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(2017·通、扬、泰、淮高三三模)We all need to feel understood，recognized and affirmed(证实)by our friends，family and romantic partners.We all need to find our tribe.
Research has shown that among the benefits that come with being in a relationship or group，feeling accepted is regarded as the most important driver of meaning.When other people think you matter and treat you as if you matter，you believe you matter，too.
Though we all share a need to belong，in the first decades of the 20th century，many influential psychologists and physicians did not acknowledge this fundamental aspect of human nature.The idea that children needed parental love and care to live a full and meaningful life was not only considered medically dangerous，but it was dismissed as immoral and disgusting.
As behavioural psychology came into fashion and academic psychologists turned their attention to childraising，this view shifted and they began to examine and affirm the vital importance of attachment in early life.They discovered that people，whatever their age，needed more than food and shelter to live full and healthy lives.
But，sadly，many of us lack close ties.At a time when we are more connected digitally than ever before，rates of social isolation(孤立)are rising.The results of an Age UK poll published recently suggest that half a million people over the age of 60 usually spend each day alone，and its not unusual for another half a million people to go five or six days without seeing or speaking to someone.
All these figures reveal more than a rise in loneliness—they reveal a lack of meaning in peoples lives.In surveys，we list our close relationships as our most important sources of meaning.Research shows that people who are lonely and isolated feel their lives are less meaningful.
While close relationships are critical for living a meaningful life，they are not the only important social bonds we need to cultivate(培养)．Psychologists have also discovered the value of small moments of intimacy(亲昵行为)．“Highquality connections”， as one researcher calls them，are positive，shortterm interactions between two people when a couple holds hands on a walk or when two strangers have an empathetic(移情作用的)conversation on a plane.Highquality connections have the potential to unlock meaning in our interactions with acquaintances，colleagues and strangers.
We cant control whether someone will make a highquality connection with us，but we can all choose to start one.We can say hello to a stranger on the street rather than look away.We can choose to value people rather than devalue them.We can invite people to belong.
Passage outline Supporting details
The need to belong ◆Everyone hopes to develop a 1.______ of belonging in a group.
◆Peoples selfrespect is 2.________ by other peoples opinion.
The changing 3.________to belonging ◆Many famous experts in the first decades of the 20th century 4.________ that people had the need to belong.
◆Experts later came to realize that people，regardless of their age，needed 5.________ to enjoy full and healthy lives.
Consequences of 6.______close ties ◆Many people are cut off from the world and feel 7.________.
◆People who do not have enough close relationships find their life has less 8.________.
Another way to meet the need ◆Highquality connections make a 9.________ in helping satisfy our need to belong.
◆We should 10.________ to make a highquality connection.
1．sense/feeling [信息归纳题。根据第一段中的“We all need to find our tribe.”和第二段中的“...in a relationship or group，feeling accepted is regarded as the most important driver of meaning”可知，每个人都想在团体中有归属感。a sense/feeling of belonging“归属感”。]
2．influenced/affected/shaped/determined/decided [信息归纳题。根据第二段中的“When other people think you matter and treat you as if you matter，you believe you matter，too.”可知，人的自尊受其他人观点的影响，所以空格处用influenced /affected /shaped / determined /decided。]
3．attitudes [信息归纳题。根据第三段中的“The idea that children needed parental love and care to live a full and meaningful life was not only considered medically dangerous，but it was dismissed as immoral and disgusting.”和第四段中的“...this view shifted”可知，该部分的主题是人们对归属感态度(attitudes)的改变。]
4．denied [信息转化题。根据第三段中的“Though we all share a need to belong，in the first decades of the 20th century，many influential psychologists and physicians did not acknowledge this fundamental aspect of human nature.”可知，20世纪初期的很多专家否认(denied)人们需要归属感。]
5．attachment/love/care [直接信息题。根据第四段中的“...they began to examine and affirm the vital importance of attachment in early life.They discovered that people，whatever their age，needed more than food and shelter to live full and healthy lives.”可知，专家后来意识到人们需要依恋或关爱(attachment/love/care)来享受充实、健康的生活。]
6．lacking [信息转换题。第五段中的“But，sadly，many of us lack close ties.”是第五、六段论述的要点。再结合右栏的内容可知，该部分谈及缺乏(lacking)亲密关系的后果。]
8．meaning [信息转换题。根据第六段中的“we list our close relationships as our most important sources of meaning.Research shows that people who are lonely and isolated feel their lives are less meaningful.”可知，缺乏亲密关系的人觉得生活的意义(meaning)更小。]
9．difference [信息归纳题。根据第七段中的“Highquality connections, as one researcher calls them，are positive，shortterm interactions ...Highquality connections have the potential to unlock meaning in our interactions with acquaintances，colleagues and strangers.”可知，高质量的社会纽带在帮助人们满足归属需求方面有重大意义。make a difference“有(重要)作用，有影响，有关系”。]
10．start/offer/try/attempt [直接信息题。根据最后一段中的“We cant control whether someone will make a highquality connection with us，but we can all choose to start one”可知，人们应该主动开始/提出/尝试(start/offer/try/attempt)建立高质量的社会纽带。]
How to Be Wiser?
Wisdom is something thats hard to define and yet somehow we know it when we see it.The wise people can be thoughtful and selfreflective.They can recognize the limits of their own knowledge，consider alternative perspectives，and remember that the world is always changing.The wise people tolerate uncertainty and remain optimistic that even tricky problems do have solutions.They can judge what is true or right.
Wisdom isnt an innate quality—we can be wise and unwise in different situations.Igor Grossman of the University of Waterloo in Canada found that some people appeared to be wise in one situation，but not in another.So why are there differences in different situations? People were wiser when they were with their friends.It made them more likely to have the bigger picture，to think of other perspectives and to recognize the limits of their own knowledge.When people were alone they seemed to get so involved in a situation that they didnt even think about alternatives.This means wisdom might be more common than we think.
Some people still displayed more wisdom than others and some were more foolish，but not across every situation.This provides hope.If we can be wise sometimes，maybe we can learn to be wise more often.The question is how to do it.For Cornell University psychologist Robert Sternberg，wisdom is all about balance.Following Sternbergs model，what you need to do is to remember to work out what all the different interests are in a given dilemma，both in the short and long term and to pay attention to the changing environment and how it might be shaped.Talking about yourself with another person can help.In a kind of school of wisdom，Grossman has experimented with different strategies in the lab.People were taught to take a different perspective by imagining they were taking a birdseyeview of the situation.The idea is to try to distance yourself from the immediate experience.So when I have a dilemma，I should be asking what others would do?
So can you set out to be wise? Yes，but there are lots of factors to remember.You need to take into account that people will have different goals，priorities and responses to your own.If you can juggle all that，you probably are showing wisdom.But the complexity shouldnt stop us from trying.As Grossman told me，“Its not that you suddenly become the next Buddha，but you do become a little bit wiser.”
How to Be Wiser？
11.________of wise people ·They consider things carefully and have a reflection by themselves.
·They have a good 12.________of their limits，alternative perspective，and the everchanging world.
·They tolerate 13.________things and believe they can solve the tricky problems.
·They can make a 14.________about what is true or right.
Situational changes ·When staying with friends，people tend to be wiser and more 15.______.
·When 16.________，people get too involved in a situation to think of alternatives.
Suggestions from experts ·Be clear what the various 17.________ are and pay attention to the changing environment.
·Take a different perspective to 18.________yourself from the present dilemma.
Reminders from the author ·You should 19.________for the different goals，priorities and responses.
·20.________as it is，you should have faith in becoming a wiser.
12．knowledge/understanding/recognition [信息转换题。根据第一段第三句“They can recognize the limits of...”可知。]
13．uncertain/ambiguous [信息转换题。根据第一段第四句“The wise people tolerate uncertainty...”可知。]
14．judgment/judgement [信息转换题。根据第一段最后一句“They can judge what is true or right.”可知。]
15．thoughtful [信息转换题。根据第二段第五句“It made them more likely to have the bigger picture，to think of other perspectives...”可知。]
16．alone [直接信息题。根据第二段倒数第二句“When people were alone they seemed to get so involved in a situation that they didnt even think about alternatives.”可知。]
17．interests [直接信息题。根据第三段第六句“...to remember to work out what all the different interests are in a given dilemma...”可知。]
18．distance [直接信息题。根据第三段倒数第二句“The idea is to try to distance yourself from the immediate experience.”可知。]
19．allow [信息转换题。根据第四段第三句“You need to take into account that people will have different goals，priorities and responses to your own.”可知。]
20．Complex/Complicated [信息转换题。根据第四段倒数第二句“But the complexity shouldnt stop us from trying.”可知。]