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2020-2021 年高考英语完形填空讲解练习:说明文
技法指导
说明文是以说明为主要表达方式,用来说明事物、阐明事理的一种文体。它通过揭示概念来说明事物
的特征、本质及其规律性,给人准确的科学知识或传递某种思想。说明文一般开头点题,即作者直接在首
句直接提出说明对象,然后再从不同的角度进行说明。因此,考生要注意文章的开头和结尾,进而概括出
段落的主旨大意,便于选出正确选项。
精练必刷题:
Bridging the gap
How does a principal investigator make communication among deaf and hearing colleagues easier? Moreover,
how are the large number of field-specific technical terms 1 — and communicated in sign language? These
2 differences are not remarkably challenging to work around.
Blumberg taught himself American Sign Language and has interpreters 3 in the lab during the day.
For lab meetings, journal clubs and research seminars, he has two interpreters present t0 tag-team signing. Costs for
the interpreters are 4 by the NIH's Office of Research Services. The only learning curve that he
experienced, Blumberg says, was realizing he needed 5 interpreters, Before, when he had one deaf student,
he could 6 the interpreting. As more deaf fellows joined, Blumberg 7 full-time interpreters for help.
Having interpreters around all day is not necessary though. " 8 . interpreters are only needed during
the day if we're having lab meeting, classes, important functions or events, or 9 -poster presentations,
student presentations, guest presentations from 10 scientists, Lundberg says. "The rest of the day, I do not
need an interpreter, 11 I'm in lab and it's independent work.”
During his Ph.D. at the University of Minnesota, Lundberg used online chat platforms to 12 with his
adviser and colleagues. Or he wrote 13 a whiteboard, scratch paper, or paper towels. His adviser later
14 that he keep the scraps of paper, which “was really good advice," Lundberg says, "because they were really
good notes."
The best way to arrange the most suitable accommodations for deaf individuals is to ask them 15 they
need, says Derek Braun, a former postdoctoral fellow with Blumberg and currently a professor of biology at
Gallaudet University. One of his ongoing projects is a collaboration with Blumberg and Lundberg to investigate the
role of Ras guanyl nucleotide (鸟苷核苷酸) — releasing proteins in cancer. 16 deaf people sign, Braun says. "Some are oral. Really, we come in every flavor imaginable. The best judge of what that person needs is
usually the person?
Signing scientific terms is not unusually challenging either. While no standardized set of signs for technical
words exists, colleagues working in the same lab develop their own signs for the terms they frequently use. If each
lab develops signs 17 , what happens when members of different labs meet?
Larry Pearce, a technician in Blumberg’s lab 18 is deaf, explains to me, “ It's really not that difficult,
because when an individual does not understand a sign we use, they'll ask for clarifications (说明) and I'll
finger-spell. I’ll spell 19 out. They will tell me what their sign is, and I'll tell them what our sign is. If I like
their sign better, I might adopt it and use it every day, or vice-versa (反之亦然), and eventually it becomes more
20
1. A. adapted B. adopted C. adjusted D. announced
2. A. culture B. pronunciation C. communication D. habit
3. A. stationed B. canned C. cupped D. capped
4. A. counted B. contained C. included D. covered
5. A. better B. fewer C. more D. less
6. A. carry out B. carry on C. make out D. make up
7. A. turned B. sought C. referred D. led
8. A. In particular B. In general C. In conclusion D. In word
9. A. colleagues B. interpreters C. presentations D. accommodations
10. A. another B. any C. others D. other
11. A. because B. though C. whether D. unless
12. A. write B. read C. listen D. speak
13. A. below B. on C. in D. beyond
14. A. knew B. suggested C. discovered D. noticed
15. A. which B. that C. what D. if
16. A. Not all B. All C. Few D. Not enough
17. A. independently B. dependently C. secretly D. occasionally
18. A. where B. which C. who D. when
19. A. them B. me C. myself D. it20. A. essential B. particular C. related D. universal
(二)
What I have learned with my three teens is this: when they are testing me and pushing the limits in a way that
feels more aggressive than normal teenage behavior, this is when they need some extra love and 1 When our
kids are young and aren't able to 2 how they are feeling, they typically behave in a way that makes it obvious
that they are sad , 3,or not feeling like themselves. We parents try 4 to help them feel better, whatever it 5
We won't 6 even though we can't quite understand.
As they get 7 and are able to talk and communicate, I think we raise our expectations a little bit too 8
----I've realized although they can talk and communicate and let us 9 whether something is wrong, it doesn't
mean they will. Not because they don't always want to, 10 teenagers seem to think they can 11 it on their own;
they think their 12 won't understand, or they are too embarrassed to come to us with their 13 or talk about
certain situations. But I've also had to realize when my teens are disrespectful, they might not know how to 14
themselves.
Even as a 43-year-old woman I still 15 with finding the words or putting a name to my feelings. I
mean my teens need me to 16 them to tell me what's wrong. Teens, like all of us are looking for bonding, so make
sure we are 17 time with them. This has to be face to face. If connecting with your teen by text messages feels
easier, then start there, but don't 18 there. Put down your 19 and look at your teen in the eyes to communicate
too, and 20 will take you and your teen' s relationship to another level.
1. A. complaint B. Punishment C. praise D. Attention
2. A. sing B. Explore C. communicate D. build
3. A. uncomfortable B. delighted C. excited D. energetic
4. A. something B. everything C. nothing D. anything
5. A. offers B. takes C. makes D. calls
6. A. give in B. give up C. give off D. give out
7. A. smaller B. stronger C. older D. younger
8. A. high B. low C. fast D. slow
9. A. ask B. say C. debate D. know
10. A. because B. since C. though D. but
11. A. handle B. hide C. present D. expose
12. A. friends B. parents C. teachers D. teammates
13. A. worries B. possibilities C. explanations D. assumptions
14. A. push B. determine C. express D. urge
15. A. argue B. work C. struggle D. dream
16. A. force B. encourage C. refuse D. forbid
17. A. wasting B. killing C. spending D. losing
18. A. stand B. hang C. leave D. stop
19. A. magazines B. newspapers C. books D. phones20. A. connections B. adjustment C. service D. disappointment
(一)
【答案】
1-5. BCADC 6-10. ABBCD 11-15. ADBBC 16-20. AACDD
【语篇解读】这是一篇说明文。文章介绍了以 Blumberg 为负责人的科学家探索研究出供聋哑人交流的手势
语,以架起聋哑人与正常人之间的沟通桥梁。
1. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:此外,如何采用大量具体领域的技术术语,并以授予进行交流?A. adapt 使适
应;B. adopt 采用;C. adjust 调整;D. announce 宣布。B 项符合语境,文章最后一句同一词再现。故选 B。
2. 考查名词词义辨析。句意:这些沟通差异对于解决这些问题并不十分困难。A. culture 文化;B. pronunciation
发音;C. communication 沟通;D. habit 习惯。根据第一句话 How does a principal investigator make
communication among deaf and hearing colleagues easier?可知,C 项符合语境,故选 C。
3. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:Blumberg 自学了美国手语,且白天在实验室里驻派了翻译。A. station 派驻,
把某人安置到某地;B. can 将……装入密封;C. cup 使成杯形;D. cap 覆盖。由语境可知,A 项符合文意,
故选 A。
4. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:口译员的费用由 NIH 研究服务办公室支付。A. counted 算作、包括;B. contained
包含;C. included 包括、计入;D. covered 支付款项。根据句子可知,costs 意为费用,cover the cost 意为“支
付费用”,故 D 项符合文意,故选 D。
5. 考查形容词词义辨析。句意:Blumberg 说,他经历的唯一学习曲线是意识到他需要更多的口译员。A. better
更好的;B. fewer 更少的;C. more 更多的;D. less 更少的。后文提到“As more deaf fellows joined…”,当他
只有一个聋哑学生的时候他自己就可以完成翻译,但随着聋哑学生增多时,他就需要更多的翻译,more 修
饰可数名词复数,故选 C。
6. 考查动词短语辨析。句意:以前,当他有一个聋哑学生的时候,他还可以自己进行翻译。A. carry out 完
成;执行;B. carry on 继续进行;C. make out 辨别,理解;D. make up 构成,弥补,化妆。由语境可知,A
项符合文意,故选 A。
7. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:随着更多的聋哑学生加入,Blumberg 就会寻求全职译员的帮助。A. turned 转
向,转身;B. sought 寻找;C. referred 引用,提到;D. led 领导,导致。seek 寻求,符合语境;A/C 需加 to;
D 带领,不合逻辑。故选 B。
8. 考查介词短语辨析。句意:一般来说,只有句型实验室会议、课程、重要活动或项目时,才需要解释。A. In particular 尤其、特别;B. In general 通常来讲;C. In conclusion 总而言之,D. In word 口头上。根据语
境可知,B 项符合语境,故选 B。
9. 考查名词词义辨析。句意:一般来说,只有句型实验室会议、课程、重要活动或展示——如海报展示、
学生展示。A. colleagues 同事、同行;B. interpreters 译员;C. presentations 展示、阐述;D. accommodations
食宿。破折号后是对前文的解释说明,由此可知,C 项符合文意,故选 C。
10. 考查代词词义辨析。句意:一般来说,只有句型实验室会议、课程、重要活动或展示——如海报展示、
学生展示以及其他科学家的展示。A. another 另一个;B. any 任何的;C. others 不同的;D. other 其他的。other
常用来修饰可数名词复数,根据文章可知,此空不指代具体的科学家。由此可知,D 项符合文意,故选 D。
11. 考查连词词义辨析。句意:接下来的日子,我不需要翻译,因为我在实验室里,这是一项独立工作。A.
because 因为;B. though 虽然,尽管;C. whether 是否;D. unless 除非。分析文章可知,空处后一句是对“不
需要翻译”的解释说明,因此需使用从属连词,引导原因状语从句。由此可知,A 相符合文意。故选 A。
12. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:在明尼苏达大学攻读博士学位期间,Lundberg 利用在线聊天平台与顾问和同
事进行交流。A. write 写;B. read 读;C. listen 听;D. speak 说。根据文章可知,online chat platforms 是在线
聊天的平台,speak with 意为“和……谈话”,由此可知,D 项符合文意,故选 D。
13. 考查介词词义辨析。句意:或者他会写在白板、纸或纸巾上。A. below 在……下面;B. on 在……上面;
C. in 在……里面;D. beyond 超出,在……较远的一边。根据文章可知,write on 为固定搭配,意为“在……
上写”,B 项符合文意,故选 B。
14. 考查动词词义辨析。句意:他的顾问随后建议道,他应该保留小纸片,而这是一个非常好的建议。A. knew
知道;B. suggested 建议;C. discovered 发现;D. noticed 注意。分析文章可知,从句中的谓语在第三人称单
数后使用了“(should)+动词原形”的形式,由此可判断该处应使用虚拟语气。由此可知,B 项符合文意,
故选 B。
15. 考查连接词辨析。句意:为聋哑学生安排最合适住宿的最佳方式是询问他们需要什么。A. which 哪一个;
B. that 那个;C. what 什么;D. if 如果。分析句子可知,该句为宾语从句,what 引导宾语从句,并在从句中
作宾语。故选 C。
16. 考查部分否定。句意:并不是所有的聋哑人都需要手势。A. Not all 并不是所有;B. All 所有的;C. Few
极少的;D. Not enough 远远不够。分析句子可知,后文中提到“some are oral”,说明不是所有的聋哑人都是
一个情况,应使用部分否定。由此可知,A 项符合文意,故选 A。
17. 考查副词词义辨析。句意:如果每个实验室都独立地开发手势,那当不同实验室的成员相遇时会发生什
么?A. independently 独立地;B. dependently 依赖地;C. secretly 秘密地;D. occasionally 偶尔地。文中倒数第二段提到“While no standardized set of signs for technical words exists, colleagues working in the same lab
develop their own signs for the terms they frequently use.”现阶段的技术用词没有统一的标准,同一个实验室的
人员会根据他们经常使用的词来发明他们的手势。后文提到“different labs”说明实验室是分别发明自己的手
势,由此可知,A 项符合文意,故选 A。
18. 考查连接词辨析。句意:Larry Pearce,Blumberg 实验室的一名聋人,向我解释道。A. where 哪里;B. which
哪一个;C. who 谁;D. when 当……的时候。分析句子可知,该句是定语从句先行词 technician 是人,且从
句中缺少主语成分,因此需使用关系代词 who 引导,故选 C。
19. 考查代词词义辨析。句意:我会拼出来。A. them 他们;B. me 我;C. myself 我自己;D. it 它。分析句
子可知,指示代词 it 指代前文中出现的 a sign,故选 D。
20. 考查形容词词义辨析。句意:最终会变得更普遍。A. essential 必不可少的;B. particular 特别的;C. related
相关联的;D. universal 普遍的。分析文章可知,该空前提到“If I like their sign better, I might adopt it and use it
every day”如果我更喜欢这个手势的话,就会每天使用,每天使用就会使其变得更加的普遍,故选 D。
(二)
语篇解读:本文是一篇说明文。孩子小的时候,他们不能向父母表达自己的感受,就会通过明显的方式来表达
自己的难过或不舒服;当他们长大时,他们又不愿意表达自己的感受; 因此,父母要关注孩子的成长,及时
有效地和孩子沟通。
1. D 根据语境和空前的“when they need some extra love and”可知,此处表示当他们需要额外的爱和关注时。
2. C 根据语境可知,当孩子小的时候,他们不能表达自己的感受。communicate"传达,传递”。
3. A 根据该句中的“they are sad, not feeling like themselves",并结合语境可知,此处表示
他们伤心、不舒服。
4. B 根据后 面的“whatever it” 可知,我 们父母尽一切可能去帮助他们感觉好些,无论付出什么。
5. B 参见上题解析。
6. B 根据后面的“even though we can't quite understand"可知,尽管我们不是很明白,但我们不会放弃。
6. C 根据后 面的“are able to talk and communicate"可推知,当他们年龄大一点时,他们能说话和交流。
8. A 根据前面的“we raise our expectations"并结 合语境可知,此处表示我们把期望提得有点过高。
9. D 根据语境可知,他们能说话和交流,能让我们知道是否事情出了差错。
10. D 根据“Not because they don't always want to,________ teenagers seem to think they can______it on their
own”可知,空处表转折,此处表示并不是因为他们不想,而是青少年认为他们能自己应付(handle)它。
11. A 参见上题解析。
12. B 根据语境可知,他们认为他们的父母不会理解。
13. A 根据本句 中的“they are too embarrassed to come to us with their______”可知,他们太尴尬不愿
带着担忧找父母。14. C 根据语境可知,他们也许不知道怎样表达自己。
15. C 根据上文可知,孩子们也许不知道怎样表达自己,并结合该句可知,作为一个 43 岁的女士,找到合适
的话语表达自己的感受对“我”来说仍然很难。
16. B 根据语境可知,此处表示“‘我’的意思是孩子们需要‘我’鼓励他们告诉‘我’出了什么差错”。
17. C 根据本句中的“we are ______ time with them”可知,此处表示确保花时间和他们在一起。
18. D 根据本句“If connecting with your teen ... don't there.”可知,如果用手机短信和你的孩
子沟通感觉更简单,就从那儿开始,但不能停留在手机交流上。
19. D 根据上文用 手机短信和孩子沟通可知,此处表示放下你的手机,看着孩子的眼睛进行沟通。
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2020-2021 年高考英语完形填空讲解练习:说明文 技法指导 说明文是以说明为主要表达方式,用来说明事物、阐明事理的一种文体。它通过揭示概念来说明事物 的特征、本质及其规律性,给人准确的科学知识或传递某种思想。说明文一般开头点题,即作者直接在首 句直接提出说明对象,然后再从不同的

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