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2012届高考英语Unit 1 A land of diversity精讲精练复习

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2012届高考英语Unit 1 A land of diversity精讲精练复习
Unit 1 A land of diversity
Ⅰ.重要单词聚焦
1.   n.差别;区分;卓著
2.  n.  手段;方法
3.   n.  大多数;大半
4.  n.  苦难;困苦
5.   vt.  选择;决定做某事;选举某人
6.   n.  (人口、贸易的)繁荣
  vi.  处于经济迅速发展时期
distinction
means
majority
hardship
elect
boom
7.  n.  地极;电极;磁极
8.  n.  申请人
9.  n.  海关;关税;进口税
10.  vi.  发生;出现
11.   n.  牛(总称)
12.  vt.  指出;标示;表明;暗示
13.   n.  行李(〈美〉baggage)
14.   (shaved;shaved,shaven) vt.& vi.刮;剃
15.   adj.  显而易见的;显然的;表面上的
16.   vi.  滑动;滑行;滑跤
pole
applicant
customs
occur
cattle
indicate
luggage
shave
apparent
slip
n.  滑动;滑倒
17.   vt.& n.  租用;雇用
18.   adv.  无处;到处都无
19.   n.  处罚;惩罚
20.   n.  正义;公平
21.  vt.& vi.  改革;革新
     n.  改革;改造;改良
22.  vt.& n.  抓住;抓紧;掌握;领会
23.  adj.  感激的;感谢的
hire
nowhere
punishment
justice
reform
grasp
thankful
Ⅱ.重点短语扫描
1.live   继续存在;继续生存
2.by   of...  用……办法;借助……
3.make a   习惯于新的生活方式、工作等
4.keep   坚持;维持;沿袭(风俗、传统等)
5.   up with  与……合作或一起工作
6.mark   画线;标出……界线
7.Take   包括;吸收
8.a great/good   许多;很多
on
means
life
up
team
out
in
many
9.apply   申请;请示得到
10.in   另外
11.   one’s dream  实现梦想
12.   the view  欣赏风景
for
addition
achieve
admire
Ⅲ.课文原句突破
1.Scientists believe that these settlers crossed the Bering Strait in the Arctic to America by means of a land bridge which existed in prehistoric times.
[信息提取] by means of用某种办法,借助于某事物。
[例句仿写] 思想可以借助于音乐来表达。
Thoughts can also________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________.
【答案】 be expressed by means of music
2.By the time California elected to become the thirty­first federal state of the USA in 1850,it was already a multicultural society.
[信息提取] by the time连词,意为“到……时”。
[例句仿写] 当他14岁的时候,他就已经自学了数学。
________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________he had learnt maths by himself.
【答案】 By the time he was fourteen years old
3.However,it is likely that Native Americans were living in California at least fifteen thousand years ago.
[信息提取] It is likely that...有可能……。
[例句仿写] 他有可能不参加会议
________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________the meeting.
【答案】 It is likely that he will not attend
4.It is believed that before long the mix of nationalities will be so great that there will be no distinct major racial or cultural groups,but simply a mixture of many races and cultures.
[信息提取] It is believed that...人们相信……。
[例句仿写] 人们相信辛勤工作就能成功。
________ ________ ________ ________hard work can lead to success.
【答案】 It is believed that
means n.手段;方法
As is known to us,telephone is a useful means of communication.众所周知,电话是一种有用的通讯工具。
Every possible means has been used to prevent the air pollution,but the sky is still not very clear.为防止空气污染,每种可能的方法都已用过了,但天空仍然不清澈。
(1)by means of 借用,依靠
We express our feelings by means of words.
我们用语言来表达感情。
(2)by no means=not at all一点……也不
By no means am I satisfied with my present job.
我对目前的工作一点也不满意。
(3)by this means通过这种方式
You can do it by this means.你可以用这种办法去做。
(4)by all means 可以,当然行,务必
—May I use  your bicycle?
我可以用你的自行车吗?
—By all means!当然可以!
1.In many places in China,______bicycle is still________popular means of transportation.
A.a;the         B./;a
C.the;a       D.the;the
【解析】 句意为:在中国的许多地方,自行车仍然是一种受欢迎的交通工具。“the+单数名词”指的是整个类别,这个类别是可以区别于另外一个类别的。而popular means of transportation应该有很多种,自行车只是其中一种,故用不定冠词a。
【答案】 C
majority n.大多数;大半

 

He won the seat with a majority of 71 votes.
他以71票的优势赢得了该席位。
A majority of people believe smoking is harmful to health.
大多数人相信吸烟有害健康。
(1)单独用做主语,谓语动词用单数、复数均可。
The majority were/was against the plan.
大多数人反对这个计划。
(2)单独用做主语,如果后面的表语是复数,那么谓语动词也用复数。
The majority who attended the meeting yesterday are students.
昨天参加会议的大多数是学生。
The majority of the damage is easy to repair.
这次的损失大部分容易补救。
2.Don’t worry about the present situation in the world;________of people prefer peace to war.
A.the most    B.the great part
C.the majority   D.the number
【答案】 C
Occur

(1)vi.发生
I was going along the street looking for a place to park when the accident occurred.我正沿街寻找停车点时,突然发生了事故。
Just then an idea occurred to me.
就在那时,我想起了一个主意。
It occurred to her that she might adopt a homeless child.
她突然想她可能会收养一个无家可归的孩子。

Then a practical idea hit/struck/occurred to her!
那时他突然想到一个切合实际的主意!
It suddenly struck me how we could improve the situation.
我一下子明白我们如何改善局面了。
It suddenly occurred to me that we could use a computer to do the job.我突然想到我们可以用计算机来做这项工作。
3.—Why are you so late?
—I was in half the way when it________to me that I had left my notebook home,so I had to fetch it.
A.occurred      B.hit
C.happened     D.reminded
【解析】 答语意为:走到半路时,我突然想起我把笔记本忘在家里了,因此我不得不回去取。It occurred to sb.为一固定句型,意为“某人突然想起”。
【答案】 A
keep up 坚持,维持,沿袭(风俗、传统等)
We sang as we marched to keep our spirits up.
我们一面行进一面唱歌以保持高昂的情绪。
We should keep up our good traditions.
我们应该沿袭我们的优良传统。
I hope the fine weather will keep up.
我希望好天气能保持下去。
(1)keep (on) doing sth.继续、重复做某事
(2)keep sb.from doing sth.阻止某人做某事
(3)keep on继续
(4)keep up with...跟上……,与……同步前进
She kept on working although she was tired.
她虽疲劳但仍继续工作。
Dave couldn’t keep up with the rest of his class.
德夫跟不上班里的其他同学。
Don’t give up;keep on trying.别放弃,继续努力。
4.Would you slow down a bit,please?I can’t ________you.
A.keep up with    B.put up with
C.make up to     D.hold on to
【解析】 keep up with意为赶得上,跟得上,不落后于,符合语境要求;put up with忍受;make up to讨好(某人),奉承,接近;hold on to抓住不放,执著于……。句意为:请慢点儿走好吗?我跟不上你。
【答案】 A
5.(2009年湖南岳阳模拟)In the face of all these difficulties,we’re not discouraged and our spirits________well.
A.keep up     B.go up
C.hold up      D.pick up
【解析】 考查动词词组辨析。句意为:面对着所有的这些困难,我们没有气馁,而是继续保持斗志。keep up继续保持;go up上升;hold up支撑,耽搁;pick up捡起,接收。
【答案】 A
take in
(1)包括;包含
The tour takes in six European capitals.
这次旅游包括六个欧洲国家的首都。
(2)允许某人寄宿家中
She was homeless so we took her in.
她无家可归,我们就收留了她。
(3)欺骗(愚弄)某人
She took me in completely with her story.
她用谎话把我完全蒙蔽了。
(4)吸收,吸入(空气,水等)
Take in a deep breath深吸一口气
(5)理解(吸收)所见所闻
I hope you’re taking in what I’m saying.
我希望你能理解我说的话。
6.(2007年辽宁卷)Don’t be________by products promising to make you lose weight quickly.
A.taken off     B.taken out
C.taken away     D.taken in
【解析】 根据句意“不要被那些许诺能让你快速减肥的产品所欺骗”。take off拿去;取消;脱(衣帽);飞机起飞;take out 拿出,取出;去掉,带……;take in接受;吸收;收容;领会;包含,欺骗;take away 拿走,夺去;使离去。
【答案】 D
a great/good many许多;很多
Tom found that there were a great/good many people already there.
汤姆发现那儿已经有很多人了。
It seems that a great /good many of them are out of work now.
似乎他们中的许多人现在失业了。
A great many of the flowers were white.
那些花多数是白色的。
a good/great many后接复数名词,但a good/great many后接of时,必须加限定词,如these/those/the/one’s等,然后再加名词复数。
A good many of those students like this song.
那些学生中有很多喜欢这首歌。
7.________the houses were knocked down in the earthquake.
A.A great many   B.The number of
C.A great many of    D.A great deal of
【解析】 名词前有the,these,those及my,your等物主代词时,a great many后要加of。
【答案】 C
apply for申请,请求
She applied for a job as an English teacher.
她应聘英语教师的工作。
We had to apply to the government for financial help.
我们只好向政府申请财务援助。
What you said doesn’t apply to me.你所说的并不适合我。
You can’t apply this rule to every case.
这个规则并不能适用于所有的状况。
(2)apply oneself to (doing) sth.专注于;专心做某事
He applied himself to learning English.他专心学英语。
8.To travel to the United States,you must first apply________the American Embassy________your visa.
A.for;to    B.to;for
C.for;for     D.to;to
【解析】 考查apply短语的用法。apply to sb.for sth.向某人申请某物。句意为:要去美国旅行,你要首先向美国大使馆申请签证。
【答案】 B
That is why today over 40% of Californians speak Spanish as a first or second language.
这就是今天有超过40%的加利福尼亚人把西班牙语作为第一或第二语言的原因。
句中的why引导的为表语从句,注意以下句式区别
(1)That’s why...这就是为什么……(why从句表示结果)
(2)That’s because...这是因为……(because从句表示原因)
(3)The reason why...is/was that...……的原因是……(表语从句常用that引导,而不用because )
①Tom came late for the meeting.That was because he was ill.
汤姆开会迟到了,那是他病了。
②Tom was ill.That was why he came late for the meeting.
汤姆病了,那就是他开会迟到的原因。
③The reason why Tom came late for the meeting was that he was ill.汤姆开会迟到的原因是他病了。
9.(2009年石家庄检测)Is this the reason________she explained in the report for her success in the job?
A.what     B.that
C.how     D.why
【解析】 考查定语从句。因此处关系词代替先行词在定语从句中作宾语,故此处只能用that,which或省略。
【答案】 B
10.The reason________death was feared was________no man could experience it twice.
A.why;that    B.why;because
C.why;why      D.because;that
【解析】 句意为:人们之所以恐惧死亡,是因为无人能经历两次。
【答案】 A
However,it is likely that Native Americans were living in California at least fifteen thousand years ago.
然而,可能美洲土著人至少一万五千年前就生活在加利福尼亚。
本句式中it为形式主语,真正的主语为that从句。
It is likely that...……是可能的,此句型可转化为:sb./sth.be likely to do...某人/物可能干某事。
She’s very likely to ring me tonight.
=It’s likely that she will ring me tonight.
她今晚很可能给我打电话。
It is likely/that the weather will be fine.
=The weather is likely to be fine.天气可能会很晴朗。
11.It is very________that,in many schools,the students are going to spend less time in doing homework than they used to.
A.possibly     B.probably
C.lovely     D.likely
【解析】 句意为:在很多学校学生做作业的时间可能将比原来少。用it is likely that句型,其他三个词不用于这个结构。
【答案】 D
12.(2010届唐山摸底考试)Since he was 67,it didn’t seem________that he would continue long in that position.
A.impossible    B.necessary
C.particular    D.likely
【解析】 考查形容词。句意为:他已经67岁了,看起来不可能在那个职位上待很长时间了。A、B选项用于It’s impossible/important/necessary/unusual that...句型,that从句常用should+动词原形,而非would+动词原形。C项不符合题意,故选D。
【答案】 D
Ⅰ.单词拼写
1.All the________(行李) the passengers bring with them needs to be examined twice at the Liuting International Airport during the Beijing Olympic Games.
【答案】 luggage
2.Many________(申请人) applied for the well­paid job,but none of them were accepted by the company.
【答案】 applicants
3.A high fever________(表明) that a person’s body is fighting disease.
【答案】 indicates
4.It is________(显然的) from scientific studies that the drug produces severe side effects.
【答案】 apparent
5.The old man________(滑倒) on the icy road and broke his leg.
【答案】 slipped
Ⅱ.选词填空
take in;by means of;make a life;the majority of;mark out
1.The actress rose to fame overnight__________________her perfect performance in the film.
【答案】 by means of
2.________________________students were in favour of the suggestion that they go out for a picnic the next day.
【答案】 The majority of
3.Please________________the mistakes I made in my composition.
【答案】 mark out
4.The students found it easy to________________what their teacher had taught.
【答案】 take in
5.The young men in the rural areas have to leave for big cities to________________________.
【答案】 make a life
Ⅲ.易错模块
1.—Do you think we should put an ad in the paper for the lost child?
—Yes,________.
A.that’s all right    B.by all means
C.it just depends    D.never mind
【解析】 考查交际用语。A项表示“没关系”,相当于D项,用于回答别人的歉意,不合题意;B项表示“当然可以”,为正确选项;C项表示“看情况而定”,与前面的Yes矛盾。
【答案】 B
2.The police looked into the case carefully and found the thief had entered the house________a ladder.
A.by the means    B.by all means
C.by ways of     D.by means of
【解析】 考查介词短语辨析。by means of此处意为“凭借;以……方式”。
【答案】 D
3.She couldn’t speak,but made her wishes known________sign.
A.by means of    B.by any means
C.by all means    D.by no means
【解析】 句意为:她不能说话,但通过手语让别人了解了她的愿望。by means of sign在此意为“靠着/凭借手语”。
【答案】 A
4.But by no means________with my progress.
A.the teacher is not satisfied
B.is the teacher not satisfied
C.the teacher is satisfied
D.is the teacher satisfied
【解析】 by no means位于句首时,句子要用倒装语序,排除A、C;由but可知后一句表示否定,排除B。
【答案】 D
Ⅳ.语法专练
本单元语法—主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句
1.(2010届宁夏银川一中月考)—You see,I’m poor in maths,you are not good at English,and...
—That’s________we should help each other.
A.when     B.where
C.how     D.what
【解析】 where引导表语从句。下句意为:这正是我们应该互相帮助的地方。其他选项不合题意。
【答案】 B
2.(2010届江苏泰兴市期中调研)—Do you think it wise for Chinese mothers to try to do everything for their children?
—No,that’s________they are mistaken.
A.where     B.when
C.so      D.how
【解析】 考查表语从句。where引导表语从句,表示那就是她们的错误所在。
【答案】 A
3.(2010届江苏南师附中学情分析样题)The health official said________12 suspected cases of influenza A (HINI) were tested negative and________,so far,this city has reported no case of the virus.
A.what;that     B.that;what
C./;that      D.that;/
【解析】 分析句式结构可知,这个句子中含有两个并列的宾语从句,都由that引导,而两个或两个以上由that引导的宾语从句,只有第一个关系代词that可以省略。由此可知,C项正确。
【答案】 C
4.(2009年成都第二次诊断)While traveling in Sichuan,you can’t miss________people call “The National Treasure”—Giant Panda.
A.that     B.it
C.what    D.which
【解析】 由语法知识可知,本题中的动词miss后接了一个宾语从句,又由于动词call后需要接双宾语,故选用what在该宾语从句中充当宾语从句中动词call的(直接)宾语。
【答案】 C
5.(2009年西城抽样)After ten years’absence she came back,only to find her old house was not________it used to be.
A.which   B.what
C.when    D.how
【解析】 考查表语从句的引导词。从句子结构看,该词需要引导表语从句并充当该表语从句中be动词的表语,所以用what。what在此相当于the house that。
【答案】 B

相关标签: 高考英语
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