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2010年高考英语介词语法专题

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2010年《高考风向标》•英语
目     录
 
第一部分  教材梳理
必修一
Unit 1  Friendship
单元要点预览
语言要点
词语辨析
词性变化
重点单词
重点词组
重点句子
课文要点
课文词汇填空
课文大意概括
课文佳句背诵与仿写
单元自测

Unit 2  English around the world
单元要点预览
语言要点
词语辨析
词性变化
重点单词
重点词组
重点句子
课文要点
课文词汇填空
课文大意概括
课文佳句背诵与仿写
单元自测

Unit 3  Travel journal
单元要点预览
语言要点
词语辨析
词性变化
重点单词
重点词组
重点句子
课文要点
课文词汇填空
课文大意概括
课文佳句背诵与仿写
单元自测

Unit 4  Earthquakes
单元要点预览
语言要点
词语辨析
词性变化
重点单词
重点词组
重点句子
课文要点
课文词汇填空
课文大意概括
课文佳句背诵与仿写
单元自测

Unit 5  Nelson Mandela—a modern hero
单元要点预览
语言要点
词语辨析
词性变化
重点单词
重点词组
重点句子
课文要点
课文词汇填空
课文大意概括
课文佳句背诵与仿写
单元自测

必修二
Unit 1  Cultural relics
单元要点预览
语言要点
词语辨析
词性变化
重点单词
重点词组
重点句子
课文要点
课文词汇填空
课文大意概括
课文佳句背诵与仿写
单元自测

Unit 2  The Olympic Games
单元要点预览
语言要点
词语辨析
词性变化
重点单词
重点词组
重点句子
课文要点
课文词汇填空
课文大意概括
课文佳句背诵与仿写
单元自测

Unit 3  Computers
单元要点预览
语言要点
词语辨析
词性变化
重点单词
重点词组
重点句子
课文要点
课文词汇填空
课文大意概括
课文佳句背诵与仿写
单元自测

Unit 4  Wildlife protection
单元要点预览
语言要点
词语辨析
词性变化
重点单词
重点词组
重点句子
课文要点
课文词汇填空
课文大意概括
课文佳句背诵与仿写
单元自测

Unit 5  Music
单元要点预览
语言要点
词语辨析
词性变化
重点单词
重点词组
重点句子
课文要点
课文词汇填空
课文大意概括
课文佳句背诵与仿写
单元自测

必修三
Unit 1  Festivals around the world
单元要点预览
语言要点
词语辨析
词性变化
重点单词
重点词组
重点句子
课文要点
课文词汇填空
课文大意概括
课文佳句背诵与仿写
单元自测

Unit 2  Healthy eating
单元要点预览
语言要点
词语辨析
词性变化
重点单词
重点词组
重点句子
课文要点
课文词汇填空
课文大意概括
课文佳句背诵与仿写
单元自测

Unit 3  The Million Pound Bank Note
单元要点预览
语言要点
词语辨析
词性变化
重点单词
重点词组
重点句子
课文要点
课文词汇填空
课文大意概括
课文佳句背诵与仿写
单元自测


……


第二部分 语法专题
专题一 冠词
专题二 名词
专题三 代词
专题四 数词
专题五 形容词和副词
专题六 介词
专题七 情态动词
专题八 非谓语动词
专题九 动词和动词短语
专题十 动词的时态
专题十一 动词的语态
专题十二 句子种类
专题十三 名词性从句
专题十四 定语从句
专题十五 状语从句
专题十六 倒装句和省略句
专题十七 强调句
专题十八 虚拟语气
专题十九 主谓一致
专题二十 直接引语和间接引语

第三部分 高考题型讲练
听力
完形填空
语法填空
阅读理解
信息匹配
基础写作
读写任务
 
 
第二部分 语法专题

 


专题六  介词
I、重点难点解析
    介词又叫前置词,是一种虚词。介词不能独立在句中做成份,介词后必须与名词、代词、或动名词构成介词短语在句中充当一个成份,表示人、物、事件等与其它人、物、事件等之间的关系。介词短语在句中可作定语、状语、表语、宾语补足语。
一 介词从结构上分类一览表   
介词的分类
简单
介词 只有单独一个词的介词
after, at, on, in, during, since, till等(时间介词); across, over, through, past, near, to, above等(方位介词);by, for, down, from, of, off, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, up, with, about, against, along, among, around...
复合
介词 由两个单一词合成的介词
into,inside,onto,outside,throughout,towards,upon,within,without…
短语
介词 (1)形容词,分词或副词+介词
according to, away from, down to, inside of, near to, opposite to, owing to...
 (2)连词+介词
as for,as to,because of…
 (3)介词+介词(又称双重介词)
from among, from behind, from under, till after, in between...
 (4)介词+名词+介词
by means of, in front of, in spite of, on account of, with regard to……
 (5)其他
(名词十介词)thanks to
由其他词类转用 (1)分词 concerning(关于),considering(就……而论),including(包括),regarding(关于)
 (2)形容词
或副词 like(像),near(接近).opposite(在……对面),unlike(不像),round(围绕……),next( 和……邻接)
 (3)连词 than,but(除……之外)
 (4)名词 despite(不顾;不管)
二 主要介词区别
1.表示时间的at,in,on:
  at表示片刻的时间,如:at 8 a.m. 常用词组有:at dawn, at noon,at night,at midnight,at the end of,at that time,    at Christmas,at New Year等。
  in表示一段的时间,如:in the morning/afternoon/evening,in October,in 1998,in the 21st century, in summer, in the past, in the future等。
  on指特定的日子,时间:on Monday,on Christmas Eve, on May Day,on a warm morning, on September 12, on that day等。
2.表示时间的since和from:
   since “自从…以来”,常与现在完成时、现在完成进行时连用。
   from “自…起”,一般多与现在时、过去时、将来时连用。如:I hope to do morning exercises from today./We have not seen each other since 1995.
3.表示时间的in和after:
   in+时间段,一般用于将来时。如:We II be back in three days.
   after+时间段,一般用于过去时。如: After two months he returned.
    注意:after+时间点,可用于过去时和将来时。如:After seven the rain began to fall. / What shall we do after  graduation?
4.表示方位的in,on,to:
  in表示 “在…内”, Beijing is in the north of China.
 on指 “与…接壤,在河/江畔”, Korea lies on the east of China
 to指在境外某方向,只强调方向Japan lies to the east of China.
5.表示“在……上”的on和in:
  on只表示在某物的表面上,如:There is a book on the piece of paper.
  in表示占去某物一部分,如: There is an interesting article in the newspaper. / He dug a hole in the wall.
6.表示“穿过……”的through, over和across:
  through 指在内部穿过,
  across则指在表面上的横穿,
  over指在上方过去,跨越。如:The Great Wall winds its way from west to east, across deserts, over mountains, through valleys, till at last it reaches the sea.
7.In the end,at the end of,by the end of
  in the end意为“最后”、“终于”; 如: In the end they reached a place of safety
  at the end of表示“在…末梢”,“到…尽头”,既可指时间,也可以指地上或物体;如:
    At the end of the road stands a beautiful garden.
    They decided to have an English evening at the end of this week.
  by the end of作“到…末为止”解,只能指时间,如:By the end of last month he had finished the novel.
8.between,among:
  between一般表示两者之间。如:You are to sit between your father and me
  among用于三者或三者以上的中间。如:. The girl quickly disappeared among the crowd.
       注意:有时虽然是三个以上的人或东西,如果强调两两相互间接关系,仍用between。如:Agreements were made between the different countries. 在谈事物间的差别时,总是用between。如:They don’t know the difference between wheat, oats and barley.
9.besides,except,but,except for:
   besides指“除了……还有”。如:Two foreign teachers were present at the meeting besides Smith.;
   except指“除…外”,不能放在句首。如:We go to school every day except Sunday.
   but与except意思相近, 常用在no, all, nobody, anywhere, everything ,no等词和其他疑问词后面。如:Who but a fool would do such a thing? except for表示“如无……就,只是”表明理由细节。如:His diary is good except for a few spelling mistakes.
10.表示用工具和手段的by, in, with:
   by表用工具(by train / land / hand / email…)或手段(by reading…),其后的名词前不带冠词;
   with表用工具(with a pencil / our eyes),其后的名词多被冠词、物主代词修饰;
   in表示用材料、方式、方法、度量、单位、语言、声音等(in pencil/English/a low voice…)
11.as,like:
   as指身份、资格,意为“作为”。 如:Let me speak to you as a father.(事实是父亲)
   like作“象……一样”解。如:Let me speak to you like a father.(事实上不是父亲)。
12.as, with都有“随着…”之意。
   as为连词,后接从句。如:As the day went on, the weather got worse
   with为介词,后接名词或代词。. 如:With spring coming on, the weather gets warmer.
II、实战演练
一、 介词比较精练,用适当的介词填空
1. 1) __________ the night of May 4th, my good friend left for Canada.
 2) __________ night you can see the stars twinkle in the sky.
 3) __________ Sunday morning/a cold morning Marie was woken up by a loud noise.
 4) __________ the morning she often has milk and some bread for breakfast.
 5) __________ the 1970s we had a hard time.
2. 1) Kate is writing __________ a friend of hers.
 2) Kate is writing __________ a piece of paper.
 3) Kate is writing __________ blue ink.
 4) Kate is writing __________ a piece of chalk on the blackboard.
 5) Kate is writing a letter __________ an old man who can’t write.
3. 1) We all passed the exam ________ the end.
 2) We had finished learning five books __________ the end of last term.
 3) We will hold a party ___________ the end of this term.
4. 1) The apples ________ the tree are ripe.
 2) The birds _________ the tree are singing merrily.
 3) There is a map of China _________ the back wall.
 4) There is a small hole ____________ the wall.
5. 1) China lies __________ the west of Japan.
 2) Canada lies _________ the north of the USA.
 3) Canada lies _________ the north of North America.
6. 1) He can do everything __________ cooking.
    2) He can speak two other languages __________ English.
    3) He did nothing _________ watch TV all day.
 4) The road was empty _________ _________ several cars at that time.
7. 1) The man tried to walk __________ the big rock.
 2) The man walked __________ the road and got on a bus.
 3) The man saw some beautiful birds when walking __________ the woods.
8. 1) There is no secret _________ you and me.
 2) You are the tallest ___________ my friends.
 3) There is a break ____________ classes.
9. 1) ________ time passed, things seemed to get worse.
 2) _______ time going by, he knows more and more.
10. 1) He will leave for Korea _________ three days.
 2) He went to Beijing and returned ___________ three days.
 3) He will be back ___________ 3 p.m.
 4) He has lived in Paris __________ three years ago.
 5) It kept raining heavily ___________ Monday _________ Wednesday.

二、 语法填空
阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,然后选用适当的介词填空
It was so nice an afternoon that I decided to go for a little walk  1   my new boots---the ones I’d seen advertised on TV  2   “the world’s best boots”. Well,   3   theory, yes, they were very comfortable boots but I soon found that in fact they gave me blisters. In general I do enjoy walking, but at that moment all I wanted was rest and refreshment, in other words, I needed to sit down, have a drink and go home  4   the bus. The last bus home was in half an hour and I was far  5   the bus stop so I would have to get there  6   a hurry. At last I got to the bus stop just in time  7   a drink at the pub before the bus came. I limped to the bus stop in the hope  8   getting on. But I was out of luck because the bus was full up---not even standing room! I knew I’d never make it home on foot and I was  9   the point of returning to the pub to drown my sorrows when another bus came round the corner, completely empty. I got on, sat by myself at the back and started to feel  10   peace with the world again as I took off my boots!

答案:1. On, At, On, In, In 2. to, on, in, with, for  3. in, by, at  4. on, in, on, in  5. to, on, in  6. except, besides, but, except for 7. over, across, through/in 8. between, among, between 9. As, With 10. in, after, at, since, from…to
1. in  2. as  3. in  4. on  5. from  6. in  7. for  8. of  9. on  10. at

 

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