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2019学年海淀区高三(上)英语期中练习题(含答案)

2019学年海淀区高三(上)英语期中练习题

第一节  语法填空(共10小题;每小题1.5分,共15分)

阅读下列短文,根据短文内容填空。在未给提示词的空白处仅填写1个适当的单词,在给出提示词的空白处用括号内所给词的正确形式填空。

A

I was lucky enough to attend the sixth UN Economic and Social Council Youth Forum, (21) ______ was held in New York in January. At the opening ceremony, I was so impressed after meeting more than 500 fellow young people from over 200 countries and regions. I felt things I used to worry about, such as my exams or performance at school, were so small (22) ______ (compare) to the global problems they were trying to solve. (23) ______ young people, we should focus more on major problems, like poverty, environmental problems and healthcare facing all human beings.

B

A BBC film crew was working on the remote Lord Howe Island for a new wildlife documentary called Drowning in Plastic. They filmed many birds that (24) ______ (die) for no clear reason. After some research, they found out the truth—(25) ______ caused the death of the birds was that their stomachs were literally too full of plastic. The documentary team also filmed biologists (26) ______ (work) on the island to save the birds. The scientists captured hundreds of chicks and removed plastic from their stomachs to give them a chance of (27) ______ (survive).

C

You never get a second chance to make a first impression, which may sound like an unusual piece of advice, (28) ______ it is true. So how do you make a good first impression? The most important tool is your face. Smiling, being responsive, and looking like you are happy almost always leave a positive impression on people. Furthermore, being in a positive mood (29) ______ (help) you to get a better understanding of new things. This means that you can possibly be (30) ______ (friendly) to people you do not know and be more creative and able to solve problems more quickly.

 

第二节  完形填空(共20小题;每小题1.5分,共30分)

阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,从每题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

The View from the Slow Lane

As we pulled into the driveway, I noticed that something seemed different about my mom. She was ______ (31) away from me, her shoulders dropped and her hands relaxed. I parked the car and she turned toward me.

“Okay, we’re home,” I said, ______ (32) that now was her time to get out and let me be on my own. She sniffled and brushed her hair behind her ears to reveal her bloodshot eyes and moist cheeks. She had been crying.

“Mom!” I whined (嘀咕着说), surprised by the tears running down her face. “Why are you crying?” I asked, ______ (33) I already knew the answer.

I had just got my ______ (34), which I’d been looking forward to for months. I was free — able to drive myself where I needed to go. But now that I had it in my pocket, I suddenly felt ______ (35). I had been so quick to grow up, completely ignoring the emotions that my mom must be experiencing with her firstborn ______ (36) adulthood.

“My baby boy is growing up too fast,” she ______ (37) to say between deep breaths.

My heart ached. I hated to see my mom cry, and I hated more that I had been so ignorant toward her ______ (38). I had been counting down the days, ______ (39) waiting to enter the next stage of my life, ______ (40) she counted down with fear and headache. The ______ (41) and freedom I had previously felt were gone, replaced by an odd sense of mourning.

We hugged. Then she looked me in the eye and told me to drive carefully. “Of course I will,” I reassured her. She unbuckled her seatbelt, opened the door, and stepped out. I waved goodbye and pulled out of the driveway.

I had been so ______ (42) to start speeding and skirting around corners that I’d ______ (43) just how beautiful the ride is. Now I cruised (漫游) down the peaceful two -lane road, ______ (44) the sights, sounds, and smells of the nature that surrounds me. At that moment I made a promise to myself, a promise to take things  ______ (45) and to never, ever, catch myself speeding again.

Life had passed me by while I lived my days in fast ______ (46), ignorantly wishing for tomorrow and ______ (47) to notice all the beautiful things along the way. Friendships, victories, heartbreaks — have sped by me because I was too busy looking toward the ______ (48). It seems life also has its own ______ (49), and if you find yourself going too fast, you risk ______ (50) the moments that make it so special.

Moments like this.

 

31. A. facing B. running C. escaping D. breaking

32. A. fearing B. implying C. remembering D. considering

33. A. in case B. now that C. as though D. even though

34. A. car B. offer C. license D. scholarship

35. A. guilty B. anxious C. annoyed     D. disappointed

36. A. crossing B. spending C. nearing D. delaying

37. A. tried B. managed C. intended D. hesitated

38. A. feelings B. greetings   C. warning D. waiting

39. A. unwillingly B. impatiently C. nervously D. thankfully

40. A. so B. and C. for D. while

41. A. luck B. honor C. delight D. gratitude

42. A. afraid B. confident C. surprised D. excited

43. A. denied B. realized C. discovered D. forgotten

44. A. enjoying B. following C. imagining D. recognizing

45. A. easy B. slow C. wrong D. personal

46. A. upward B. downward C. forward D. backward

47. A. trying B. failing C. refusing D. pretending

48. A. fortune B. scenery C. past D. future

49. A. speed limit B. fast track   C. comfort zone D. daily routine

50. A. wasting B. losing C. missing D. deleting

第二部分:阅读理解(共两节,40分)

第一节  (共15小题;每小题2分,共30分)

阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

A

This Tiny Box Will Help You Relax In Terrible Summer Heat!

Traditional Air Conditioners (AC) are outdated.They cost a lot to install and even more to run. They are huge, noisy, and dangerous to clean.You can't move them around the house with you or take them outside! Thousands of people are now using a much cheaper alternative to cool themselves in the heat and clean their personal air. With over million units sold worldwide, this device is becoming one of the most successful gadgets of 2019. EVERYONE wants this awesome looking box for summer!

What Are We Talking About?

Meet the new AirFreez, an innovative alternative to AC that cools you just the same! lt's a perfect solution for those very hot days and nights! The AirFreez was designed by two Swiss engineers who were fed up suffering the hot summers.They realized that AC units are super inefficient and cost a lot of money to use.The engineers also discovered that none of the traditional AC units were made to travel with.

So, they designed this light-weight, portable Air Cooling box. It uses a very small amount of electricity and all without sacrificing any of the main benefits of a top AC model! It's tiny, easy to use and it can cool you in seconds!

What Is So Special About This Little Box?

The main benefits of AirFreez are its portability and price.

It is no larger than a lunchbox. Besides, it can be powered by a pocket solar panel or battery pack and you probably have the world's most portable AC unit.

And There Is One More Thing. The price is just amazing. Most AC units cost at least $300+ AND you have to pay for installation PLUS cover the expensive electricity bills each month.

AirFreez costs lens than $100 (Actually $53 for each if you buy more than one here). No messy installation, no expensive electricity bills. Far a Cooling unit of this quality, this must be the single best price-quality AC unit there is!

How Can You Get An AirFreez?

Now that you are aware of this amazing new invention, here is how to get one — order it from the Official Website for BEST PRICE.

51. Which of the following words can best describe AirFreez?

A.Smart but fragile.                    

B.Costly but multi-functional.

C. Foldable and durable.                 

D. Handy and energy-saving.

52. What can we learn about AirFreez?

A. lt costs less than $53.                 

B. It requires no complex installation.

C. It doesn't consume electricity.          

D.It is a little larger than a lunch box.

53. What is the purpose of this passage?

A. To advertise Airfreez.               

B. To explain the functions of AirFreez.

C. To introduce the inventors of AirFreez.    

D.To compare AirFreez with traditional AC.

                           B

I got married just after I graduated from college and found a job to support our family at the nearby Massachusettes Institute of Technology (MIT). It was in the laboratory of Prof. Edward Lorenz that I learned what a computer was and how to develop software.

One day my husband saw a newspaper advertisement. The MIT Instrumentation Laboratory was looking for people to develop software to “send man to the moon”. Deeply attracted both by the idea and the fact that it had never been done before, I became the first programmer to join and the first woman the lab hired.

At the beginning, nobody thought software was such a big deal. But then they began to realize how much they were relying on it. Our software needed to be very reliable and able to detect an error and recover from it at any time during the mission.

My daughter, Lauren, liked to intimate me—playing astronaut. One day, she was with me when I was doing a simulation (模拟) of a mission to the moon. She started hitting keys and all of a sudden, she selected a program which was supposed to be run before launch. The computer had so little space that it wiped the navigation data taking her to the moon. I thought: my God—this could happen by accident in a real mission. I suggested a program change to prevent a prelaunch program being selected during flight. But the higher-ups at MIT and NASA said the astronauts were too well trained to make such a mistake.

On the very next mission , Apollo 8, one of the astronauts on board accidentally did exactly what Lauren had done. The Lauren bug! It created destruction and required the mission to be rearranged. After that, they let me put the program change in. It was the program change that had a crucial influence on the success of the mission of Apollo 11.

During the early days of Apollo, software was not taken as seriously as other engineering disciplines (学科).It was out of desperation I came up with the term “software engineering”. Then one day in a meeting, one of the most respected hardware experts explained to everyone that he agreed with me that the process of building software should also be considered an engineering discipline, just like with hardware. It was a memorable moment.

54. What do we know about the author?

A. She taught Lauren to write software.

B. She got her master's degree from MIT.

C. She is the first woman ever hired by MIT.

D. She created the term “software engineering”.

55. “The Lauren bug” in Para.5 refers to ______.

A. a pet to accompany Lauren B. a mission to land on the moon

C. a mistake causing data loss D. a software ending prelaunch

56. What greatly contributed to Apollo 11's success according to the passage?

A. The in-time upload of data. B. The program change.

C. Astronauts' rich experience. D. Experts' new attitude.

57. What can we learn from Margaret's story?

A. Honesty is the best policy. B. A good beginning is half done.

C. Two heads are better than one. D. Chances favor the prepared mind.

C

From linguists’ point of view, grammar is a set of patterns for how words are put together to form phrases or clauses, whether in spoken or written. Different languages have different patterns. Some scholars have tried to identify patterns common to all languages. But apart from some basic features, few of these so-called linguistic universals have been found.

The study of these patterns open up “an ongoing debate” between two positions, known as prescriptivism and descriptivism. Prescriptivism thinks a given language should follow consistent rules, while descriptivism sees variation and adaptation as a natural and necessary part of language. From much of history, the vast majority of language was spoken. But as people became more interconnected, writing gained importance. Written language was standardized to allow broader communication and ensure that people in different parts around could understand each other.

Language purists worked to establish and promote this standard by detailing a set of rules that reflected the established grammar of their times. And rules for written grammar were applied to spoken language as well. Speech patterns that deviated from the written rules were considered signs of low social status. And many people who are grown-ups speaking in these ways were forced to adopt the standardized form.

More recently, however, linguists have understood that speech is a separate phenomenon from writing with its own regularities and patterns. Most of us learn to speak at such an early age that we don’t even remember it. We form our spoken skills through unconscious habits, not memorized rules. And because speech also uses mood and intonation for meaning, its structure is often more flexible, adapting to the needs of speakers and listeners. This could mean avoiding complex clauses that are hard to understand in real time, making changes to avoid awkward pronunciation or removing sounds to make speech faster. This linguistic approach that tries to understand and map such differences without dictating correct ones is known as descriptivism. Rather than deciding how language should be used, it describes how people actually use it and tracks the innovation they come up with in the process.

But while the debate between prescriptivism and descriptivism continues, the two are not mutually exclusive. At its best, prescriptivism is useful for informing people about the most common established patterns at a given point in time. Ultimately, grammar is best considered as a set of linguistic habits that are constantly being negotiated and reinvented by the entire group of language users. Like language itself, it’s a wonderful and complex fabric woven through the contributions of speakers and listeners, writers and readers, prescriptivists and descriptivists from both near and far.

58. The underlined word “deviated” in Paragraph 3 probably means ______.

A. copied B. updated C. differed D. originated

59. According to the passage, precriptivism ______.

A. focuses on established language patterns

B. accepts the differences between languages

C. follows the innovations in language patterns

D. attaches more importance to written language

60. What is Paragraph 4 mainly about?

A. A new understanding of language. B. The beliefs held by prescriptivists.

C. The impact of grammar on language. D. The ongoing debate between linguists.

61. Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?

A. The importance of Grammar B. The History of Grammar

C. Grammar: Rules or Habits D. Grammar: Writing Rules

D

If you look across the entire lifespan, what you see is an average increase in desirable personality traits(特点).Psychologists call this the “maturity principle” and it’s comforting to know that, assuming your personality follows a typical course, then the older you get, the maturer you will become. However, it’s not such good news for young adolescents, because at this point, something known as the “disruption hypothesis” kicks in.

Consider a study of Dutch teenagers who completed personality tests each year for six or seven years from 2005. The boys showed a temporary dip in  conscientiousness—orderliness and self-discilpline in early adolescence, and the girls showed a temporary increase in neuroticism—emotional instability. This seems to back up some of the stereotypes we have of messy teen bedrooms and mood swings. Thankfully, this decline in personality is short-lived, with the Dutch data showing that the teenagers’ previous positive traits rebound(反弹)in later adolescence.

Both parents and their teenage children agree that changes occur, but surprisingly, the perceived change can depend on who is measuring, according to a 2017 study of over 2,700 German teenagers. They rated their own personalities twice, at age 11 and age 14, and their parents also rated their personalities at these times. Some differences emerged: for instance, while the teenagers rated themselves as declining in agreeability, their parents saw this decline as much shaper. Also, the teens saw themselves as increasingly extroverted(外向的), but their parents saw them as increasingly introverted.

This mismatch can perhaps be explained by the big changes underway in the parent-child relationship brought on by teenagers’ growing desire for autonomy and privacy. The researchers point out that parents and teens might also be using different reference points—parents are measuring their teenagers’ traits against a typical adult, while the teenagers are comparing their own traits against those displayed by their peers.

This is in line with several further studies, which also reveal a pattern of a temporary reduction in advantageous traits in early adolescence. The general picture of the teenage years as a temporary personality “disruption” therefore seems accurate. In fact, we’re only just beginning to understand the complex mix of genetic and environmental factors that contribute to individual patterns of personality change.

Studies also offer some clues for how we might create more nurturing environments for teenagers to aid their personality development. This is an approach worth purshing further given that teenage personality traits are predictive of experiences in later life. For instance, one British study of over 4,000 teenagers showed that those who scores lower in conscientiousness were twice as likely to be unemployed later in life, in comparison with those who scored higher.

People focus so much on teaching teenagers facts and getting them to pass exams, but perhaps they ought to pay at least as much attention to helping nurture their personalities.

62. Which of the following can be an example of “disruption hypothesis”?

A. A kindergarten kid cries over a toy.

B. A boy in high school cleans his own room.

C.A teenage girl feels sad for unknown reason.

D.A college graduate feels stressed out by work.

63. According to the study of German teenagers ______.

A. parent give their teens too much automony and privacy

B. teens are more optimistic about their personality changes

C. teens and parents have the same personality rating standard

D. parents and teens can later agree on teens’ personality decline

64. We can infer from the last three paragraphs that ______.

A. teens should pay less attention to their scores in exams

B. developing teens’ personality has a long-term effect in their life

C.people’s success in later life depends on teenage personality traits

D. environmental factors outweigh genetic ones for personality change

65. What is the author’s attitude towards present teenager personality education?

A. Dissatisfied. B. Approving. C. Neutral. D. Cautious.

第二节  (共5小题;每小题2分,共10分)

根据短文内容,从短文后的七个选项中选出能填空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项

Play Helps Develop Bigger, Better Brains!

Playing is a serious business. Children absorbed in a make-believe world, baby foxes play-fighting or kittens teasing a ball of string aren’t just having fun. Play may look like a carefree way to pass the time before the hard work of adulthood comes along, but there’s much more to it.

If play is not simply a way to have fun, for what other reasons has it developed? ______ (66) Earlier this year, Sergio Pellis of Lethbridge University, Canada, reported that there is a strong positive link between brain size and playfulness among mammals in general. ______ (67) The opposite was also found to be true.

According to John Byers of Idaho University, the timing of the playful stage in young animals provides an important clue to what’s going on. If you plot the amount of time a child devotes to play each day over the course of its development, you discover a pattern typically associated with a “sensitive period”—a brief development window during which the brain can actually be adjusted in ways that are not possible earlier or later in life. ______ (68)

“People have not paid enough attention to the amount of the brain activated by play,” says Mare Bekoff from Colorado University. Bekoff studied coyote pups at play and found that the kind of behavior involved was obviously more variable and unpredictable than that of adults. He also reasons that such behavior activates many different parts of the brain.

 ______ (69) “There’s enormous cognitive involvement in play,” says Bekoff. He points out that play often involves complex assessments of playmates and the use of specialized signals and rules. He believes that play creates a brain that has greater behavioral flexibility and improved potential for learning later in life. ______ (70)

A. Play just lights everything up.

B. The importance of playfulness is drawing more attention.

C. The latest idea suggests that play has developed to build big brains.

D. A popular explanation is that it helps children develop the skills they will later need.

E. Think of the relative ease with which kids—but not babies or adults—absorb language.

F. Not only is more of the brain involved in play, but it also activates higher cognitive processes.

G. Comparing fifteen orders of mammal, his team found larger brains are linked to greater playfulness.

第三部分:书面表达(共两节,35分)

第一节  15分)

假设你是红星中学高三学生李华。你的英国朋友Jim发来邮件,询问你的高考选考情况,请给他回复邮件,内容包括:

1.选考科目;

2.选考某一科目的原因。

注意:1. 词数不少于50;

2. 开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数。

提示词:选考科目 elective course

Dear Jim,

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Yours,

Li Hua

第二节  20分)

假设你是红星中学高三学生李华。请根据以下四幅图的先后顺序,用英语写一篇短文向校刊“英语园地”投稿,记述你班上周组织“国旗在我心中”系列活动的全过程。

注意:词数不少于60。

 


参考答案

第一节  语法填空(共10小题;每小题1.5分,共15分)

21. which 22. compared 23. As 24. had died / died25. what26. working

27. survival / surviving 28. but / yet29. helps30. more friendly / friendlier

第二节  完形填空(共20小题;每小题1.5分,共30分)

31. A 32. B 33. D 34. C 35. A

36. C 37. B 38. A 39. B 40. D

41. C 42. D 43. D 44. A 45. B

46. C 47. B 48. D 49. A 50. C

第一节 (共15小题;每小题2分,共30分)

51. D 52. B 53. A 54. D 55. C

56. B 57. D 58. C 59. A 60. A

61. C 62. C 63. B 64. B 65. A

第二节 (共5小题;每小题2分,共10分)

66. C 67. G 68. E 69. F 70. A

第三部分:书面表达(共两节,35分)

第一节(15分)

Dear Jim,

It’s a pleasure to receive your email asking me about my elective courses and I’d love to share them with you.

You probably know that students who will graduate in 2020 for the first time in Beijing free to choose three from six core subjects—history, social studies, geography, physics, chemistry and biology—for the college entrance examination. Among these six, I have selected physics, biology and social studies.

I had several reasons to choose physics. First, physics has always been my passion. I have gained pure joy observing physical phenomena and discovering the constant natural laws behind the ever-changing world and have learned to think in a national logical way. Besides, since I have decided to pursue my future career in computer science, studying physics from high school will lay a foundation for that. Eventually I believe with a sound knowledge in physics. I will be able to contribute my best to the development of science and technology in China.

What courses have you chosen? I am curious about your high school life in Britain. Write to me soon.

Yours,

Li Hua

第二节(20分)

One Possible Version

Last week, my classmates and I participated in a series of activities with the theme “National Flag in my Heart”.

During the class meeting on Monday, our class teacher informed us of these activities which were aimed to enhance our understanding of the national flag and promote patriotism. Fully aware of its significance, we couldn’t wait to get started.

Over the next several days, we learned more about the topic from various resources. We went through books on the birth of the flag, which took us back to 7 decades ago, the dawn of a new era. We also collected online stories of the flag in more recent years and realized what it symbolizes for every Chinese, including soldiers on guard at the borderline, the athletes on Olympics podiums and so on.

Watching the flag-raising ceremony at Tian’anmen Square impressed us most. We stood in solemn silence as the soldiers marched to the pole, guarding the national flag. As the flag went up, we saluted while singing our national anthem together. Before we knew it, our eyes had welled up with tears, for we were filled with pride thinking of the prosperity of today and feeling admiration toward all who made it come true.

During the weekend, we recorded what we had learned and presented our work on the blackboard. We wrote the column “All about the Red Flag with Five Stars”, accompanied by photos taken at Tian’anmen Square. Each stroke was finished with our affection toward our national flag and motherland. The red flag had made it to the depth of hearts!

 

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