.walked C.headed D.jumped 20.A.daring B.wrong C.careful D.foolish (二) We are surrounded by stories of sadness, cruelty and violence. Evil arrests our 1 . But there are also many 2 stories of selfless goodness. They could 3 go unnoticed, but such acts can also change lives forever. My brothers and I 4 with a story of something that happened to my father, who 5 seven years ago. It is a story of family tragedy and astonishing, quiet kindness. My father’s father died when my father was 11. His mother was a widow at 34, and as an only child, he 6 much of his grief alone. In accordance with traditional 7 , he began to walk very early to church each morning to say prayers in his father’s 8 . At the end of his first week, he 9 that the ritual director of the synagogue, Mr. Einstein, walked past his home just as he left to walk to church . Mr. Einstein, 10 advanced in years explained, “Your home is on the way to the church. I thought it might be fun to have some 11 . That way, I don’t have to walk alone.”For a year my father and Mr. Einstein walked through the New England 12 , the humidity of summer and the snow of winter. They talked about life and loss and, for a while, my father was not so 13 . After my parents married and my oldest brother was born, my father 14 Mr. Einstein, now well into his 90s, and asked if Mr. Einstein could meet his new wife and child. Mr. Einstein 15 , but said that in view of his age my father would have to come to him. My father once wrote about what happened: “The journey was long and 16 . His home, by car, was 17 twenty minutes away. I drove in tears as I 18 what he had done. He had walked for an hour to my home so that I would not have to be alone each morning. … By the simplest of gestures, the 19 of caring, he took a frightened child and he 20 him with confidence and with faith back into life.” 1.A.doubt B.goal C.attention D.dream 2.A.confusing B.exciting C.amazing D.moving 3.A.widely B.easily C.clearly D.particularly 4.A.grew up B.took off C.broke away D.gave in 5.A.passed away B.fell down C.died away D.get away 6.A.burden B.took C.carried D.bore 7.A.behaviour B.practice C.habit D.motion 8.A.support B.favour C.memory D.place 9.A.noticed B.discovered C.expected D.predicted 10.A.usually B.even C.still D.already 11.A.company B.experience C.interest D.comfort 12.A.fields B.seasons C.scenes D.months 13.A.different B.lively C.alone D.simple 14.A.rang back B.worried about C.came across D.called up 15.A.promised B.refused C.agreed D.arrived 16.A.accidental B.complicated C.short D.satisfied 17.A.fully B.regularly C.commonly D.hardly 18.A.confirmed B.saw C.realized D.told 19.A.faith B.behavior C.kindness D.act 20.A.held B.led C.warned D.protected (一) 【答案】 1-5.DBDCA 6-10.CDABD 11-15.CCBAB 16-20.BDACA 【解析】 这是一篇记叙文。文章主要讲述了在一场篮球比赛中,Scott 忍着膝盖的疼痛继续参加比赛,最终在最后一场四分之一赛中帮助自己所在的队以一分的差距赢得了进入决赛的资格。 1. 考查形容词词义辨析。句意:今年,他们发现要赢得比赛难得多。A. cheaper 更便宜的;B. easier 更容易的;C. faster 更快的;D. harder 更难的。更具下文的 Scott's team needed to ___3___ them all to go to the finals.可知今年要赢得比赛很困难,故选 D 项。 2. 考查名词词义辨析。句意:Scott 的篮球队必须打赢剩下的三场比赛才能进入总决赛。A. players 运动员;B. games 比赛;C. meetings 会议;D. weeks 周。根据下文的 Scott's team needed to ___3___ them all to go to the finals.可知 Scott 的队还要赢得三场比赛,才能进入决赛,且下文的 They made two but near the ___4___ of the third game 也有暗示,game 是原词复现,故选 B 项。 3. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:Scott 的篮球队必须打赢剩下的三场比赛才能进入总决赛。A. challenge 挑战;B. find发现;C. change 改变;D. win 赢。根据下文的 to go to the finals.可知斯蒂文的队要赢三场比赛才能进入决赛,且下文的 They made two but near the ___4___ of the third game 也有暗示,made 和 win 是同义词复现,故选 D项。 4. 考查名词词义辨析。句意:他们已经赢了两场,但在第三场比赛中,他们落后了 6 分。A. middle 中间;B. start开始;C. end 结束;D. break 休息。根据下文的 they were behind by six points 可推测第三场比赛已经接近尾声,故选 C 项。 5. 考查名词词义辨析。句意:Scott 伤到了他的膝盖,倒在了球场上。A. knee 膝盖;B. head 头;C. hand 手;D. foot 脚。根据下文的 Scott looked at the injury on his knee.可知 Scott 伤到了膝盖,knee 是原词复现,故选 A项。 6. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:他的教练问:“你还能继续比赛吗?”A. practice 练习;B. leave 离开;C. continue继续;D. watch 观看。根据上文的 Scott had also hurt his___5___ when he fell on the court.可知 Scott 的受了伤,所以教练询问他是否可以继续参加比赛,故选 C 项。 7. 考查形容词词义辨析。句意:他说:“我很快就好了。”A. proud 骄傲的;B. slow 慢的;C. honest 诚实的;D. fine 好的,健康的。根据下文的 As he rested before the final quarter, he decided to play through the pain.可知Scott 会继续参加比赛,由此推测他对教练说自己很好,故选 D 项。 8. 考查名词词义辨析。句意:他知道自己这个决定的风险。A. risks 风险;B. mistakes 错误;C. benefits 好处;D. reasons 原因。根据下文的 He could hurt his knee even more 可知,Scott 决定继续参加比赛的话会有风险,那就是他的膝盖将伤的更严重,故选 A 项。 9. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:或者他可以选择不参加比赛。A. imagine 想象;B. choose 选择;C. expect 期待;D. learn 学习,了解。根据下文的 not to play 可知,Scott 也可以选择不参加比赛,故选 B 项。 10. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:他知道如果不参加比赛的话他所在的队可能会输。A. worry 担心;B. argue 争辩;C. stop 停止;D. lose 输。根据上文的 This year, they were finding things much _____1_____.可知今年要赢得比赛很难,如果 Scott 再退出比赛的话,他的队很有可能会输,故选 D 项。 11. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:他感觉他会为这支他喜欢的队赢得比赛。A. found 发现;B. agreed 同意;C. felt感觉;D. doubted 怀疑。根据上文的 As he rested before the final quarter, he decided to play through the pain.可知 Scott 稍作休息后,充满了力量和信心,他感觉自己所在的队会赢,故选 C 项。 12. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:他感觉他会为这支他喜欢的队赢得比赛。A. hated 讨厌;B. trained 训练;C. loved爱;D. helped 帮助。根据上文的 he decided to play through the pain.可知 Scott 忍痛继续参加比赛,由此推测他很爱自己所在的队,故选 C 项。 13. 考查名词词义辨析。句意:四分之一赛开始时,因为对方球队犯了一个错,他接过球。A. friend 朋友;B. team队;C. judge 裁判;D. coach 教练。根据篮球的规则和 the other 可推测此处是指另外一个球队,故选 B 项。 14. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:Scott 朝他的教练微笑。A. smiled 微笑;B. shouted 大叫;C. cried 哭;D. returned返回。根据上文的 He bounced the ball down the court and threw the ball into the basket.可知 Scott 进了球,此处用“微笑”符合语境,故选 A 项 。 15. 考查副词词义辨析。句意:Scott 在最后的四分之一赛中打得很好。A. badly 糟糕地;B. well 好地;C. slowly慢地;D. fast 快地。根据下文的 He ____16____ scored a three-point shot from the center of the court.可知 Scott打得很好,故选 B 项。 16. 考查副词词义辨析。句意:他甚至从球场中央投了一个三分球。A. never 绝不;B. even 甚至;C. always 总是;D. almost 几乎。根据上文提到的 Scott 膝盖受伤,和比赛的紧急程度可知,此处用“甚至”起加强语气的作用,说明 Scott 在不利因素下甚至有精彩的表现,故选 B 项。 17. 考查名词词义辨析。句意:还有最后两分钟,Scott 所在的队还落后一分。A. teams 队;B. quarters 四分之一赛;C. points 分数;D. minutes 分钟。根据下文的 The final whistle (哨音) blew seconds after.可知此处是指最后的四分之一赛还剩下两分钟,故选 D 项。 18. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:他忽略自己膝盖的疼痛,向前冲去。A. ignored 忽略;B. noticed 注意;C. remembered记得;D. discovered 发现。根据下文的 the pain in his knee and ran forward.可知,此处是指 Scott 忍着膝盖的疼痛向前冲去,用“忽略”符合语境,故选 A 项。 19. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:他朝球场末端走去。A. looked 看;B. walked 走;C. headed 朝;D. jumped 跳。根据 towards the end of the court.可知,此处考查固定搭配 head towards“朝……”,故选 C 项。 20. 考查形容词词义辨析。句意:Scott 勇敢的决定帮助他所在的队进入了决赛。A. daring 勇敢的;B. wrong 错误的;C. careful 小心的;D. foolish 愚蠢的。根据上文的 As he rested before the final quarter, he decided to play through the pain.可知 Scott 忍痛继续参加比赛,这是个勇敢的决定,故选 A 项。 (二) 【答案】 1-5.CDBAA 6-10.DBCAD 11-15.ABCDC 16-20.BACDB 【解析】 这是一篇记叙文。文章主要讲述了 Einstein 先生用无私的善良鼓舞作者的爸爸的故事。 1.考查名词词义辨析。句意:灾祸吸引了我们的注意。A. doubt 怀疑,疑虑;B. goal 目标;C. attention 关注,注意;D. dream 梦想。根据上一句“We are surrounded by stories of sadness, cruelty and violence.(我们被悲伤、残忍和暴力的故事包围)”及下文“They could___3___ go unnoticed”提到无私的善良不被注意可知,此处指灾祸吸引了我们的“注意”。故选 C 项。 2.考查形容词词义辨析。句意:但是也有很多令人感动的无私善良的故事。A. confusing 令人困惑的;B. exciting 令人激动的;C. amazing 令人惊异的;D. moving 令人感动的。根据空后“stories of selfless goodness”可知,无私善良的故事“令人感动”,故选 D 项。 3.考查副词词义辨析。句意:它们很容易被忽视,但是这样的行为可以永远地改变生活。A. widely 广泛地;B. easily 容易地;C. clearly 清楚地;D. particularly 尤其地。根据空后的转折词“but”及“such acts can also change lives forever”可知,此处指虽然它们“容易”被忽视,但可以永远改变生活,故选 B 项。 4.考查动词短语辨析。句意:我和我的兄弟们是伴随着一个发生在我爸爸身上的故事成长的,爸爸七年前去世了。A. grew up 长大;B. took off 脱下,起飞;C. broke away 脱离;D. gave in 屈服。根据下文作者对爸爸经历的故事的描述可知,此处指我们都是听着这个故事“长大”的,故选 A 项。 5.考查动词短语辨析。句意:我和我的兄弟们是伴随着一个发生在我爸爸身上的故事成长的,爸爸七年前去世了。A. passed away 去世;B. fell down 跌倒;C. died away(尤指声音、光、风)逐渐消失;D. get away离开,脱身。此处指爸爸七年前“去世”,其他选项不符合语境,故选 A 项。 6.考查动词词义辨析。句意:他的母亲 34 岁时变成了寡妇,作为家里唯一的孩子,他独自忍受着悲伤。A. burden 使负重,使负担;B. took 拿;C. carried 搬运,运输;D. bore 忍受。根据前一句“My father’s father died when my father was 11.”可知,祖父去世,爸爸作为家里唯一的孩子,独自“忍受”着悲伤,故选 D 项。 7.考查名词词义辨析。句意:按照传统惯例,他开始每天早上很早去教堂祈祷纪念他的父亲。A. behaviour行为;B. practice 练习,惯例;C. habit 习惯;D. motion 运动,移动。此处指祖父去世后,爸爸按照传统“惯例”,每天早上去教堂祈祷,故选 B 项。 8.考查名词词义辨析。句意:按照传统惯例,他开始每天早上很早去教堂祈祷纪念他的父亲。A. support支持;B. favour 恩惠,赞同;C. memory 记忆;D. place 地方。上文提到他的父亲去世,所以他每天早上去教堂祷告“纪念”他的父亲,故选 C 项。 9.考查动词词义辨析。句意:在第一周的末尾,他注意到正当他离开家步行去教堂时,犹太教堂的仪式指 导 Einstein 先生从他家经过。A. noticed 注意到,看到;B. discovered 发现;C. expected 期望;D. predicted预测。根据空后“Mr. Einstein, walked past his home”的描述可知,此处指他“注意”到,故选 A 项。 10.考查副词词义辨析。句意:已经年迈的 Einstein 先生解释说:“你的家在去教堂的路上。我认为有个伴是件有趣的事情。”A. usually 通常,常常;B. even 甚至;C. still 仍然;D. already 已经。根据空后“advanced in years”可知,此处指 Einstein 先生“已经”年迈,故选 D 项。 11.考查名词词义辨析。句意:已经年迈的 Einstein 先生解释说:“你的家在去教堂的路上。我认为有个伴是件有趣的事情。”A. company 陪伴;B. experience 经验,经历;C. interest 兴趣;D. comfort 安慰。根据下一句“That way, I don’t have to walk alone.”可知,此处指路上有人“陪伴”,故选 A 项。 12.考查名词词义辨析。句意:一年中我的爸爸和 Einstein 先生走过了新英格兰的几个季节,从夏天的潮湿到冬天的雪。A. fields 领域;B. seasons 季节;C. scenes 场景;D. months 月。根据空后“the humidity of summer and the snow of winter”可知,此处指“季节”,故选 B 项。 13.考查形容词词义辨析。句意:他们谈论生活和失去的(人和事),在一段时间我的爸爸不那么孤独了。A. different 不同的;B. lively 活泼的;C. alone 孤单的;D. simple 简单的。根据“They talked about life and loss”可知,此处指爸爸不再“孤单”,上文“That way, I don’t have to walk alone.”也是提示,故选 C 项。 14.考查动词短语辨析。句意:我父母结婚有了第一个孩子后,我爸爸给已经 90 多岁的 Einstein 先生打电话,问 Einstein 先生能否见见他新的妻子和孩子。A. rang back 回电话;B. worried about 担心;C. came across偶然遇见;D. called up 打电话。根据下文“but said that in view of his age my father would have to come to him”可知,Einstein 先生说由于年纪大,爸爸不得不去 Einstein 家可知,此处爸爸是“打电话”问 Einstein 先生能否来。故选 D 项。 15.考查动词词义辨析。句意:Einstein 先生同意了,但是说鉴于他的年纪,爸爸将不得不去他家。A. promised承诺;B. refused 拒绝;C. agreed 同意;D. arrived 到达。根据“but said that in view of his age my father would have to come to him”可知,Einstein 先生同意见见爸爸的妻子和孩子,故选 C 项。 16.考查形容词词义辨析。句意:路程又长又麻烦。A. accidental 偶然的,意外的;B. complicated 麻烦的,错综复杂的;C. short 短的;D. satisfied 满意的。根据下文“I drove in tears”及“He had walked for an hour to my home”可知,此处应选“complicated”和“long”并列,突出去 Einstein 先生家的路程“又长又麻烦”,表明 Einstein 先生不辞辛苦地陪伴爸爸去教堂。故选 B 项。 17.考查副词词义辨析。句意:开车去他家足有 20 分钟。A. fully 充足地,完全,至少;B. regularly 定期地;C. commonly 一般地,通常地;D. hardly几乎不。根据下文“He had walked for an hour to my home”可知,Einstein 先生走路一个小时到爸爸家,所以此处指开车“足有,至少”20 分钟,故选 A 项。 18.考查动词词义辨析。句意:当我意识到他做的事情,我流着眼泪开车。A. confirmed 证实;B. saw 看见;C. realized 意识到;D. told 告诉。根据“I drove in tears”可知,爸爸“意识到”当年 Einstein 先生所做的事情时,感动得流泪,故选 C 项。 19.考查名词词义辨析。句意:通过最简单的手势,关爱的行为,他带着一个受惊吓的孩子,引导他带着信心和信念回到生活中。A. faith 信念;B. behavior 举止,表现;C. kindness 善良;D. act 行为。第一段最后一句中提到“but such acts can also change lives forever”,此处是指上文提到的这样一个关爱的“行为”,故选 D项。 20.考查动词词义辨析。句意:通过最简单的手势,关爱的行为,他带着一个受惊吓的孩子,引导他带着信心和信念回到生活中。A. held 握,抓住;B. led 引导,领路;C. warned 警告;D. protected 保护。根据“back into life”可知,此处指 Einstein 先生“带领、引导”这个孩子带着信心和信念回到生活中。故选 B 项。

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