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2018中考英语二轮复习第8讲完形填空专题

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完形填空
【知识点睛】
一、命题特点
题型上来看:越来越降低了对单词本身词义及语法的考查,而注重上下文联系,主要考查学生运用英语基础知识的能力、上下文对照并捕捉关键词的能力、分析行文逻辑及文章的整体理解能力、结合语境分析推理的能力等。

体裁上来看:中考完形填空的体裁主要以记叙文为主,以叙为主,叙议结合,题材新颖。

二、做题步骤
第一步:___________,___________。完形填空题是一篇意思完整的短文,准确理解短文是解答此类题的关键。在做此题时,要跳过空格,将全文快速浏览一遍,特别要留意文章首尾句和每段首尾句。(对文章内容有一个大概的了解,在阅读时,不需要看到全部的信息,根据部分信息就可以了解大意。千万不要读一句填一句,因为“完形填空”题里所给的大多数选项填入单句后在语法上都成立,但从全文看却并非正确答案。)

第二步:___________,___________。了解文章大意后便要开始填入所缺部分。在选择答案时,一定要考虑到上下文的逻辑关系,前后对照,从上下文中找出关键性启示。同时兼顾句子的结构,习惯用法,固定搭配和词类的功能,先选出比较容易的答案,遇到较难的题,可以跳过本题,继续做后面的题,完形填空题文章前后、上下多有暗示和线索提示(文章为了使语篇相互衔接及文章的连贯,有些词会以原词或同义、近义词等形式重复出现在文章中)。

第三步:___________,___________。初读初选后,还有一些题目没有思路,此时就要逐句细读,逐题分析选项、对上一步骤未确定的个别试题多方推敲,把握全局思维,注意前后逻辑(选连词的空格前后两句可形成指代、列举、因果、对比、让步、补充、递进等逻辑关系)。

第四步:___________,___________。初定选项后,很重要的一步就是要将整篇文章再复读一遍。对答案进行核实调整,清除疏漏。再次迅速复读,对短文的理解会更为深刻,更容易判断有疑点或误解的地方(这时要注意时态语态、主谓一致、固定搭配等)。


五读法:
1. 细读首句,预测主题;
2. 跳读全文,领会大意;
3. 通读全文,试选答案;
4. 细读全文,推敲难题;
5. 复读全文,调整答案。

精简步骤:
1. _______。跳开选项了解信息,初步掌握文章大意。 (1min)
2. _______。仔细阅读全文,抓住短文的每段、每句作者的思想。 (5min)
3. _______。再次阅读文章,检查答案,是否符合文章逻辑推理。 (2min)
 
三、真题演练
A
The greatest feeling in the world comes not from receiving presents, or even getting an A on the math test you studied so hard for. Rather, it 1________ when you hand a cup of hot coffee to that older man sitting on the side of the street asking for money. You feel it when you drive an hour and a half to a 2________ to meet children with cancer. And you feel it when you sit down with your friend to comfort her 3________ her mother died. Helping others can be the greatest feeling in the world, and I 4________ this just one year ago.
    My friend asked me to attend a Youth Group meeting at his church. After an hour of listening to them 5________ their opinions, I was invited to go with them to help 6________ the homeless.
    Early that Saturday morning, a team of 15 teenagers began making sandwiches and counting bags of candy. For the first time in my life I realized that we, the teens of America, can make a 7________. Since it was my first time, and I wasn’t part of the group, I felt a little out of place. But watching the others 8________ the food drove my nervousness away.
    Before long, all 150 bagged lunches were gone and the group was 9________ its way home. I realized that not only is my friend an amazing person, but that all of those people are amazing. That’s what made me join the Youth Group.
    I work at a coffee shop but don’t make much. It’s not the best job, but there are times when it’s worth it. For example, a few weeks ago, when the store was 10________ and I was bored, looking out of the window, I noticed an old man sitting outside. He had been there before. As a matter of fact, he 11________ came in to buy anything because he didn’t have any money. I took up a cup of coffee, walked outside, and handed it to him. The smile on his face made my day, and as I walked back into the store, I put my own money into the drawer. Then I knew how the members of the Youth Group feel every time they help someone. Knowing that you can help is 12________ – the greatest feeling in the world.
1. A. starts    B. stops     C. lasts     D. fails
2. A. shop    B. church    C. country    D. hospital
3. A. after    B. until     C. though    D. before
4. A. expected   B. discovered   C. touched    D. offered
5. A. write    B. experience   C. voice     D. discuss
6. A. teach    B. encourage   C. move     D. feed
7. A. decision    B. success    C. dream    D. difference
8. A. take out   B. pick out     C. hand out     D. point out
9. A. in     B. on     C. through    D. by
10. A. empty    B. free     C. busy     D. crowded
11. A. even    B. usually     C. never     D. often
12. A. helpful   B. wonderful   C. hopeful    D. useful
B
It was a cold afternoon in winter. My oldest son, Stephen, was at school, and Reed, my husband, at work. My 1________ little ones were sitting around the kitchen table. Tom was perfecting a paper plane, while Sam was 2________ on an oil painting.
But Laura, our only daughter, sat quietly and was 3________ in her project. Every once in a while she would ask how to 4________ the name of someone in our family, then carefully form the letters one by one. Next, she would add flowers with small items. She finished off each with a sun in the upper right hand corner. Holding them at eye level, she let out a long sigh (叹息) of 5________.
“What are you doing, Honey?” I asked. She looked quickly at her brother before looking back at me. “It’s a 6________.” she said, covering up her work with her hands.
Next, she put her work into a box. When she had finished, she disappeared up the stairs.
It wasn’t until later that evening that I 7________ a “mailbox” taped onto the doors to each of our bedrooms. There were little notes saying that she loved all of us. She hadn’t 8________ Sam or baby Paul. They are pages of colored scenes including flowers with happy faces. “He can’t read yet,” she whispered (低声说), “9________ he can look at the pictures.” Each time I received one of my little girl’s gifts, it 10________ my heart. I was touched at how carefully she paid attention to what wrong happened to us. When Stephen lost a baseball game, there was a letter telling him she thought he was the best ballplayer in the whole world. After I had a 11________ day, there was a message thanking me for my efforts.
This same little girl is grown now, driving off every day to the state college, but some things about her have 12________ changed. Yesterday I found a love note next to my bedside. “Thanks for always being there for me, Mom,” it read, “I’m glad that we’re the best friends.”
There are angels among us. I know I live with one.
1. A. two    B. three     C. four     D. five
2. A. working   B. getting    C. holding    D. putting
3. A. absent    B. lost     C. bored     D. upset
4. A. complete   B. afford    C. spell     D. check
5. A. satisfaction   B. carefulness   C. tiredness    D. regret
6. A. goal    B. dream     C. wish     D. surprise
7. A. realized   B. noticed    C. knew     D. predicted
8. A. cared    B. remembered   C. followed    D. forgotten
9. A. but     B. and     C. because    D. so
10. A. deepened   B. froze     C. broke     D. brightened
11. A. boring    B. different    C. hard     D. crazy
12. A. never    B. already    C. ever     D. Even
C
Taking a Nap during the Day
Medical experts say most Americans do not get enough sleep. They say more Americans need to rest for a short period in the middle of the day, 1________ continuing with other activities.
One study earlier this year found that persons who 2________ for a few minutes during the day were less likely to die of heart disease. The study 3________ more than 2,300 Greek adults for about six years. Adults who rested for half an hour at least three times a week had a 37 percent 4________ risk of dying from heart disease than those who did not nap.
The study organizers said the strongest evidence was in working men. They said naps might improve 5_______ by mitigating (减低) tension caused by work.
Some European and Latin American businesses have supported the 6________ of napping for many years. They urge people to 7________ work, go home and have a nap before returning. In the United States, some companies let workers rest briefly in their offices. They believe this reduces 8________ and accidents, and 9________ increases the amount of work a person can do.
Sleep experts say it is likely that people make more mistakes at work than at other times. They say people should not 10________ important duties when they feel sleepy. And they say the best thing to do is to take a nap. About twenty minutes of rest is all you need. Experts say this provides extra energy and can increase your effectiveness 11________ the end of the day. But experts 12________ that a nap should last no more than twenty to thirty minutes. A longer nap will put the body into deep sleep and waking up will be difficult.
1. A. as     B. when     C. before    D. after
2. A. laugh    B. sleep     C. walk     D. move
3. A. knew    B. learned    C. studied    D. followed
4. A. less    B. more     C. lower     D. higher
5. A. life     B. health    C. thinking    D. ability
6. A. way    B. idea     C. suggestion   D. experiment
7. A. leave    B. repeat    C. change    D. improve
8. A. work    B. time     C. energy     D. mistakes
9. A. too     B. also     C. never     D. seldom
10. A. make    B. bring     C. carry out     D. create
11. A. until    B. while     C. unless     D. during
12. A. say    B. think     C. guess     D. warn
D
As sixth graders, kids were separating into groups, but I wasn’t sure where I belonged.
  Our teacher gave us a task called “secret friends” for the coming week. We were supposed to do nice things 1_______ our friends without letting them know who was doing it. We could leave encouraging notes or cards either on their desks or in their bags. Before doing the task, with our eyes closed, from a basket, we 2________ a name of a classmate who we were to secretly befriend over the next five days.
  Soon, the task was turned into a competition of giving 3________ instead of notes. Everyone was getting cool presents except me. My friend exactly 4________ what the teacher had told us. So I received nothing but hand-made cards with nice words about me.
  On the last morning, I finally got a package. When I 5________ it, the girls around all 6________. It was an “old lady” gift. My face went red.
  I tried to forget about the shaming gift, but when the same girls 7________ it again during the break in the bathroom, I joined in, “How stupid! My grandmother wouldn’t 8________ want it.” The girls laughed at my words and went out of the bathroom. Washing my hands, I let the water run through my fingers 9________ I thought about my words. It wasn’t 10________ like me to say things like that.”
“I’m your secret friend.” It was Rochelle. “I’ m sorry about the gift,” she said to me, tears running down her face.
  From a poor family, she was a target (目标) at school for those with rich parents. Yet she just took all the terrible treatment silently.
  I was sick to my stomach as my 11________ words ran through my mind. She had heard everything. How could I have been so unkind?
  Later I learned she had felt bad all week about not being able to leave me any cool present and her mum had given up her only luxury (奢侈品). And I had destroyed everything for her.
  I told her that I had only said those things to try to fit in.
  “We aren’t that different from each other, are we?” She smiled understandingly. Her simple 12________, spoken from her heart, found their way straight into mine.
1. A. for     B. behind    C. through    D. like
2. A. drew    B. changed    C. found    D. picked
3. A. chances   B. help     C. hope     D. gifts
4. A. learned    B. copied    C. followed    D. understood
5. A. discovered   B. opened    C. caught     D. held
6. A. cheered   B. shouted     C. laughed     D. clapped
7. A. mentioned   B. saw     C. showed    D. suggested
8. A. just    B. ever     C. even     D. only
9. A. if      B. as       C. since       D. because
10. A. exactly   B. perfectly     C. normally        D. necessarily
11. A. powerful   B. hurtful      C. useful    D. helpful
12. A. cards    B. actions    C. choices    D. words

 
【参考答案】
【知识点睛】
浏览全文  了解大意
瞻前顾后  初选答案
逐句细读  逐题分析
复读全文  再次斟酌
速读
精读
复读

【精讲精练】
A  1-5:ADABC  6-10:DDCBA  11-12:CB
B  1-5:BABCA  6-10:DBDAD  11-12:CA
C  1-5:CBDCB  6-10:BADBC  11-12:AD
D   1-5:AADCB  6-10:CACBC  11-12:BD

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