I. Type of writing and summary of the main idea
Type of writing
This is a piece of descriptive writing
Main idea of the passage
The article describes the cause, the course and the
result of Tang Shan earthquake in 1976. It
shows us the terrible image of earthquake. At the
same time it hits us that we must realize that
we can do something to minimize the damage
caused by earthquake.
Topic sentence of 1st paragraph
Strange things were happening in the countryside in
Topic sentence of 2nd paragraph
Everything began to shake and it seemed that the
world was at an end.
Topic sentence of 3rd paragraph
Everywhere they looked nearly everything was
Topic sentence of 4th paragraph
All hope was not lost.
II. A text structure analysis
Read the text “A NIGHT THE EARTH DIDN’T SLEEP”, and then complete the following chart.
three days before the earthquake
at about 3:00 am
water in the wells--- rose and fell,
animals--- too nervous , hide
fish jumped out of bowls & ponds
bright light in the sky
water pipes---cracked and burst
heard: sound of planes
smelt: smelly gas in the cracks of the wells
People thought little of the
events andwent to bed
at 3:42 am
felt: everything shook
one-third nation felt it
heard in Beijing 100 kilometers away
a huge crack cut across houses,
saw: steam burstfrom holes in the ground
hard hillsof rock-rivers of dirt
city lay in ruins
4 400,000 people
90% home were gone
not safe railway tracks
cows never milk
wells filled with sand
rescue workers and doctors trapped under the ruins
buildings fell down
hard to get
hope not lost
army sent 150,000 soldiers
workers built shelters for survivors
fresh water was taken to the city
the city began to breathe again
III. A retold version of the text
One possible version
Strange things happened in Tang Shan. For three days the water in the village wells rose and fell. The well walls had deep cracks and a smelly gas came out the cracks. The chickens, pigs and mice were too nervous. Fish jumped out of bowls and ponds. Bright light appeared in the sky. People heard the sound of planes even when no planes were in the sky. The water pipes in some buildings cracked and burst.
At 3:42 am everything began to shake. It seemed that the world was at the end! One-third of the nation felt it. A huge crack cut across the city. In fifteen terrible seconds a large city lay in ruins. Two-thirds of the people died or were injured. Nearly everything was destroyed in the city. 75% of its factories and 90% of its homes were gone. Then later that afternoon, another big earthquake shook Tangshan. People began to wonder how long the disaster would last.
But all hope was not lost. The army sent 150,000 soldiers to help them. Workers built shelters for survivors. Slowly, the city began to breathe again.
Section 2: Background information on EARTHQUAKES
I. Zhang Heng
Zhang Heng (张衡) (78AD—139AD) was an astronomer, mathematician, artist and literary scholar（文学学者）in the Eastern Han Dynasty of China.
Born in today’s Nangyang County, Henan, he was a good writer at age 12. At the age of 16, he left home to pursue(从事) his studying the capital city. He spent at least 10 years of his youth in literary studies and writing. He published several well-recognized literary writings. He switched to(转向) astronomy after age 30.
In the year 123 he corrected the calendar to bring it into line with the seasons.
In 132 Zhang Heng invented the first seismograph(地震仪) for measuring earthquakes. His device was in the shape of a cylinder(圆柱体) with eight dragon heads around the top, each with a ball in its mouth. Around the bottom were eight frogs, each directly under a dragon head. When an earthquake occurred, a ball fell out of the dragon’s mouth into a frog’s mouth, making a noise. He also invented the odometer(里程表)
Zhang Heng was the first person in China to construct a rotating celestial globe.
In one of his publications he also proposed π= 730/232 (or about 3.1466) .
II. Earthquake Survival Tips
Would you know what to do during a really big earthquake? Experts have looked into matter carefully. It may be worth you while to look over the following tips they have for us.
If the ground begins shaking while you are driving, pull over and stay in your car. If you are in a building, try to get near a strong wall. The corner of the room or the space under a big doorway is the safest. As soon as the quake is over, check the gas pipe in the building. Gas fires often result from earthquakes. These tips may prove to be lifesavers. We should, therefore, keep them in mind. Remember to always hope for the best but prepare for the worst.
l If it has an earthquake when having classes, the students should listen to the teacher’s instruction, protect their heads and hide under the desks.
l If it has an earthquake when the students are in the sports ground, they can crouch on the spot and protect their heads with hands. Be sure to keep away with high building and dangerous objects.
l Don’t go back to the classroom.
l Retreat in order after the earthquake.
Listen to the command of the site workers. Don’t be scared and don’t rush towards the exits. Try to avoid crowds. Avoid to be squeezed to the wall or barriers.
l At theaters and gyms: crouch down or slip under the chairs; avoid suspending lights and electric fans; protect the head with schoolbags; after the earthquake, listen to the command of the workers, retreat in an organized way.
l In department stores, bookstores, museums or subway: find firm counters, commodities (low furniture etc.) or a pillar, or the corner of a wall to crouch down on the spot, protect the heads with hands or other objects; keep away from glass windows, glass counters or show counters; keep away from tall cupboards; keep away from advertisement boards and other suspending objects.
l On buses or trolley buses: Grasp the handles to avoid being injured; lower the center of gravity; hide near the seats; get off after the earthquake passed.
Section3:Words and expressions
I. Words for reading
1. imaginevt. form a picture of in the mind；think of (sth.) as probable：想象；认为（某事）可能发生或存在。宾语为名词、代词、动名词、从句。宾语从句为否定意义时，要用否定转移，与think, believe, suppose, expect用法相同，成为I/ We don’t imagine…,意为“我（们）认为……不……如：We can imagine her sadness.我们可以想象她的悲伤。I didn’t imagine (my) becoming a teacher in my childhood.在童年时代，我并未想象能成为一名教师。Can you imagine how much I was surprised to hear the news?你能想象我听见这个消息有多惊讶吗？I don’t imagine so. = I imagine not.我认为不是这样。
guess： form an opinion, give an answer, make a statement, based on supposition, not on careful thought, calculation, or definite knowledge: “猜测，臆测”，指未知道前的猜测;
suppose: let it be though that; take it as a fact that:认定，假定； guess; think: “想象，推测”，意指“假定或假设中的情形”。
shake: move, be moved, quickly or violently up and down, forwards and backwards: 最普通用词，可指人或物 “摇动，发抖”。指人时常用于感情激动、寒冷、惧怕引起的身体颤动。在表示 “因……而颤抖”时，多用with。在表示 “使受震撼，使（信念等）动摇”，常用于be shaken by/with/at中。
tremble: shake involuntarily ( with fear, anger, cold, physical weakness, etc.) 颤栗,震颤,发抖(因恐惧,愤怒,寒冷,体弱等)，常常与shake相互替换，但指握手，摇头或捧腹大笑时用shake, tremble只用作不及物动词。如：The poor boy was shaking with cold.这个孩子正冻的发抖。They were badly shaken by the news.他们对这个消息大为震惊。The host shook hands with all the guests.主人跟所有的客人握手。Her voice was trembling with anger.她气的声音发抖。
risevi. ( of the sun, moon, stars, river, price, temperature, etc.) appear above the horizon:指自然“上升”，常用于日、月、云、霞、烟、水蒸气、物价、温度、河水、潮水及人的职位等：He rose from his chair and began his speech.他从椅子上站起来开始了他的演说。Her temperature is still rising.他的体温还在上升。He has risen in rank.他已经升职了。
raisevt.1.lift up; move from a low(er) to a high(er) level; cause to rise:外部的力量，“举起、提高”： The people’s living standard has greatly been raised.人民的生活水平已大大的提高了。 2．grow or produce (crops); breed (sheep, etc.); bring up a family:饲养、种植”、养育、抚育： They can raise rice here.他们这儿能种水稻。
4. burst into/burst out :send out suddenly; break out into; suddenly begin to ……
burst into + doing: She burst into tears. = She burst out crying.她突然哭起来了。
burst out +n.：All of them burst into laughter = All of them burst out laughing.他们全都大笑起来了。
destroy: break to pieces; make useless; put an end to: 毁灭；摧毁；毁坏；破坏。表示在肉体上、精神上或道义上彻底摧毁，使之无法复原，也可以表示对某物体进行完全的毁坏: All his hopes were destroyed.他所有的希望都毁灭了。An atom bomb would destroy a city. 一颗原子弹可以摧毁一座城市。
ruin: sth. which has decayed, been destroyed, etc.:败坏，毁坏，崩溃的状态。指对物体或生命彻底的破坏，但往往是非暴力的，也往往不是一次的打击结果，常指对美好的或希望中的事物的破坏: Smoking ruined his health.吸烟毁了他的健康。She ruined his prospects.她毁了他的前途。
damage: harm or injury that causes loss of value: 损害；损毁（使失去价值）。一般指对物体或生命的局部损坏：Their houses were damaged by the enemy’s shellfire.他们的房屋被敌人的炮火击毁了。
hurt: cause bodily injury or pain to; damage; pain ( a person, his feeling): 使受伤；使疼痛；伤害； 使伤心。一般用语，即可指肉体上的伤害，也可指精神上的伤害，还可用作不及物动词，意为“疼痛、惹起痛苦”: What he said hurt me deeply.他说的话使我非常伤心。
wound: hurt or injury to the living tissue of the body, caused by cutting, shooting, tearing, etc., esp. as the result of attack:指外伤，如枪伤、刀伤、剑伤，尤指在战争中，战斗中受伤: He got wounded in the fighting.他在战斗中受了伤。
injure: hurt; damage, esp. for result of an accident;一般指由于意外或事故而受伤。如：He was badly injured in the accident.他在这次事故中受了重伤。Smoking will injure your health.吸烟会毁了你的健康。
shock vt./n: to cause usually unpleasant or angry surprise to (sb.):震惊，打击，吃惊程度最大，后面常跟介词at/by构成词组be shocked at/by，表示“对……吃惊”，或接不定式表示原因，也可作名词，意为“震动，打击”: He was shocked by what you said.他对你说的话感到震惊。He was shocked to know his son playing all day.他知道他的儿子整天玩大为震惊。The news gave me a great shock.这个消息给了我很大的打击。
astonish vt./n: surprise greatly.语气比surprise要强，含有令人难以置信: I was astonished to see him in Tibet.在西藏见到他，真感到惊异。The news astonished everyone.这个消息使每个人都很震惊。
surprise vt./n:(feeling caused by) sth. sudden or unexpected:最普通用词，意为“使惊讶，使吃惊”，含有“意想不到”之意。如： I was surprised to see the great changes in my hometown.看到家乡的巨大变化他惊讶不已。His failure didn’t cause much surprise (was not a great surprise.)他的失败未引起很大的惊奇（并非很意外的事）。
II. Words for using language
1.congratulationn 1）（withon）an expression of joy for sb.’ success, good fortune, luck, etc. : 庆贺，祝贺，常用复述形式，并与介词on搭配，构成短语congratulations on sth. /doing ….2）Congratulations ( on your winning the races)！恭喜（你获得了胜利）！I offered my congratulations on his success. 我对他的成功表示了祝贺。3）congratulate v. (with on.) to speak to ( a person) with praise and admiration for a happy event or sth. successfully done:意为“向某人表示祝贺，向某人道贺”，构成短语congratulate sb. on sth. /dong…. congratulate oneself that结构中：We congratulated him on having passed the examination.我们祝贺他通过了考试。He congratulates himself on having chosen a good woman to be his wife.他暗自庆幸自己挑选了一位贤惠的女子作妻子。
especially: to an exceptional degree; in particular: 特殊地，尤其，常用于正式文体中: This is a very common word, especially in spoken English.这是一个很普通的词，尤其在英语口语中。She likes the country, especially in spring.她喜欢这个国家，尤其是春天。
specially: for a particular purpose:特别地，专门地，表示“为了特别的目的”：This cake was specially made for you. 这个蛋糕是专门为你做的。
3.cf.be known as, be known for,be known to sb.
be known as作为……而闻名；be known for以/因……而闻名；be known to sb.为……而熟悉。如：He was known as a excellent singer.他作为一名优秀的歌手而闻名。The city is known for its long history.这座城市以它的悠久的历史闻名。 He is known to the police as a thief. 警察都知道他是个小偷。
III. Explanation of difficult sentences
1. It seemed that the world was at an end.似乎世界末日来临。
1）seem + (to be ) + adj./n.
2）seem + to do
3）seem + like + n.
4）It seems/seemed (to sb.) + that-clause如：Our English teacher seems to be a kind man. He seems to know everything = It seems that he knows everything. It seems like years since we last met. It seems that I have seen her before. = I seem to have seen her before.
2. Everywhere they looked nearly everything was destroyed.人们无论朝哪里看，几乎一切都被毁了。
everywhere 用作连词，等于wherever, no matter where，引起让步状语从句。如：Everywhere I go, I find the same thing.无论我去哪儿，我都看到一样的东西。You see it everywhere you look.无论你往哪儿看，你都会看到它。
3. …90% of its homes were gone.90%的家都不存在了。
是过去分词作表语，意为“不在”“走了”“丢了”“用完了”，或指人“死了”。分数、百分数作主语，谓语动词要根据分数、百分数代表的量是可数名词还是不可数名词而定。如：His job was gone.他的工作丢了。My watch was gone.我的表不见了。He’ll be gone for quite a little while.他要离开很长一段时间。50% of the students in our class are girls.我们班50%的学生是女生。Two-thirds of the earth surface is covered with water.地球表面的三分之二是水。
4. The army organized teams to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead.救援人员组成小分队，将被困的人挖出来，将死者掩埋。
those who相当于意为“凡……的人”，表示的是两者以上的不定数量，who引导的定语从句用复数，不能用that代替。（注意：anybody who, he who中谓语动词用单数。）
the dead意为“死难者”。形容词或分词前加表示同一类人或物，谓语动词常用复数形式。如：Those who want to see the film write your names on the paper.想看电影的人把你们的名字写在这张纸上。Anybody who breaks the law will be punished.任何人犯法都要受到惩罚。He who laughs last laughs best.谁笑在最后，谁笑的最好。The rich are not always happy.有钱人并不总是幸福的。
5. To the north of the city, most of the 10,000 miners were rescued from the coal mines. 在城市的北部，一万矿工中的大多数从矿井中被救出。
in the north, to the north与on the north
in表示“在其中”，在境界内；to表示在境外，不接壤；on表示接壤。如：China lies in the east of Asia.中国位于亚洲东部。Japan lies to the east of China.日本位于中国的东面。（指在中国境外）China faces the Pacific on the east.中国东临太平洋。（指东部境界与太平洋相接）
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