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2020-2021 年高考英语完形填空讲解练习:不明词汇多义和生义理解不透而失分
技法指导
在完形填空的选项中,有时也会出现一些多义词。在英语中,有些单词有两个甚至多个意思,我们把
这种现象称之为一词多义。如果考生对这类词的常见意义掌握得不够全面,就会在解答完形填空时错选或
误选,尤其值得注意的是:近年高考在完形填空中考查熟词生义有加大的趋势。在复习词汇的过程中,我
们要特别关注和积累一词多义,特别是常用动词及其短语。
精练必刷题:
(一)
It was New Year's Night. An 1 man was standing at a window. He raised his 2 eyes towards
the deep blue sky, where the stars were 3 like water lilies on the surface of a clear calm lake. Then he 4
them on the earth, where a few more 5 people than himself now moved towards their certain goal---the
6 .He had already passed sixty of the stages leading to it, and he had brought from his Journey 7 but
errors and regrets. Now his health was poor, his mind vacant and his heart 8 .
The days of his 9 appeared like dreams before him, and he recalled the serious moment when his father
placed him at the 10 of the two roads--one leading to a peaceful, sunny place, the other leading to a deep,
11 cave. He looked towards the sky and cried 12 , "Oh youth, return! Oh my father, place me once more at
the entrance to life, and I will choose the 13 way! " But both his father and the days of his youth had
14 .
The clock in the church tower 15 and the sound made him remember his parents’ early 16 for
him. They had taught him and prayed to God for his and prayed to God for his 17 .
But he chose the 18 way. His darkened eyes were full of tears, and with a despairing 19 , he burst
out a cry, “Come back, my early days!”
And his youth did 20 , for all this was only a dream which he had on New Year’s Night.
1.A.admirable B.honest C.inspiring D.aged
2.A.mournful B.shining C.charming D.sharp
3.A.swimming B.floating C.sleeping D.lying
4.A.threw B.cast C.put D.caught
5.A.jobless B.homeless C.hopeless D.fearless
6.A.tomb B.company C.lounge D.office
7.A.everything. B.nothing C.anything D.something
8.A.joyful B.thoughtful C.sorrowful D.thankful9.A.death B.birth C.growth D.youth
10.A.entrance B.middle C.end D.exit
11.A.big B.dark C.open D.bright
12.A.manly B.painfully C.sympathetically D.peacefully
13.A.shorter B.worse C.better D.harder
14.A.passed away B.passed by C.passed down D.passed out
15.A.struck B.rang C.beat D.knocked
16.A.support B.guidance C.instruction D.love
17.A.guilt B.health C.good D.wealth
18.A.right B.difficult C.easy D.wrong
19.A.effect B.force C.effort D.power
20.A.fade B.leave C.disappear D.return
(二)
I've come to the conclusion that I'm rubbish at saying “No”. For example, last Sunday I was sitting at my desk
alone, totally 1 in my own business, when a colleague of mine phoned and asked me to get involved in 2
with her. I found myself getting all caught up in her enthusiasm and didn't want to 3 her. So I said “Sure, why
not?” and before the call had 4 , I found myself agreeing, without giving any 5 whether it was worth
doing.
We are both window-shoppers and 6 a whole day in the street. Actually, I hardly have any time to spare
because I am very busy 7 my normal job - I've also got a book to write, a business to 8 and a family
to look after. And then there are my other projects to 9 - my voluntary work and a couple of other interesting
investments that I want to 10 . I'm going to have to be more ruthless (无情的) and not just agree to 11
people ask me to get involved in. In other words, I'm going to have to get 12 at saying “No”. Usually I hate
saying “No”, because having to disappoint someone usually 13 me. Now I realize 14 I haven't
learned to say “No”, I've been feeling very 15 .
We had better do what we think is right and what we are 16 to do. Sometimes it does not seem that bad
to 17 others. If I focus on the things I 18 want to be involved in, I'll reach a much higher standard and
do it quite 19 . I'll be enthusiastic and motivated (有积极性) and do something that is good for everyone and
everyone will be happy. It'll be a win-win 20 . What's not good about that?So sometimes, we have to say “No”.
1.A.experienced B.absorbed C.concerned D.disappointed
2.A.reading B.discussion C.shopping D.travel
3.A.displease B.force C.support D.shock
4.A.explained B.announced C.developed D.ended
5.A.thought B.suggestion C.idea D.question
6.A.lost B.kept C.enjoyed D.wasted
7.A.because of B.regardless of C.apart from D.instead of
8.A.visit B.run C.inspect D.invent
9.A.consider B.fetch C.catch D.enlarge
10.A.take in B.work on C.turn out D.make up
11.A.something B.none C.everything D.either
12.A.further B.cooler C.faster D.better
13.A.attracts B.beats C.upsets D.puzzles
14.A.after B.because C.if D.although
15.A.impressed B.anxious C.merciful D.depressed
16.A.likely B.afraid C.willing D.proud
17.A.join B.refuse C.invite D.choose
18.A.highly B.hardly C.suddenly D.really
19.A.patiently B.well C.seriously D.accidentally
20.A.situation B.environment C.appearance D.spirit
(一)
【答案】
1-5.DABBC 6-10.ABCDA 11-15.BBCAA 16-20.DCDCD
【解析】
这是一篇记叙文。文章讲述了一个耐人寻味的故事,一开始就是一个垂暮的老人满怀悔恨和悲伤,追忆自
己的青春岁月,但无论他多么想回到过去都无济于事,最后当他醒来时才发现自己还年轻,这只是一场无
比真实的梦。
1.考查形容词词义辨析。句意:一个年迈的老人站在窗户边。A. admirable 值得赞扬的;B. honest 诚实的;C. inspiring 鼓舞人心的;D. aged 年老的。下文中“He had already passed sixty of the stages”指出他已经 60 岁
了,也就是一个老人了。故选 D 项。
2.考查形容词词义辨析。句意:他抬起悲哀的目光看向漆黑的夜空,星星悬在夜空中就像平静澄澈的湖中
的百合花。A. mournful 悲哀的;B. shining 闪耀的;C. charming 迷人的;D. sharp 锋利的。结合文段内容来
看,这是一个已入暮年的老人在悔恨自己虚度了人生,步步逼近死亡的感觉一定是无比悲伤的。故选 A 项。
3.考查动词词义辨析。句意:他抬起悲哀的目光看向漆黑的夜空,星星悬在夜空中就像平静澄澈的湖中的
百合花。A. swimming 游泳;B. floating 漂浮;C. sleeping 睡觉;D. lying 躺下。这里用了一个比喻,星星应
该是像湖中的百合花一样“漂浮”在夜空中故选 B 项。
4.考查动词词义辨析。句意:然后他又将目光投向了地面上的人们。A. threw 扔掉;B. cast 投掷;C. put
放置;D. caught 抓住。与前文的 raise 类似,这里也要表达转移目光,them 就指代 eyes,cast eyes 意为“投向
目光”。故选 B 项。
5.考查形容词词义辨析。句意:在那里有一些更绝望的人们在走向必然的目的地——坟墓。A. jobless 失业
的;B. homeless 无家可归的;C. hopeless 绝望的;D. fearless 无畏的。这里用比较级应该视为在与这个老人
的感受作比较,都指在面临时间逝去和死亡时的绝望之情。故选 C 项。
6.考查名词词义辨析。句意:在那里有一些更绝望的人们在走向必然的目的地——坟墓。A. tomb 坟墓;
B. company 公司;C. lounge 休息室;D. office 办公室。下文用 it 指代,指出老人已经朝着这里走了 60 个阶
段了,且是一个确定的目的地,那一定是指死亡了,这里用 tomb 意义相同。故选 A 项。
7.考查代词词义辨析。句意:而他从这趟人生旅程中带走的除了过错和悔恨以外一无所有。A. everything
一切;B. nothing 没有东西:C. anything 任何事物;D. something 某些事物。结合文段内容来看,这是一个已
入暮年的老人在悔恨自己虚度了人生,所以这里要表达他带走的只有过错和悔恨,nothing but 意为“只有,
除了……没有”。故选 B 项。
8.考查形容词词义辨析。句意:现在他身体衰弱,思维混沌,心里也充满了悲伤。A. joyful 喜悦的;B. thoughtful
体贴的;C. sorrowful 悲伤的;D. thankful 感激的。与前文悲哀的目光对应,且文段渲染的这种沉重气氛,
垂暮老人的心情一定是非常难过的。故选 C 项。
9.考查名词词义辨析。句意:年轻时的日子像梦一般出现在他眼前。A. death 死亡;B. birth 出生;C. growth
成长;D. youth 青春。这里是老人在回忆年轻时的事情,下文也有 youth 一词对应。故选 D 项。
10.考查名词词义辨析。句意:他回想起了一个严肃的时刻,那时他的父亲让他站在一条分岔路的入口。
A. entrance 入口;B. middle 中间;C. end 末尾;D. exit 出口。下文分别描述两条路的样子,可见是站在分岔
路口看到的。故选 A 项。11.考查形容词词义辨析。句意:另一条通向幽深黑暗的洞穴。A. big 大的;B. dark 黑暗的;C. open 打开
的;D. bright 明亮的。既然是洞穴而且很深,那应该也是比较黑的。故选 B 项。
12.考查副词词义辨析。句意:他望向天空痛苦地大喊。A. manly 雄赳赳地;B. painfully 痛苦地;C.
sympathetically 同情地;D. peacefully 平和地。从下文老人喊叫的内容来看,是充满悔恨和痛苦的。故选 B
项。
13.考查形容词词义辨析。句意:我会选择更好的那条路。A. shorter 更短的;B. worse 更糟的;C. better 更
好的;D. harder 更难的。老人祈求上天让他重新在分岔路口选择一次,可见他当时并没有选择更好、更光
明的一条路。故选 C 项。
14.考查动词短语辨析。句意:但他的父亲和那些青葱岁月都逝去了。A. passed away 逝去;B. passed by 路
过;C. passed down 传递下去;D. passed out 神志不清。由转折连词 but 和现状来看,老人的青春已经一去不
复返了。故选 A 项。
15.考查动词词义辨析。句意:教堂里的钟声敲响了,那声音让他想起了以前父母对自己的爱。A. struck
打击,撞击;B. rang 铃声响起;C. beat 打败;D. knocked 敲击。教堂钟声的敲响勾起了老人的回忆,这里
strike 可以表示钟的敲鸣、报时,ring 一般搭配 bell 表示铃响,knock 一般以人为主语,表示主动敲击。故选
A 项。
16.考查动词词义辨析。句意:教堂里的钟声敲响了,那声音让他想起了以前父母对自己的爱。A. support
支持;B. guidance 指导;C. instruction 命令;D. love 爱。下文中提到的教他道理、为他祷告无不体现出父母
对孩子的关爱。故选 D 项。
17.考查名词词义辨析。句意:他们教育他,为他祷告平安吉祥。A. guilt 犯罪,内疚;B. health 健康;C. good
良好,美好;D. wealth 财富。站在父母的角度一定是为孩子祈祷一切顺遂美好的。故选 C 项。
18.考查形容词词义辨析。句意:但他选择了错误的道路。A. right 正确的;B. difficult 困难的;C. easy 简
单的;D. wrong 错误的。就是因为选错了路,老人现在才会如此悲伤、后悔。故选 D 项。
19.考查名词词义辨析。句意:他黯淡的双眼噙满泪水,带着绝望的努力他哭喊出来。A. effect 效率;B. force
力量;C. effort 努力;D. power 权力。这里老人的情绪已经几乎崩溃,他大喊着让青春回来,但这样的努力
是没有意义而令人绝望的。故选 C 项。
20.考查动词词义辨析。句意:而他的青春真的回来了。A. fade 逐渐消失;B. leave 离开;C. disappear 消失;
D. return 返回。全文最后情节出现了重大转折,原来这只是年轻人做的一场梦,所以这里要表达老人“重返
青春”。故选 D 项
(二)【答案】
1-5.BCADA 6-10.DCBAB 11-15.CDCBD 16-20.CBDBA
【解析】
本文是一篇夹叙夹议文,作者是一个不会拒绝别人的人,由陪一个同事逛街而浪费了一整天的宝贵时间这
一经历认识到如果我们专注于自己真正想参与的事情,我们会更有热情、做得更好,这对每个人都更好,
因此我们要学会适时地拒绝别人。
1.考查形容词词义辨析。句意:上个星期天,我一个人坐在办公桌旁,全神贯注于自己的工作,这时我的
一个同事打电话来,让我和她一起去购物。A. experienced 富有经验的;B. absorbed 一心一意的;C. concerned
关心的;D. disappointed 感到失望的。根据空前的“I was sitting at my desk alone”可知,我一个人坐在办公桌
旁,全神贯注于自己的工作,be absorbed in 表示“全神贯注于”,故 B 项正确。
2.考查名词词义辨析。句意同上。A. reading 阅读;B. discussion 讨论; C. shopping 购物;D. travel 旅
行。根据下文中的“We are both window-shoppers”(我俩都是橱窗购物者),因此,她给我打电话叫我和她一
起去购物,故 C 项正确。
3.考查动词词义辨析。句意:我发现自己完全沉浸在她的热情中,我不想让她不悦。所以我说“当然,为
什么不呢?”,在通话结束之前,我发现自己同意了,但没有考虑这是否值得。A. displease 使不快;B. force
强迫;C. support 支持;D. shock 使震惊。根据空后的“So I said “Sure, why not?””可知,我不想让她不悦,
所以我说“当然,为什么不呢?”,故 A 项正确。
4.考查动词词义辨析。句意同上。A. explained 解释;B. announced 宣布; C. developed 发展;D. ended
结束。根据空后的“I found myself agreeing, without giving any ___5___ whether it was worth doing.”可知,在通
话结束之前,我发现自己同意了,但没有考虑这是否值得,故 D 项正确。
5.考查名词词义辨析。句意同上。A. thought 思考、考虑;B. suggestion 建议;C. idea 主意;D. question
问题。根据空后的“whether it was worth doing”可知,我没有考虑这是否值得就同意了,故 A 项正确。
6.考查动词词义辨析。句意:我们都是橱窗购物者(只逛不买),在街上浪费了一整天的时间。A. lost 失去;
B. kept 保留;C. enjoyed 享受;D. wasted 浪费。根据空前的“We are both window-shoppers”可知,我们都是橱
窗购物者,所以在街上浪费了一整天的时间,故 D 项正确。
7.考查介词短语辨析。句意:事实上,我几乎没有空闲时间,因为我很忙,除了我的正常工作,我还有一
本书要写,一个公司要经营,一个家庭要照顾。A. because of 由于;B. regardless of 不管;C. apart from 除了;
D. instead of 而不是。根据空前的“busy”及空后的“I've also got a book to write, a business to ___8___ and a family
to look after.”可知,我很忙,除了正常工作之外,我还有一本书要写,一个公司要经营,一个家庭要照顾,故 C 项正确。
8.考查动词词义辨析。句意同上。A. visit 拜访;B. run 经营;C. inspect 检查;D. invent 发明。
根据空前的“a business to”可知,我还有一个公司要经营,故 B 项正确。
9.考查动词词义辨析。句意:我还有其他的项目要考虑——我的志愿工作和一些我想做的其他有趣的投资。
A. consider 考虑;B. fetch 取来;C. catch 捉住;D. enlarge 扩大。根据空后的“my voluntary work and a couple of
other interesting investments that I want to ___10___.”可知,我还有其他的项目要考虑,比如志愿工作和我想
做的一些有趣的投资,故 A 项正确。
10.考查动词短语辨析。句意同上。A. take in 吸收;B. work on 继续工作、从事于;C. turn out 结果是;D. make
up 补足。根据空前的“a couple of other interesting investments”可知,我想要做(从事)一些有趣的投资,故
B 项正确。
11.考查代词词义辨析。句意:我将不得不更加无情,而不是一味地同意人们要求我参与的一切。换言之,
我得更善于说“不”。A. something 某物;B. none 一个也没有; C. everything 一切;D. either 二者之一。
根据空后的“people ask me to get involved in”可知,我不能一味地同意人们要求我参与的一切,故 C 项正确。
12.考查形容词词义辨析。句意同上。A. further 进一步的;B. cooler 更酷的;C. faster 更快的;D. better 更
好的、更擅长。根据空后的“at saying “No””可知,换言之,我得更善于说“不”,be good at 表示“擅长”,此
处用的比较级形式,故 D 项正确。
13.考查动词词义辨析。句意:通常我讨厌说“不”,因为让别人失望通常会让我不安。A. attracts 吸引;B. beats
打败;C. upsets 使不安;D. puzzles 迷惑。根据空前的“Usually I hate saying “No”, because having to disappoint
someone usually”可知,我讨厌说“不”是因为让别人失望会让我不安,故 C 项正确。
14.考查连词词义辨析。句意:现在我意识到,因为我没有学会说“不”(拒绝别人),我一直感到很沮丧。
A. after 在……之后;B. because 因为;C. if 如果;D. although 尽管。根据空后的“I haven't learned to say “No”,
I've been feeling very ___15___.”可知,因为我没有学会说“不”(拒绝别人),所以我一直感到很沮丧,故 B
项正确。
15.考查形容词词义辨析。句意同上。A. impressed 印象深刻的;B. anxious 焦虑的;C. merciful 仁慈的;D.
depressed 沮丧的。根据空前的“Now I realize ___14___ I haven't learned to say “No””可知,由于我没有学会说
“不”,所以我一直感到很沮丧,故 D 项正确。
16.考查形容词词义辨析。句意:我们最好做我们认为正确的事,做我们愿意做的事。A. likely 可能的;B.
afraid 担心的; C. willing 愿意的;D. proud 骄傲的。根据空前的“We had better do what we think is right”
可知,我们最好做我们认为正确的事,做我们愿意做的事,故 C 项正确。17.考查动词词义辨析。句意:有时候,拒绝别人似乎并没有那么糟糕。A. join 加入;B. refuse 拒绝;C. invite
邀请;D. choose 选择。上一句说我们最好做我们认为正确的事,做我们愿意做的事,再结合上文讲述的作
者碍于面子陪同事逛街而浪费了一整天的宝贵时间这一经历可知,我们应该学会拒绝别人,此处指的就是
“拒绝别人”,故 B 项正确。
18.考查副词词义辨析。句意:如果我专注于我真正想参与的事情,我会达到一个更高的标准,并且做得
很好。A. highly 高度地;B. hardly 几乎不;C. suddenly 突然地;D. really 真正地。根据空后的“want to be involved
in, I'll reach a much higher standard and do it quite ___19___.”可知,如果我专注于我真正想参与的事情,我会
达到一个更高的标准,并且做得很好,故 D 项正确。
19.考查副词词义辨析。句意同上。A. patiently 耐心地;B. well 很好地;C. seriously 严肃地;D. accidentally
意外地。根据空前的“I'll reach a much higher standard and do it quite”可知,我会达到一个更高的标准,并且
做得很好,故 B 项正确。
20.考查名词词义辨析。句意:这将是一个双赢的局面。A. situation 情况、形势;B. environment 环境;C.
appearance 外表;D. spirit 精神。根据空前的“do something that is good for everyone and everyone will be happy.”
可知,做一些对每个人都有好处的事情,每个人都会开心,因此这将是一个双赢的局面,故 A 项正确。
【点睛】
本篇第 17 空难度较大,抓住空前的内容以及作者的经历是关键,根据空前的“We had better do what we think
is right and what we are ___16___ to do.”可知,我们最好做我们认为正确的事,做我们愿意做的事,再结合上
文讲述的作者碍于面子陪同事逛街而浪费了一整天的宝贵时间这一经历可知,我们应该学会拒绝别人,此
处指的就是“拒绝别人”,即:有时候,拒绝别人似乎并没有那么糟糕。故 B 项(refuse)正确。
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2020-2021 年高考英语完形填空讲解练习:不明词汇多义和生义理解不透而失分 技法指导 在完形填空的选项中,有时也会出现一些多义词。在英语中,有些单词有两个甚至多个意思,我们把 这种现象称之为一词多义。如果考生对这类词的常见意义掌握得不够全面,就会在解答完形填空时错选或 误选,尤

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