人教修订版高三英语Unit 2 教案学案一体化
Step 1 Warming up
1.Look at the pictures on P.10.Do you know what made these people famous?
Zheng He is famous for having made several voyages to the West, reaching as far as Africa.
James Cook is famous for having made three great voyages around the world, and mapping coasts and sea routes.
Christopher Columbus who discovered America in 1492.
Abel Tasman was a Dutchman who discovered New Zealand.
2.Please tell me how many continents there are in the world and what are their names.
Seven continents:North America,South America,Africa,Europe,Asia,Oceania and Antartica.
3.What were the dangers and challenges explorers in the past faced while discovering and exploring the
Dangers to which explorers were exposed were:
Getting lost either in the jungle or at sea;
Being attacked by native people;
Being attacked by wild animals;
Dying in a storm.
Challenges which explorers faced:
Maps were perhaps not very accurate;
Communication was lost or important information could not be got on time;
For inland exploration transport was slow.
4.What words and expressions will you need to talk about discovery and science exploration?
Category Examples of words and phrases
Communication journals,maps,magazines,Internet,telephones,e-mail,smoke sihnals,letters
and geography vegetation,wildlife,(mineral)resources,ore,population,etc
Step 2 Speaking
To deal with some words , phrases or sentences used in the talk（先用汉语解释一下即可，后面具体研究）
1.take possession of 占领，占有 in possession of 某人占有，拥有
in the possession of 某物/某人为某人所占有
2. in the name of sb/sth 以…的名义，代表
3．masses of 大量的 a mass of sand/snow 一堆/团/块
4. be rich/poor in 富含/缺乏
5．do research on 进行调查研究
6. a state key project一项国家重点项目
7. dig up 挖掘
8. risk one’s life/health to do sth冒丧失生命，健康之险做某事
10.be equipped with 用…装备，配备
Step 3 Pre-reading and post-reading
1.Scan the text and tell me the answer to the second question on P.12
The trade routes over land became too dangerous because of war and robbers.Trade by sea also allowed merchants to take more goods.
2.Read the whole passage carefully and then do the following multiple choice questions
1.Who were （was ） the earliest explorer（s） of the Western Ocean？
A.Marco Polo. B.Christopher Columbus. C.European explorers. D.Brave merchants.
2.Through the Silk Road,China got from other countries.
A.spices and glass B.silk C.weapons D.milk
3.An African king gave rhinoceros horns to China in order to .
A.make money B.stop the war C.show his friendship D.award the Ambassador
4.Which of the following became the world’s trading center over a few centuries after Han Dynasty?
A.Ceylon. B.India. C.Swanhili kingdoms. D.Egypt.
5.In Du Huan’s book “Record of My Travels” you can learn about .
A.Marco Polo B.many foreign countries C.Christopher Columbus D.ways to make silk
6.Who does “The Chinese Columbus” refer to?
A.The Ming emperor. B.Du Huan. C.The Chinese ambassador. D.Zheng He.
7.The text is mainly about .
A.how the Silk Road was formed
B.how China developed trading relations with Arabic countries
C.Zheng He’s expeditions across the Indian Ocean
D.the history of China’s opening to the outside world
8.The small bronze statue of a lion found in Shanga most probably came from .
A.China B.Rome C.Greece D.London
9.“In the east,China prospered under a new dynasty.”The underlined part refers to .
A.the Han Dynasty B.the Song Dynasty C.the Qin Dynasty D.the Ming Dynasty
10.Which of the following can be inferred from the text?
A.Columbus’ exploration was stopped for economic reasons.
B.No accurate maps of the countries around the Indian Ocean existed before Zheng He.
C.In the Ming Dynasty China had the most powerful navy in the world.
D.The giraffe was an animal that could not be found in China in the Ming Dynasty.
3. Read the passage and point out the topic sentence for each paragraph.
Para.1 thesis sentence 论题Many great explorers made expeditions across the Indian Ocean long before Columbus ,among whom Zheng He was the most outstanding.
Para.2 China had contacts with countries along the Indian Ocean from the early times,and during ancient time explorers had begun to contact with each other.
Para3. Between the Han and the early Tang Dynasty,Swahili kingdom and the islands off the African coast developed into the world trade center and attracted merchants from the world.
Para.4 During the Tang Dynasty,Du Huan,who traveled to many lands,wrote the book Record of My Travels.
Para.5.In the 11th century the Africans made several voyages to the court of the Song Dynasty.
Para6. By the beginning of the 15th century the time was ripe for a grand meeting.
Para7.In the years between 1406 and 1433,under the command of Zheng He ,seven large treasure fleets sailed westwards on voyages of trade and exploration.
Para8 .Zheng He renewed relations with the kingdom of the East African coast.
Para9.The fleet made several expeditions before the exploration was stopped.
After reading the text again and then finish Exercises 3,4 and 6
Period Name Way of travel Goods
Ancient times / Silk Road Spices,glass
Han Dynasty Gan Ying Over land Rhinoceros horn
Tang Dynasty Du Huan Over land/by sea /
Ming Dynasty Zheng He By boat Zebras,giraffes,ivory,
The Africans were reaching out to China The Africans came to China.
The time was ripe. It was the right moment.
The mouth of the Red Sea. The entrance to the Red Sea.
For a short time,China had ruled the seas. For a short time,China had been the most
powerful country at sea.
Step 4 Language study
▲take possession of占领，占有/get possession of拿到，得到
The capitalist is in possession of a large fortune.那个资本家拥有大宗财产。
A large fortune is in the possession of the capitalist. 大宗财产掌握在那个资本家手中。
▲in the name of以……的名义，代表
I arrest you in the name of the law.我以法律的名义逮捕你。
The prime minister spoke in the name of the King.部长代表国王讲话。
I opened an account in the bank in your name.我以你的名义在银行开了一个账号。
He escaped under the name of Tom.他化名为Tom逃跑了
by name用（靠、按）名字，名叫；by the name of名叫……；name after以……命名
▲masses of/a mass of+countable noun(pl form)/+uncountable noun
in the mass总体上，总的说来/the mass of大多数的/mass education群众教育/a mass meeting群众会议
The young dancers worked so hard so charming in their beautiful clothes that we took masses of pictures of them.（许多）
▲be rich in/be poor in
Oranges are rich in Vitamin C含有丰富的维生素
a TV play rich in humour 富有幽默的电视剧
Have you got an alternative suggestion =another suggestion?你有没有其它建议？
Caught in the act,he had no alternative/choice but to confess/did nothing but confess.
This was the only available room.这是唯一可以利用的房间。
You will be informed when the book becomes available.这本书有货时就通知你。
Tickets are available at the box office.票房有票。
You’d better equip your bike with a head light.你最好在自行车装个前灯。
They have equipped the army with modern weapons. 他们已经为部队装备了现代化的武器。
The army has been equipped with modern weapons. （被动语态）
▲Trade and curiosity have often formed① the foundation for mankind’s greatest endeavor②To people of early civilizations, the world map was a great puzzle③.Marco Polos stories inspired④Christopher Columbus and other European explorers to search⑤for sea routes⑥to the distant, wealth Asian Land. However, long before⑦ that brave merchants were the real explorers of the Western Ocean. 贸易和好奇常常构成人类巨大努力的基础。对于早期文明的人们来说，世界地图是一个极大的困惑。马可波罗的故事激励了克里斯托弗•哥伦布和其他的欧洲探险家去探索能到达遥远、富饶的亚洲大陆的海上航线。然而，远在这之前，勇敢的商人是真正的西部海洋的探险者。
① form the foundation for mankind’s greatest endeavor 形成人们努力（探索世界）的基础
② endeavor：to try very hard
They endeavored to change society.
He endeavored to climb the mountain.
You must endeavor to do it better.你必须尽力把它做好。
Please make every endeavor to get up early.请尽量早起。
③ puzzle vt.
sb + be puzzled感到疑惑
sth + be puzzling 令人疑惑
sth + puzzle + sb使…疑惑
What puzzles me is why they didnt show up.令我百思不解的是他们为什么没有出现。
He looked a little puzzled.他看上去有点困惑。
His recent behavior puzzles me.他最近的行为使我迷惑不解。
I could not puzzle out her intentions.我猜不出她的意图。
We finally puzzled out the meaning of the poem.我们苦苦思索终于理解这首诗的意思。
I have been puzzling about this question for weeks now.我对这个问题已冥思苦想了好几个星期。
Her decision was a puzzle to him.她的决定对他来说是个谜。
Im in a puzzle as to how to cope with the new situation.我不知道该如何应付这新局面。
This is one of the most _____ case.（puzzling）
He had a p_____ look on his face. (puzzled)
Scientists are _____ as to why the whale had swum to the shore.(puzzled)
What ____ me is why he left without saying goodbye.(puzzles)
④ inspire sb to do鼓舞某人做某事/encourage sb to do sth
search spl / sb for sth在…寻找…
search for sth/make a search for 寻找某物
in search of 寻找;寻求
in (one’s / the) search for…寻找…
They are searching for the robber in the village.
They are searching the village for the robber.
Cf:The policeman is searching the robber to see if he had a gun..
I searched shop after shop for my sister’s birthday present.
I will make a search for your book.
I looked everywhere in search of my glasses.
⑥ routes--a way from one place to another
Whats the best route to Cambridge?
a bus route
If you dont enjoy driving on the main highways, try some of the rural routes.
⑦ long before, before long(= soon )
long before + n. /从句 早在…之前
It be (not) long before 很久之后才/不久就….
There was a lively market long before.
Before long you will understand what I said is good for you.
I had waited him long before he came.
It won’t be long before you see him again.
It was long before they escaped from the cruel prison.
▲It is well known that① Africa had contacts with② India and the Red Sea civilizations from the earliest times. Silk from China found its way③ over land along the Silk Road to India, the Middle East and Rome, in exchange④ for spices and glass, which was not known to China. Silk was also traded along the coasts of the India Ocean. Ceylon, ⑤withits central position, was the place where Chinese merchants met with Arab merchants and heard about the westernmost lands. Thus, people of the Han Dynasty knew about Africa and had books with description of the kingdoms on the African coast and the Red Sea. In 97 AD, Gan Ying, a Chinese ambassador went to the East Roman Empire over land and returned to Luoyang with a present from an African king-- rhinoceros horns. 众所周知，很早很早以前，非洲就与印度和红海文明有联系。中国的丝绸沿丝绸之路运往印度、中东和罗马去交换香料和玻璃——这些是在中国根本没人知道的东西。沿印度洋海岸也有丝绸贸易。锡兰，凭借其中心位置，成为中国商人会见阿拉伯商人和了解最西方国家的地方。因此，汉朝人了解非洲并且有书籍描述了红海和非洲沿岸国家的情况。公元97年，甘英，一位中国大使，从陆路到了东罗马并且把一位非洲国王所赠的礼物一犀牛角带回到洛阳。
① It is well known that …众所周知。这是固定句型。此句可换成：As is well known, …
It is well known that he works hard. = As is well known, he works hard.
② have contacts with/contact to有/联系have contacts with与某人有联系接触
③ find one’s way 设法到达
feel one’s way摸索着走、谨慎行事 fight one’s way奋勇前进
force one’s way挤着向前走 wind one’s way曲折前进
make one’s way去……途中 lose one’s way迷路
push one’s way 挤出一条路
all the way by the way
by way of in a way
in no way in the way
exchange…for in exchange for
I’d like to exchange five apples for five eggs.
Mary exchanged her seat with Ann.
She is giving him English lessons in exchange for his teaching her Chinese.她教他英语，他教她汉语。
I gave him a book in exchange for his MP3 player.
I’ve offered to paint the kitchen in exchange for a week’s accommodation.(膳宿)
They were given food and shelter in exchange for work.他们用劳动换取食物和栖身之处。
⑤ with + n. + prep.构成with结构:
with + n. / pron. + adj.
with + n. / pron. + adv.
with + n. / pron. + doing
with + n. / pron. + done
with + n. / pron. + to do
He sat there with his eyes closed.眼睛闭着
He left the room, with the candle burning on the table.桌上点着蜡烛
With a lot of work to do, I can’t go out with you.有许多工作要做
I’d like to sleep with the door open/the lights on.把窗户开着/把灯开着
He stood there with a book in his hand.手上拿着一本书
▲Over the next few hundred years, the Swahili kingdoms and the islands off① the African coast developed② into the world’s trading centre for ivory, spices, rhinoceros horns, shells, animal skins and sugar. They were traded to merchants from the Arabic countries, Egypt, Greece, Rom, India, Ceylon and China. 在以后的几百年间，索马里王国以及非洲沿海的岛屿发展成为了世界贸易中心，主要经营象牙、香料、犀牛角；贝壳、动物皮毛和糖。这些物品远销到阿拉伯国家、埃及、希腊，罗马、印度、锡兰和中国的商人手中。
▲The Arabic contacts to the American coast led to the next meeting between black people and Chinese. In the year 751, the Chinese traveler, Du Huan, was taken prisoner① by the Arabic army. He escaped, and after a long journey wandering② through Arabic countries. 这些阿拉伯人与非洲海岸的接触为后来一位中国人和黑人的会谈准备了条件。公元751年，中国的旅行家——杜环被阿拉伯军队所俘虏。他逃跑了，在经历了阿拉伯国家的长途跋涉之后，于公元762年乘小船回到祖国。回国后，他写了《经行记》，讲述了中亚、阿拉伯以及非洲国家的情况。
①be taken prisoner被抓: take sb prisoner逮捕/capture sb 俘获，捉拿
put sb in prison,take sb to prison,send sb to prison把……关进监狱
throw sb into prison把……投进监狱
②wander ( 常与about /in/ through连用)
The children wandered around the town with nothing to do.那些孩子无所事事，在街上闲逛。
The boy wandered the neighbourhood,looking for the dog.那孩子走遍了邻里街坊，找他那条狗。
▲In the eleventh century, the Africans made several voyages to the court of the Song Dynasty. It was a major development that the Americans were ①reaching out to China. The earliest Asian cultural relic found in Africa also ②dates from this period. A small bronze statue of a lion has been found in the Swahili town of Shanga. Nothing similar has ever been found in East Africa. 在十一世纪，非洲人曾几次通过海路到达宋朝王宫。这是非洲人开始了解中国的一次大发展。在非洲发现的最早的亚洲文化遗产也是从这一时期开始的。一个小青铜狮子塑像已经在尚加的索马里城发现了，还没有类似的东西在东非被发现。
①Not a single word reached my ears. 到达，传入
He reached out his hand for the knife , but it was too far away. 伸手拿
Our campus reaches to the river. 延伸到
Jim reached for a gun but he was stopped. 伸手去取某物
②date from/back to
The castle dates back to/dates from the 14th century.这座城堡建于14世纪。
▲The contacts between China and Africa over the countries had led to the awareness of each other’s existence①, but still no accurate② maps of the countries around the Indian Ocean existed. By the beginning of the fifteenth century the time was ripe for a grand meeting③.In East Africa the coastal towns were reaching the height of④ their power. In the east, China ⑤prospered under a new dynasty. The Ming government had a large navy and the will to use it. 中国和非洲几个世纪的接触让双方知道了彼此的存在，但当时还没有精确的地图描述印度洋周围的国家。到了15世纪初，召开一次大型会议的时机已经成熟。东非沿岸城市正进入鼎盛时期。而在东方，中国在一个新的朝代的统治下也繁荣起来了。明朝政府拥有一支强大的海军并且也有发挥这支海军作用的想法。
①the awareness of each other’s existence意识到彼此的存在
②accurate, correct, exact辨析(inaccurate adj. 不准确的)
accurate 表示“准确的”,精确的”,指“通过努力, 使事情达到正确”
She gave an accurate account of the accident. 她对事故做了准确的描述。
correct 为一般用语, 指“正确的”
He gave correct answers to the questions. 他对这些问题提出了正确的答案。
His answer is quite exact. 他的回答完全正确。
the right course of action正确的行动方针
③Was the peach ripe or green?那桃子是熟的还是生的？
④reach the height of power到达了繁盛时期
⑤prosper under a new dynasty在新的朝代下繁荣昌盛(prosperity)
The business is prospering.生意兴隆。
He wished the young couple a life of happiness and prosperity.他祝这对新人生活幸福，万事如意。
▲In the years between 1405 and 1433, seven large treasure fleets① sailed westwards on voyages of trade and exploration②. Under the command③ of Zheng He, the fleets set sail④ from the South China Sea across the Indian Ocean to the mouth of the Read Sea, and then traveled further south, discovering the eastern coast of Africa. 从1405年到1433年，七艘大型的珠宝商船到西方进行贸易和探险航行。在郑和的带领下，这支船队从中国南海出发，跨越印度洋到达红海口，然后继续向南航行，发现了非洲东海岸。
①treasure fleets 商船队
②sail westwards on voyages of exploration下西洋从事探险
③command vt., vi.（常与to, that连用）命令；指挥；统率
The officer commanded his men to fire. 军官下令士兵开火。
He commanded silence. 他命令大家肃静。
He commanded that everyone make the best of the chance of Senior Three.
Einstein was really a great man who is able to command everyones respect.
掌握；控制；对…有支配权to command oneself控制自己
under the command of …在……的领导之下
The army is under the kings command. 军队由国王直接统率。
The army is under the command of General Washington.
Bill is in command of the fleet.
She has a good command of the French language. 她精通法语。
④set sail (to / from / for) 起航
▲Zheng He renewed relations①with the kingdoms of the East African coast. The African king sent the Ming emperor a royal present②; two giraffes. The wonderful gift and the contact with the black court so excited China’s curiosity about Africa that Zhang He sent a message③ to the king and to other African states, inviting them to send ambassadors, and open embassies④ in the new Ming capital, Beijing. The response of the African rulers was very generous; They sent the emperor zebras, giraffes, shells, elephant ivory and rhinoceros-horn medicine. In return⑤, the Ming court sent gold, spices, silk, and various other presents. The exchange of goods had a symbolic meaning⑥ far more important than the value of the goods themselves. By trading with the fleet the African kings were showing their friendship to the emperor of China. 郑和恢复了和非洲东海岸国家的联系。非洲国王送给明朝皇帝一个皇室的礼物：两只长颈鹿。这个精美的礼物和与非洲国家的接触使中国人对非洲如此好奇，以至于郑和给那个国王和别的非洲国家送信，邀请他们派大使并在明朝首都——北京开办大使馆。这些非洲国家的领导者很慷慨，他们给明朝皇帝送来了斑马、长颈鹿、贝壳、大象象牙和犀牛角药品。作为往来，明朝皇帝给他们送去了黄金、香料、丝绸和各种别的礼物。这种礼物的交换的象征意义远远重于这些物品本身的价值。通过和这支船队的贸易，非洲国王开始表示对中国皇帝的友谊。
① renew relations重新确立关系
② send sb. a royal present送某人贵重礼物
③ He sent a message to…, inviting them to send….他发信给…, 邀请他们派…。
④ open embassies设立使馆
⑤ in return作为回报
⑥ a symbolic meaning 象征意义
▲The fleet made several expeditions before the exploration was stopped, probably for economic reasons. For a short time, China had ruled the seas. After 1433, the Ming court realised its greatest challenges and opportunities to be at home. 这支船队在结束探险之前或许是为了经济原因进行了几次远征。短期内，中国成为海上霸主。1433年以后，明朝意识到国内存在着巨大的机遇和挑战。
国内外 at home and abroad
Unit 2 Crossing limits -- Integrating Skills
GOING HIGH: THE PIONEERS OF THE THIRD POLE 登高——第三极的开路先锋
By the middle of the 1920s the farthest corners of the earth already been explored; the continents and the oceans had been mapped, the north and South Poles had been reached, and the origins①of the world’s major rivers had been discovered. All that was left to be conquered was the “third pole”, the highest mountain on earth, Mount Qomolangma. Some suggested it could not be accomplished②. At that time going to Qomolangma was like going to moon. 20世纪20年代中期，连地球最远的角落都已经有人探索过了：大陆和海洋都已经绘制了地图，南极和北极都已经有人到过了，世界主要河流的源头也都已经被发现。留下来有待征服的地方是“第三极”，这就是地球上的最高峰——珠穆朗玛峰。有人曾经说过这是不可能完成的。在那个时候，去珠穆朗玛峰就像登月一样难。
①the origins of the world’s major rivers世界上主要河流的源头
“We cannot escape our origins, however hard we try" (James Baldwin)
Many Americans are African by origin.许多美国人是非洲血统。
②accomplish / complete / finish / achieve
This task is accomplished by great effort.完成这项任务花了很大力气。
He accomplished a great deal during his first year.第一年他就取得了很多成绩。
It is the workers who will accomplish this task.就是工人们将完成这项任务。
accomplish指做到底，实现一个计划，通常接task, aim, journey, voyage trip等名词
如：to accomplish a trip完成一次旅行
如：He has finished the homework.他完成了作业。
如：to complete the sentence把句子补充完整
Climbing at such high altitudes①requires great skill and is not without risk②. Apart from③ the cold, thin air and low oxygen levels can cause mountain sickness④, which can kill. Some people can never go above 4,000 metres because their body is unable to adjust to these extreme conditions⑤. Above about 5,200 metres, in the "death zone", humans can only survive for a couple of days⑥, even with extra oxygen. 爬上这样的高度需要极大的技能，而且不是没有危险的。除了天气寒冷之外，空气稀薄和含氧量低都可能诱发致人死亡的高山病。有些人从来不能登上4,000米的高度，因为他们的身体不能适应这些极端的条件。在5,200米的高度以上就是“死亡地带”了，即使带了额外的氧气，人们也只能存活一、两天。
①at such high altitudes 在如此高的海拔高度
②be not without risk 不无风险
③apart from除……之外(aside from)
All the children like music apart from Bobby. 除了博比外所有的孩子都喜欢音乐。
The writer lives apart from his family.作家不与家人同住。
Apart from being too large, the trousers dont suit me.这条裤子不但太大,而且我穿着也不合适。
Apart from a few words, I do not know any French at all.除了很少的几句外,我对法语一无所知。
apart adv. 相隔;相距;除去;分开地
Alice and her husband now live apart.
New York and Tokyo are thousands of miles apart.
They planted the trees three meters apart.
She lives apart from her family.
A few little things apart, the party was a great success.
He works until nine o’clock every evening,and that’s quite apart from the work he does over the weekend.
归纳拓展：apart from，in addition（to），besides ，as well（as），except for，except，but
in addition（to） besides，as well （as）
except for except but
④cause mountain sickness引发高原反应
⑤adjust to these extreme conditions适应极端的环境
⑥a couple of days 几天
The Tibetans have lived in the Himalayas for centuries and have adjusted to the conditions at such a great height①. To them, the mountain were sacred②, and they would not climb them for that reason. When Westerners came to climb Mount Qomolangma, the Sherpas, who live in Tibet, northern India and Nepal, acted as guides③. From the first British Qomolangma expedition in1921, Sherpa strength, skill, honesty and dedication④have made them ideal⑤ companion⑥ son the mountains. Every Qomolangma expedition since then has relied on Sherpa support. 西藏人几个世纪来一直住在喜玛拉雅山上，对那样的高山条件已经适应了。对他们来说，山是神圣的，他们不会因为想征服高山而爬山。当西方人来爬珠穆朗玛峰的时候，住在西藏、印度北部和尼泊尔的夏尔巴人就来当向导。从1921年第一支英国探险队攀登珠穆朗玛峰起，夏尔巴人的力量、技能、诚实和奉献精神使他们成为山上理想的好伙伴。从那以后，每一支珠穆朗玛峰的探险队都要依赖夏尔巴人的支持和帮助。
①at such a great height 在这么高的地方
Temples, mosques, churches and synagogues are all sacred buildings. 寺庙、清真寺、基督教堂及犹太教堂都是奉献给神的建筑物。
The Koran is the sacred book of the Muslims. 可兰经是伊斯兰教徒的圣书。
He considered it a sacred duty to fulfill his dead fathers wishes. 他认为实现父亲的遗愿是神圣的义务。
严肃的；郑重的；庄严的: a sacred promise郑重的诺言
be sacred from免除, 不受
hold sacred尊重, 保护
③act as guides充当向导
act as 扮演;担当;充当。后面所接的名词常可不加冠词。
A trained dog can act as a guide to a blind man.经过训练的犬可以充当盲人的向导。
One of his friends acted as go-between.他的一个朋友充当介绍人。
④honesty and dedication诚实和奉献精神
This dictionary is ideal — its exactly what I needed这本词典很理想，正是我所需要的。
空想的；想象中的: ideal plans for making money赚钱的空想计划
n.理想；理想的东西；最终目的: to realize ones ideal实现最终目的
⑥make them ideal companions使他们成为理想的伴侣
One of the first foreign expeditions to climb Mount Qomolangrna arrived in Tibet in 1921. They had no idea what they were up against①. British expeditions returned in 1922 and 1924, but failed to reach the top. The local Tibetans and Sherpas laughed at the strange bottles containing what they referred to as②"English air". In 1924 two British men were lost. When their oxygen ran out③, they had no chance of surviving. After World War II, technological advances④in clothing and equipment had been made, and more was known about the mountain itself, which by now had been flown over several times by aircraft. The New Zealander Edmund Hillary and the Sherpa Tenzing Norgay, as members of a British team, were the first to make it⑤to the summit of Mount Qomolangma. They reached the top on May 29, 1953. 最先来攀登珠穆朗玛峰的探险队中，有一支是1921年到达西藏的。他们对将要面临的情况毫无所知。两个英国探险队1922年和1924年返回重新登山，但都没能登上顶峰。当地的西藏人和夏尔巴人对着那些奇形怪状的瓶子发笑，瓶子里装的是他们所说的“英国空气”。1924年两名英国人失踪了。当他们的氧气用完后，他们就无法生存了。第二次世界大战后，服装和装备都在技术上取得了进步，人们对高山本身也有了更多的了解。到现在为止，飞机已经多次飞越了山峰。新西兰人艾德蒙•希拉里和夏尔巴人登舍•诺吉作为英国登山队的成员，是第一批登上珠穆朗玛最高峰的人。他们是1953年5月29日到达顶峰的。
①be up against面对，对抗
up against difficulties面临困难
②refer to sth/sb as认为某人某物…
refer vt., vi. (-rr-)（常与to 连用）涉及；提到；查资料；参考；针对；有关；提交；交付
The new law does not refer to farm land. 新法律与耕地无关。
The shop referred the complaint to the manufacturers.商店把投诉转交给制造商。
refer oneself to依赖, 求助于
refer to提到, 谈到, 涉及 参考, 查阅 向...打听[查询] 认为与...有关, 认为...起源于...
refer to sb. [sth.] as称某人[物]为
③run out用尽，用完（= become used up）其主语通常为时间、食物以及金钱等名词。
His money soon ran out.他的钱不久就用光了。
run out of用完了，表示主动含义，主语一般是人。
He is always running out of money before pay day.他总是在发工资前就用光了钱。
表示“用光、用尽”的还有：use up,give out
All those I had are used up.我所有的都用光了。
They have used up their money.他们用光了钱。
The fuel gave out.燃料用光了。
You can’t have a hot bath—the water will give out.你不能洗热水澡了。水要没了。
从以上例子可看出，虽然这些词组都表示“用光、用完”，但use up,run out of 为及物动词，而run out,give out为不及物动词。
I ran into Emma on my way home.我在回家的路上碰到了Emma。
If you run into difficulties,try to overcome them.如遇困难，要努力去克服。
[注意]run out of还有“从…中流出”之义；run out也表示“流出”，但其后不接宾语。
④make technological advances in…作出技术的进步
⑤make it做成功，达成; make it to +地点 到达某地
In later years the question arose① who was the first to reach the top. Whenever he was asked, Sherpa Tenzing Norgays answer was, "We climbed as a team, period. Like winning in the Olympic Games, climbing a mountain such as Mount Qomolangma is a great personal achievement. Climbing the mountain is still one of mans greatest challenges. Since 1953 several hundred people have succeeded in climbing the mountain, some to be the first woman, some to be the first woman, some to be the first of their nation and many in attempts①to climb the mountain over different slopes. 在随后的岁月里，问题就产生了：谁是第一个登上顶峰的?每当人们问到夏尔巴人登舍•诺吉的时候，他总是回答说，“我们是作为一个集体登山的。”就像在奥林匹克运动会上取得胜利一样，攀登像珠穆朗玛峰这样高的山是个人的一项巨大成就。登珠峰现在仍然是对人类的最大挑战。从1953年以来，已经有好几百人成功地登上了这座山，有的是第一个登上峰顶的妇女，有的是自己国家的第一人，还有许多人试图从不同的山坡爬上去。
①arise vi. (arose, arisen) 出现，呈现；发生
arise from / out of由…引起（产生）
Some unexpected difficulties / opportunities have arisen.出现了一些意外的困难（机会）。
A difficulty arose right here.困难就在这里。
How did the quarrel arise?这次争吵是怎么引起的？
rise vi.升起，上涨；raise vt.举起，提高，提升，提出；饲养（羊、鸡等），抚养（子女等），招募（军队等），募捐（钱等）。
②in attempts to climb the mountain over different slopes尝试从不同的山坡登山
in one’s attempt to do 尝试做某事
attempt n. vt. 尝试，企图；企图杀害
The prisoner attempted an escape but failed.那个囚犯尝试越狱，但没有成功。
They attempted a surprise attack.他们企图实施突然的打击。
They attempted to climb Mt Everest.
He attempted breaking the world record.
He failed in his attempt to win first prize.
attempted adj. 未遂的，意图的。an attempted murder一次未遂谋杀
The Chinese made their first successful attempt in 1960. On May 25 of that year, Gongbu, Wang Fuzhou and Qu Yinhua reached the summit of Qomolangma in darkness, so they were unable to take photos①of evidence. They left behind an iron container with the national flag and a portrait②of Chairman Mao was the youngest ever to have reached the summit. On their return③, they were praised as④national heroes. On May 27, 1975, another Chinese team climbed Qomolangma from its northern side. Over the past 40 years, 29 other Chinese people have climbed Qomolangma successfully. 中国人首次成功的尝试是在1960年。当年的5月25日，贡布、王富洲和屈银华登上了珠穆朗玛峰的顶峰。因为天黑，他们无法拍下照片，证明他们已登上顶峰。所以他们留下一个铁桶，里面放着一面国旗和毛泽东主席的像片。屈银华当年只有25岁，是爬上山顶的最年轻的人。他们返回后被誉为民族英雄。1975年5月27日，另一支中国登山队从北面攀登珠穆朗玛峰。在过去的40年里，还有另外的29位中国人成功地登上了珠穆朗玛峰。
②a portrait of Chairman Mao Zedong毛主席头像
③on one’s return返回
介词on / upon后常接动词性的名词或动名词，表示“刚…就…；一…就”。
On his arrival at the airport, he was arrested by the police.一到机场
On his arrival in Beijing, I called him up on the phone. .一到北京
Upon hearing from you, I shall let her know.一收到你的来信
as soon as (so soon as仅用于否定句)
He wrote his family a letter as soon as he found a job.
The moment he reached the classroom, he began to study.
I recognized her immediately I saw her.
Immediately he opened the door, the telephone rang.
the instant / minute / second…
He came the instant I called his name.
His head had no sooner touché the pillow than he fell asleep.他一上床就睡着了。
No sooner had the medical workers arrived than they began treating the injured.
hardly…when / before…
Hardly had we started when it began to rain.