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高中英语必修3 Unit 3重点词语及短语解析

ID:73098

时间:2020-11-09

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Unit 3  The Million Pound Bank Note
Warming up,Pre-reading , Reading
重点词语及短语解析
1.permit
(1) vi.允许,许可
①permit + sb. to do sth.
Mary’s father will not permit her to come back late.   
玛丽的父亲不允许她晚归。
②permit + n. / pron. 
I don’t permit cats in my kitchen.                  
我不允许猫进入厨房。
③permit + doing
We don’t permit smoking in the bus         
我们不允许在公共汽车里吸烟。
(2) vi.容许
Weather permitting ( = If the weathe permits ), we’ll go camping.
如果天气允许的话,我们就去露营。
(3) n.执照,许可证
词语辨析:  
permit 和allow的用法
①两者都能以名词或动词-ing形式作宾语,以不定式作宾补。通常可以互换。如:
We do not permit (allow) smoking in the office.
我们不允许在办公室里吸烟。
Mother wouldn’t permit (allow) her little daughter to go out at night.
妈妈不允许她的小女儿晚上出去。
②permit 表示“允许,许可”时语气较强,有赋予权利之意,常用于法律、规章、制度等方面。allow是常用语, 一般指听任或默认某人去做某事,仅仅表示不想妨碍之意。如:
The law permits the sale of such drugs. 
法律允许出售这种药。
We can’t stand by and allow such a thing.
对这样的事我们不能袖手旁观。
allow 可用来表示客气的请求。如:
Will you please allow me to use your pen? 
我可以用你的钢笔吗?
2.mind表示“介意;反对”时,常用于下列结构:
(1)mind (sb./sb.’s) doing something表示“介意或反对某人做某事”。如:
I don’t mind you/your closing the windows of the office.
我不会介意你关上办公室的窗户。
(2)Do you mind if+从句(谓语动词常用一般现在时)? 表示“你介意(某人做某事)吗?”。如:Do you mind if I smoke here?
你介意我在这里吸烟吗?
(3)would mind if+从句(谓语动词常用过去式),表示“如果……的话, 某人会介意的。” 如:
Would you mind if I smoked here? 
你介意我在这里吸烟吗?
I wouldn’t mind at all if Alice didn’t answer my question.
如果艾丽丝不回答我的问题,我一点也不会介意的。
3.account
(1) n. 叙述,报告;账目;账户
open an account开账户
by/from all accounts据证,根据报道
by one’s own account据某人自己所说
on account of sth.因为/为了某事物
on no account决不,切莫(放在句首时句子用倒装)
take account of sth. /take sth.  into account考虑;体谅
You can open an account with/at the Bank of China if you want to.
要是你愿意,你可以到中国银行去开一个账户。
She gave the police a full account of the incident.
她向警方详尽地说明了事件的经过。
The diaries contained detailed accounts of the writers experiences in China.
这些日记包括作者在中国的经历的详细说明。
(2)v.将……看作/视为
account (to sb.) for sth.(对自己掌管的钱等)作出令人满意的交代
account for sth.解释、说明某事
There’s no accounting for taste.人各有所好。
How do you account for your foolish mistake?
你如何解释你那愚蠢的错误?
Careless driving accounts for many accidents.
粗心大意地驾驶导致许多事故的发生。
(3)accountant 会计,会计师
4. seek to do sth. (=try to do sth. /attempt to do sth.)企图做某事
To stay slim, girls are always seeking the most reasonable diet which will keep them in a good figure.
为了身材苗条,女孩子们总是在寻找能使她们身段窈窕的最合理的食品。
I have never sought to hide my views.
我从不企图隐瞒自己的观点。
He has been seeking for the true love he dreams of.
他一直在寻找他梦想中的真爱。
词语拓展:
manage to do sth.设法成功做成某事
seek for/after企图寻找……
seek through找遍
seek one’s advice征求某人的建议
seek one’s fortune寻找发财的机会,寻出路
seek fame追求名声
5.patience 
(1) n. 耐性,,忍耐力 
I have run out of patience completely.
我已经完全失去了耐心。
(2) patient adj. 耐心的
She is very patient with these young children.
她对这些小孩非常有耐心。
I can’t be patient of your childish questions any more.
我再也不能忍受你那些幼稚的问题了。
(3)patiently adj耐心地。
She waited patiently for her turn.
她耐心地等着轮到自己。
词语拓展:
be out of patience with对……耐不住
have no/little patience with不能容忍
lose one’s patience with对……失去耐心
with patience耐心地
have patience with sb. /sth.对某人/某事有耐心
have patience for sth./to do sth.有做某事的毅力/恒心
lose one’s patience with sb./sth.失去对某人或某事的耐心
patiently adv.
with patience耐心地
be patient with sb./sth.对某人/某事有耐心
be patient of sth.能忍受某事,容许有某事
impatient adj.没有耐心的
impatiently adv.没有耐心地
6.bring up
(1) 培养,养育或教育某人
She brought up five children.  
她养育了五个孩子。
Her parents died when she was a baby and she was brought up by her aunt.
她出生后不久父母双亡,是由姑母养大的。
 (2) 呕吐某物
Tom brought up his lunch.  
汤姆把午饭吃的食物都吐了出来。
词语拓展:
bring about引起
bring along把……带来
bring back归还
bring down使倒下;降低;减少
bring in带进来;赚得,有收入
bring on使前进;使出现
bring out取出;说出;阐明;出版
7.go ahead
(1)向前走,走在前面
You go ahead and I’ll follow.         
你在前面走,我跟着。
(2)进行,发生
Despite the bad weather, the match will go ahead.  
尽管天气不好,比赛照常举行。
(3)开始做某事。常用于祈使句来回答别人的请求。
—May I start now? 我现在可以开始吗?
—Yes, go ahead.可以,开始吧。
词语拓展:
go ahead with sth.毫不迟疑地做某事
look ahead向前看
set the clock ahead把钟表的针向前拨
be ahead of times在时代的前列
ahead of在……之前;胜过;超过
get ahead进步;成功;胜过
8.stare at 凝视,盯着看
It’s rude to stare at others.     
盯着别人看是没有礼貌的。
词语辨析:
glare at / stare at / glance at / look at
(1)glare at 强调“怒目而视”,非常地生气。
(2)stare at 强调不怀好意地“盯着看,凝视”
(3)glance at指“一瞥”,瞬间的动作。
(4)look at 表示普通的看的动作。
It’s not polite to stare at someone.   
盯着某人看是不礼貌的。
Don’t look at me that way.     
不要那样看我。
The old man glanced at the boy. 
那老人看了男孩一眼。
9.spot
(1)作动词,意为“认出,发现,弄污玷污”。尤其指很难“认出,发现”。
The teacher spotted several spelling mistakes in my composition.
老师在我的作文里发现了好几处拼写错误。
The windscreen was spotted with rain.   
挡风玻璃被雨弄湿了。
(2)作名词,意为“斑点,污点,场所,少量”。
They find it a good spot for a house.
他们发现这是一个建房的好地方。
There are a lot of spots to visit in the old city.
这座古城有许多可供参观的名胜。
词语拓展:
a spot of leave短暂的休假
a scenic spot风景胜地
a historic spot古迹
off the spot不准确;离题;不机警
get oneself into a spot使自己陷入困境
upon/on the spot当场;在现场;立刻
put sb. on the spot使某人尴尬;使某人为难
be spotted with sth.满是……的斑点
句子解析
1. He is best known for his novels set in his boyhood world on the river.
句子解析:句中“set in …”是过去分词done作后置定语,修饰novels,相当于定语从句that are set in his boyhood world on the river.
短语解析:
be set in 以……为背景
The story is set in a hotel in Paris during the war.  
这个故事是以战争年代的巴黎的一家酒店为背景的。
2. I wonder, Mr. Adams, if you’d mind us asking a few questions.
亚当斯先生,不知你是否介意我们问几个问题。 
句子分析:I wonder whether ( if ) you…是表示委婉请求的句式,用于较为正式的场合,用来委婉客气地提出请求。译为:不知您是否……
I wonder whether they will arrive on time.    
我不知道他们能不能准时到达。
1 wonder if you would give me some advice.
不知道你能否给我一些建议。
1 wonder whether you can help me.
不知道你能否帮我一下。
wonder后还可接what/when/how/why等引导的宾语从句,或what(why,where,whether)to do。
He wondered when they would start.
他想知道他们何时动身。
I wonder how you lost your way.
我纳闷你是怎么迷路的。
短语拓展:
wonder at sth. 对某物感到惊奇      
It is no wonder(that)…No wonder  (that)…难怪……
There is no question that.毫无疑问……
There is no doubt that…肯定……
There is no need to do sth.没必要做某事
3. Well, towards nightfall I found myself carried out to sea by a strong wind.
快到黄昏的时候,我发现自己被一阵大风刮到了大海上。
句子结构分析:found myself carried out to sea反身代词myself作found的宾语;过去分词carried作宾语补足语。属于find+sb. / sth. +done的结构。
(1)find +宾语+形容词+不定式
The boy found the English novel difficult to read.   
这个男孩发现这本小说很难读懂。
(2)find + it +形容词+不定式
I found it hard to get along with his brother.
我发现很难同他的兄弟相处。
(3)find+宾语+形容词 / 副词 /过去分词 /现在分词 / 介词短语
I found the job boring.
我发现这项工作令人厌烦。
He hurried to the store, only to find the door closed.
他匆忙赶到商店,发现门关着。
4. Yesterday when I was wandering on the pavement near a park, I met a neighbour by accident.
昨天我在公园附近的人行道上溜达的时候,碰巧遇见了一位邻居。
词语解析:
wander 游荡,漫游,闲逛
wander through the countryside 在野外闲逛
enjoy wandering in a strange town 喜欢逛陌生的小镇
She was wandering aimlessly up and down the road.
她在路上信步来回溜达。
Learning about language
单元语法点拨   宾语从句和表语从句
在句子中起名词作用的句子叫作名词性从句( Noun Clau-js)。名词性从句的功能相当于名词词组,它在复合句中能充当主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等,因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能,名词性从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。
  一、宾语从句
  名词性从句在复合句中作谓语动词、非谓语动词、介词或某些形容词的宾语时,称为宾语从句。运用宾语从句需注意以下几点:
1.由连接词that引导的宾语从句
  连接词that引导宾语从句时,that在句中不充当任何成分,在口语或非正式的文体中常被省去。常用的动词有say,hope,hear,see,know,think, suppose, believe, agree, expect, feel, find, guess, mean, promise ,learn等。
    His mother said (that) Saul Grant was a music critic.
    他母亲说索尔•格兰特是个音乐评论家。
    Scientists supposed that large dinosaurs lived in swamp-•
    科学家们猜想大型恐龙曾经栖居在沼泽地。
    He has told me (that) he will go to Shanghai tomorrow.
    他已经告诉我他明天要去上海了。
    He said (that) he had been to Beijing.
    他说他去过北京。

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注意:
(1)从句是并列句时,第二个分句前的that不可省。
We all think (that) she is working very hard and that she will surely go to a very good university.
我们都认为她学习非常努力,一定能进一个非常好的大学。
    (2)在demand, order, suggest, decide, insist, desire, request, command等表示要求,命令,建议,决定等意义的动词后,宾语从句常用( should)+动词原形”。
e.g.The commander ordered that troops ( should ) set off at once.   司令员命令部队马上出发。
(3) 动词+ it形容词或惯用搭配+ that从句。
   e.g.We think it important that every citizen should have good manners.
我们认为每个市民有礼貌是重要的。( 其中it为形式宾语,而真正的宾语是that引导的从句)
(4) 注意动词doubt的否定形式才可以接 that 从句。
e.g. I don’t doubt that he will be against the idea at all.  
我不怀疑他会反对这一想法。
I doubt whether he will be against the idea.  
我怀疑他是否会反对这一想法。
2.由whether或if引导的宾语从句
    由whether或if引导的宾语从句,从句仍保持陈述句语序,whether或if不担当句子成分。
    She asked me if/whether she could come in.
    她问我她是否能进来。
    He asked whether/if you had his telephone number.
    他问你是否有他的电话号码。
    此外,whether与if作“是否”讲时,在下列情况下一般只能用whether,不用if。
    (1)引导主语从句并在句首时。
    Whether it is true remains a question.
    是真是假还是个问题。
    (2)用作介词的宾语、用在不定式前面时。
    It depends on whether I have enough time.
    这得看我是否有足够的时间。
    He doesn’t know whether to go or not.
    他不知道要不要去。
    (3)引导同位语从句时。
    It’s your decision whether you go or stay.
    去还是留得由你自己拿主意。
    (4)与or not连用时。
    1 wonder whether or not they will come.
    我想知道他们来不来。
    3.wh-或how等疑问词引导的宾语从句
    由who, whom, which, whose, what, when, where, why,
how.whoever,whatever,whichever等关联词引导的宾语从句相当于特殊疑问句,连接词都在从句中担当一定的成分。应注意句子语序要用陈述语序。
    She always thinks of how she can work well.
    她总是在想怎样能把工作做好。
    I know who lived here.
    我知道谁在这里住过。
    He said that the sun rises in the east.
    他说太阳从东方升起。
    He looked at the invitation, wondering why he was invited.
    他边看着请柬,(心里)边纳闷(他们)为什么邀请他。 -
 4. 宾语从句中的否定转移
    当主语为I,主句谓语动词为think,consider,suppose,believe,expect,fancy,guess,imagine等时,其后的宾语从句若含有否定意义,一般要把否定词转移到主句谓语上,从句谓语用肯定形式。
    I don’t think this dress fits you well.
    我认为这件衣服你穿不合适。
    I don’t think he’ll be back, will he?
    我认为他不会回来了,是吧?
    I don’t think he can answer the question, can he?
    我认为他不会回答这个问题,对吧?
    二、表语从句
    在句中作表语的从句叫作表语从句,表语从句位于系动词的后面。
    1.that引导的表语从句
    that仅起连接作用,无任何意义,在句中也不作任何成分,但通常不能省略。这种从句往往对主句主语的内容起进一步解释的作用。其基本结构为主语十系动词+that从句。
    What surprised me most was that all the pupils were unusually quiet.
    使我十分惊讶的是所有的学生都异乎寻常的安静。
    The trouble is that she has lost his address.
    麻烦的是她已弄丢了他的地址。
    注意:当主语是the reason,the result或why引导的主语从句时,只能用that引导表语从句。
    The reason why I didnt attend the conference was that I was too busy.
    我未出席会议是因为我太忙了。
    The result is that many of them become fat.
    结果是他们中许多人发胖了。
    Why we decided to put off the football match was that the weather was too bad.
    我们决定推迟这场足球赛的原因是因为天气太糟糕了。
    2.wh-或how等疑问词引导的表语从句
    (1)连接代词what,which,who,whom,whose除在句子中起连接作用外,还可在从句中充当主语、宾语、表语、定语,且各有各的词义。
    The problem is who is really fit for the hard job.
问题是谁才真正适合做这份艰苦的工作。 
 (2)连接副词when,where,how,why除在句中起连接作用外,在从句中还可充当时间、地点、方式、原因状语,且本身具有词义。
    That’s where I can’t agree with you.
    那就是我不能同意你的地方。(地点)
    This is how she did it.
    她是这样做的。(方式)
    That is why he was late.
    那是他迟到的原因。(原因)
    (3)连接词whether在句中起连接作用,意为“是否,究竟,到底”,但不在从句中作任何成分。注意if不能引导表语从句,但在从句中不作任何成分。
    The question is whether that man will turn up in time.
    问题是那个人是否会及时出现。
    The question is whether it is worth doing.
    问题是它是否值得一做。
   3.其他连词as if, because, as, as though 引导的表语从句because引导表语从句通常只用于“This / That / It is / was because…” 结构中。as if / as though 引导的表语从句常置于系动词look, seem, sound, be, become等后面,常用虚拟语气,表示不存在的动作或状态。
e.g. The elephant feels as if / though he were a wall.  大象摸起来像一堵墙。
4.主语是表示建议,命令,要求等的名词,那么表语从句应该用虚拟语气,即should 后接动词原形,should可以省略。
e.g. His suggestion is that we ( should ) climb all the way to the top of the hill.
他的建议是我们应该一路爬到山顶。

Using Language
重点词语及短语解析
1.appearance (n.) 出现,显现,外表,外观
Don’t judge a man by his appearance.
别以貌取人。After being painted its appearance was quite different.
漆成黑色以后,外观是那么截然不同。。
His appearance at the party was not very welcome.他在晚会上的形象并不是很受欢迎。
appear (vi.) /disappear(vi.)
2. as for 至于,谈及……(用于引出与前文有关的话题)
I could stay for one or two days, but as for staying a week—that would be impossible.
我可以呆一两天,至于呆上一周,那是不可能的。
My father is at home now. As for my mother, she may have gone shopping.
我爸爸现在在家,至于我妈妈,她可能去买东西。
3.a large amount of 常用于修饰不可数名词。
Now he has a large amount of money. He can do anything he wants with it.
现在他有了一大笔钱,他就可以做他想做的事了。
只用于修饰(或代表)可数名词的“许多”:many (of the)/a great many ( of the ) +复数名词 +复数动词。
a big ( large / great) number of
big ( large / great) numbers of
注意:many a 只用于修饰可数名词的“许多”,但要加单数名词和单数动词。
Many a book has been published this year.  
今年已经出版了许多书。
另外a big ( great, large ) number of +复数名词+复数动词(通常谓语用复数形式)。
只用于修饰不可数名词的“许多”:much (of the)/a great ( good ) deal of +不可数名词+单数动词;a great (good) amount of /large amounts of+不可数名词+复数动词。
A great amount of money was spent on the bridge.
(建)着这座桥花了很多钱。
Large amounts of money were spent on the library. 
这座图书馆耗资很大。
既可修饰可数名词,也可修饰不可数名词的“许多”:a lot of+数名词复数+复数动词;lots of+不可数名词+单数动词;plenty of 。
There are a lot of eggs in the basket. 
篮子里有许多鸡蛋。
There is a lot of milk in the glass. 
杯子里有许多牛奶。
注意:quantities of“许多”,既可修饰可数名词也可修饰不可数名词,但无论of后是可数名词还是不可数名词,谓语动词都用复数形式。
Quantities of food were on the table. 
桌子食物丰盛。
4.manner n. 方法,方式;样子,态度,举止
 [pl.]礼貌;礼仪;风度;规矩
have no manners没有礼貌
in a manner( =in a way/to some degree)在某种程度上;多少,有点
in the manner of照……的式样;做出……的样子
good/bad manners有/没有礼貌
5.take a/the chance  碰运气,冒险
He didn’t dare to take the chance of losing his job.
他不敢冒失去工作的风险。
He is taking a chance by driving his car so fast.
他冒险把车开得这么快。
词语拓展:
give sb.a chance给某人一次机会
have a chance to do有机会做……
miss a chance错过机会
lose/seize the chance失去/抓住机会
by chance偶然,意外地
let go a good chance错过一次好机会
The chance is that…/The chances are that…有可能……
There is a chance that.…可能……
have no chance of doing不可能……
The two old friends met by chance on the plane from London to Paris.
两位老友碰巧在从伦敦飞往巴黎的飞机上相遇了。
6.be in rags穿着破旧的衣服,衣衫褴褛(表状态)
词语拓展:
be in red穿着红颜色的衣服(表状态)
be dressed in穿着……(表状态)
have on穿着(表状态)
pull on随便穿上(表动作)
throw on匆匆穿上(表动作)
句子解析
1. It would be wrong of me not to trust a gentleman such as yourself, sir, ...
 “It is +形容词+of / for someone to do...”句型中,it作形式主语,替代动词不定式短语。 如其中的形容词为kind, nice, wise, silly, foolish, friendly, polite, wrong, right等修饰人的词时,介词用of;如形容词为necessary, important,impossible , possible, easy, difficult, hard等描述不定式所表达的内容的词时,介词用for。如:
It was very kind of you to help the old lady out of the busy street.
你真善良,帮助那位老太太走出那条繁忙的街道。
How silly it was of me to ask her that question!
我真的很傻,居然向她提出那么一个问题!
It is impossible for us to get there in time.
我们不可能及时赶到那里。
2. I did hear that the Bank of England had issued two notes in this amount.
我确实听说英格兰银行发行了两张这么大面值的钞票。
句子解析:did是对谓语部分进行的强调。
词语解析:
issue vt.出版,发行;流出
The Bank of England issued the million pound notes.
英格兰银行发行了一张百万英镑的钞票。
blood issuing from a wound从伤口流出的血

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