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高三上学期英语寒假学习资料梳理

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一、重点单词1.able 用法:be able to do Note: 反义词unable表示不能,而disabled表示残疾的。be able to do可以表示经过艰难困苦才能做到的事。2.abroad 用法:表示到(在)国外,是一个副词,前面不加介词。Note: 可以说from abroad, 表示从国外回来。3.admit 用法:表示承认的时候后面要加上动名词形式。Note: 表示允许进入的时候与介词to搭配。4.advise 用法:advise sb. to do; advise doingNote: 后面的宾语从句要用虚拟语气。即:advise that sb. (should) do的形式。5.afford 用法:通常与动词不定式搭配使用。Note: 前面需要有be able to或can等词。6.after 用法:表示在时间、空间之后;be after表示追寻。Note: 用在将来时的时候后面接一时间点,而in接一个时间段,如:after 3 o’clock; in 3 days.7.agree 用法:与介词on, to, with及动词不定式搭配。Note: agree on表示达成一致;agree to表示批准;agree with表示同意某人说的话。8.alive 用法:表语性形容词,在句中只能作表语,不能作定语。Note: 可以作状语使用,表示活活地,如:bury sb. alive.9.allow 用法:allow doing; allow sb. to doNote: 可以表示允许进入,如:Please allow me in.10.among 用法:用在三者或三者以上的群体中。Note: 还可以表示其中之一,如:He is among the best.11.and 用法:用于连接两个词、短语、句子或其他相同结构。Note: 与祈使句搭配时往往可以表示条件。如:Work hard, and you’ll succeed sooner or later.12.another 用法:表示又一个,泛指,相当于one more的含义。Note: 不能直接加复数名词,需要与一个数词搭配,如:another 2 weeks.13.answer 用法:及物动词,但在作名词时要与介词to搭配。Note: 可以表示接电话、应门等。如:answer the phone/door.14.anxious 用法:be anxious for/about/to doNote: be anxious about表示担心;be anxious for表示盼望得到。15.appear 用法:不及物动词,没有宾语,没有被动语态。Note: 还可以作为系动词,与seem同义,表示看起来……。16.arrive 用法:arrive at表示到一个小地方;arrive in表示到一个大地方。Note: 引申含义表示得出,如:arrive at a decision/conclusion.17.ask 用法:ask to do; ask sb. to do; ask forNote: 后面的宾语从句要用虚拟语气。即:ask that sb. (should) do的形式。18.asleep 用法:表语性形容词,在句中只能作表语,不能作定语。Note: 通常与动词be及fall搭配;sound asleep表示熟睡。19.attend 用法:表示参加,后面经常加上meeting, lecture, conference, class, school, wedding, funeral等词;也可以表示照顾,照料。Note: attend to可以表示处理、照料等。20.attention 用法:pay attention to; draw/catch sb’s attentionNote: 写通知时的常用语:May I have your attention, please?21.beat 用法:表示打败某人,或连续不断地击打某物。Note: heartbeat表示心跳。22.because 用法:后面接原因状语从句,because of后面接名词。Note: because表示直接原因,因此只有用它才可以回答why的特殊疑问句及用在强调句中。23.become 用法:系动词,表示变得……。可以由好变坏或由坏变好。Note: become of sb.表示某人发生了什么事情。24.before 用法:before long, long before, the day before yesterday, the week / year before last 上上周/前年Note: It be + 段时间 before…在该句型中,主句时态只有将来时态和一般过去时态。25.begin 用法:begin to do; begin doingNote: 当begin本身是进行时的时候,只能用begin to do的形式。如:It was beginning to rain.26.believe 用法:believe sb.表示相信某人说的话;believe in sb.表示信任;6123结构。Note: 回答问句时通常用I believe so/not的形式。27.besides 用法:表示除……之外还有,包含在一个整体之中。Note: 还可以用作副词,表示此外,要用逗号隔开。28.beyond 用法:表示越过、在另一边,如:beyond the wood/bridge.Note: 可以用于引申含义,表示超出……,如:beyond control/power/description.29.bit 用法:与a little一样可以修饰不可数名词,形容词或副词。Note: 修饰名词时要用a bit of;not a bit表示一点也不。30.blame 用法:take/bear the blame; blame sth. on. sb.Note: 表示应受到责怪时不用被动语态,如:He is to blame.31.blow 用法:blow down/awayNote: 表示风刮得很大时要用blow hard.32.boil 用法:boiling表示沸腾的;boiled表示煮过的。Note: boiling point可以表示沸点。33.borrow 用法:borrow表示借入:lend表示借出。Note: 点动词,不能表示借的时间长短。34.breath 用法:hold one’s breath;out of breath; save one’s breathNote: take a breath表示深吸一口气;take breath表示喘口气。35.burn 用法:burn down/up/one’s handNote: burning表示点着的;burnt表示烧坏的。36.business 用法:on business表示出差;in/out of business表示开/关张。Note: 表示商业时不可数,表示具体的行业时可数。37.busy 用法:be busy with/doing.Note: 不能说My work is busy. 应说I am busy with my work.38.buy 用法:buy sth. for 5 dollars; buy sth. for sb.Note: 点动词,不能表示买的时间长短。39.but 用法:not…but.. but for next but one , have no choice bu to do sth., all but 几乎,差一点Note: do nothing but do sth. nothing前有do,后面的to要省略。Not only… but also…引导的并列句,前倒后不倒。cannot help/ choose but do sth. 不能不,只能40.by 用法:by accident, by air/ sea/ train, by and by, by far, by force, by mistake, by chance, by the wayNote: by way of 取道,经由。by reason of 由于。by 引导的时间状语一般句子用完成时态。41.care 用法:take care of; with care; care for/aboutNote: care about表示在乎,常用于否定句;care for表示关心,喜爱,常用于肯定句。42.carry 用法:carry表示搬运;carry on表示进行;坚持下去;carry out表示执行。Note: carry没有方向性,可以表示随身携带。43.case 用法:in case; in case of; in any case; in this/that caseNote: in case后面的状语从句可以用虚拟语气,即in case sb. should do的形式。44.catch 用法:catch the thief; catch fire; catch a cold; catch up withNote: be caught表示陷入困境,如:He was caught in the rain.45.cattle 用法:集合名词,动词要用复数形式。如:Cattle are raised here.Note: 一头牛可以用a head of cattle. 注意十头牛用ten head of cattle。46.chance 用法:by chance; take a chance; there is a chance that…Note: 在chance后面可以用动词不定式或者of的结构作定语。47.change 用法:change A for B表示用A换成B;change A into B 表示把A变成B。Note: 表示变化时是可数名词,表示零钱时不可数。48.class 用法:集合名词,谓语动词单复数由其表示的意思决定。Note: in class表示在上课,in the class表示在班上。49.close 用法:动词表示关闭;形容词表示亲密的;副词表示靠近。Note: close作副词时表示距离上的靠近,而另一个副词形式closely表示密切地。50.clothes 用法:复数名词,谓语动词用复数,不能加不定冠词。Note: 要用few或many来修饰。51. buy 用法:buy sth. for 5 dollars; buy sth. for sb.Note: 点动词,不能表示买的时间长短。52. but 用法:not…but.. but for next but one , have no choice bu to do sth., all but 几乎,差一点Note: do nothing but do sth. nothing前有do,后面的to要省略。Not only… but also…引导的并列句,前倒后不倒。cannot help/ choose but do sth. 不能不,只能53. by 用法:by accident, by air/ sea/ train, by and by, by far, by force, by mistake, by chance, by the wayNote: by way of 取道,经由。by reason of 由于。by 引导的时间状语一般句子用完成时态。54. call 用法: call for / up / back / in / , call on sb. to do sth., pay / make a call on sb. give sb. a call ,on callNote: call at后面跟地点;call on 后面跟人。55. care 用法:take care of; with care; care for/aboutNote: care about表示在乎,常用于否定句;care for表示关心,喜爱,常用于肯定句。56. carry 用法:carry表示搬运;carry on表示进行;坚持下去;carry out表示执行。Note: carry没有方向性,可以表示随身携带。57. case 用法:in case; in case of; in any case; in this/that caseNote: in case后面的状语从句可以用虚拟语气,即in case sb. should do的形式。58. catch 用法:catch the thief; catch fire; catch a cold; catch up with, catch sb. doing sth.Note: be caught表示陷入困境,如:He was caught in the rain.59. cattle 用法:集合名词,动词要用复数形式。如:Cattle are raised here.Note: 一头牛可以用a head of cattle. 注意十头牛用ten head of cattle。60. chance 用法:by chance; take a chance; there is a chance that…Note: 在chance后面可以用动词不定式或者of的结构作定语。61. change 用法:change A for B表示用A换成B;change A into B 表示把A变成B。Note: 表示变化时是可数名词,表示零钱时不可数。62. charge用法:charge sb. with (doing) sth. that… , charge sb. to do sth. charge sb. for $Note: in charge of 负责; in the charge of 由某人负责(表示的是被动的)。63. class 用法:集合名词,谓语动词单复数由其表示的意思决定。Note: in class表示在上课,in the class表示在班上。64. clear用法:clear away, clear off, make clear, it is clear that…Note: clear up 及物时表示“澄清,整理,收拾”;不及物表示“晴朗起来,开朗起来”。65. close 用法:动词表示关闭;形容词表示亲密的;副词表示靠近。Note: close作副词时表示距离上的靠近,而另一个副词形式closely表示密切地。66. clothes 用法:复数名词,谓语动词用复数,不能加不定冠词。Note: 要用few或many来修饰。67. collect 用法:collect stamps; collect one’s child from schoolNote: a collect phone表示对方付费的电话。68. come 用法:表示到说话者所处的地方来。常见短语有:come to, come about, come across, come out,come to an end, come down, come up, come into being/ exist / force / effect等。Note: 可用作系动词,表示变成,如:His dreams came true.69. common 用法:表示普遍性,如:Smith is a common name.Note: common sense表示常识;in common表示共同点。70. compare 用法:compare…with…表示把……与……作比较;compare…to…表示把……比作……。Note: 用作状语时,二者都可以表示比较,如:Compared with/to other women, she was very lucky.71. consider用法:consider doing sth. / what to do / that...,consider sb. sth. 6123结构Note: 该词直接跟宾语用动名词但可以用不定式作宾补;considering引导短语作状语,表示“考虑到”72. condition 用法:表示生活、工作等的条件或状况。Note: on condition that表示只要,条件状语从句。73. content 用法:be content with/to doNote: 表语性形容词,在句中只能作表语,不能作定语。74. cost 用法:sth. cost sb. some money,只能用物作主语。Note: 修饰cost要用副词high或low.75. cover 用法:be covered with表示状态;be covered by表示动作。Note: 反义词uncover表示揭开盖子;discover表示发现。76. cross用法:cross off 划掉,cross one’s mind, cross out, bear one’s cross 忍受痛苦Note: 作形容词一般用于be cross with sb. = be angry with sb.77. crowd 用法:be crowded withNote: 集合名词,谓语动词单复数由其表示的意思决定。78. cure 用法:cure sb. of …Note: cure 强调治愈,表示结果;而treat知表示动作。79. cut 用法:cut down/up/offNote: 作名词时a short cut表示捷径。80. damage 用法:do damage to sb. = do sb. harmNote: 表示损害的时候不可数,复数形式可以表示赔偿费。81. danger 用法:in danger表示处于危险的境地。Note: 表示一般概念时不可数,表示具体危险时可数。82. dare用法:作为情态动词一般用于否定句,疑问句或者条件状语从句;作为实意动词后跟不定式。Note: I dare say that….意为:我猜测,可能,或许。83. dark 用法:before/after dark; in the darkNote: 可以表示深色的,如:dark blue.84. deal 用法:a great/good deal of修饰不可数名词。Note: 作动词时构成短语deal with, 常与副词how搭配。85. defeat用法:及物动词,后面的宾语是国家,队,军队等名词。Note: 不能用人作宾语。86. demand 用法:demand to do; demand that…, demand of sb. to do sth.Note: 后面的宾语从句要用虚拟语气。即:demand that sb. (should) do的形式。87. depend用法:depend on sb./ sth. / one’s doing sth. / to do sth. Note: depend 不及物动词,常和on连用。意为“依靠,信赖”88. desert 用法:名词表示沙漠;动词表示抛弃。Note: 可以用过去分词作表语或定语,表示废弃的,如:a deserted house.89. determine 用法:determine to do; determine sb. to doNote: 过去分词表示有决心的,可以说be determined to do sth. 决心做…(表示状态)90. devote 用法:devote oneself to; be devoted toNote: 与devote搭配的to是介词,后面接名词或动名词。如:His whole life was devoted to teaching.91. die 用法:die of/from/for/out/ awayNote: 点动词,不与for引起的时间状语连用。92. difficulty 用法:have difficulty with; have difficulties with sth. ; have difficulty in doing sth. ;Note: 表示一般概念时不可数,表示具体困难时可数。93. disagree 用法:disagree with sb.Note: disagree虽然在形式上有否定前缀,但并不是个否定词。注意它的反义问句形式:He disagreed with you, didn’t he?94. distance 用法:in the distance; at a distanceNote: 可用于引申含义,表示时间上或情感上的距离。95. divide 用法:divide…into…表示把……分成几份。强调分成等份。Note: 可以表示除法,如:Nine divided by three is three.96. do 用法:do away with, do sb. a faour; do up; do with., do wonders, do sb. wrong = do wrong to sb.Note: 主要用作及物动词;不及物时表示“行”:If you have no pen, pencil will do.97. doubt用法:doubt sb. / sth. , beyond doubt, in doubt, no doubt, without a doubtNote: 主句是否定句时宾语用that引导;主句是肯定句时宾语用whether / if引导。98. downtown 用法:副词,前面不加介词,如:go downtown.Note: 可用作定语,如:a downtown street.99. draw 用法:draw a picture/the curtainNote: 引申含义表示得出,如:draw a conclusion/lesson.100. dream 用法:dream of/about/that…----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------二、重点词组1. be able to do能够做 After paying great efforts, he is able to speak English fluently. 2. be about to do正要做 As I was about to say, you interrupted me. 3. add… to…把……加…… If you add 5 to 5, you get ten. If the tea is too strong, add some hot water. This adds to our difficulties. 4. be afraid of 害怕 I was afraid of hurting her feelings. 5. go against反对 We don't agree with the proposal, because it goes against the law. 6. agree on达成一致 We agreed on an early start/making a early start. We all agree on the terms. 7.agree to do同意做 My father has agreed to buy me a new computer. 8. agree with同意某人(或其想法、观点、认识等);与……相符 I don't agree with you on this point. Your story agrees with what I had already heard. The climate doesn't agree with me. The mussels I had for lunch haven't agreed with me. The verb agrees its subject in number and person. 9. be angry with对……生气 He was angry with himself for having made such a foolish mistake. He was angry at being kept waiting. 10. be anxious about对……担心 I was anxious about my son's health. 11. apply for申请 I have applied to the Consul for the visa. 12. take sth. in one's arms把……抱在怀里 She took a bunch of roses in her arms. 13. take up arms拿起武器 We should take up our arms to defend our motherland. 14. arrive in/at a place达到某地 My brother will arrive in Beijing next Monday. I arrive at the school every morning at a regular time. 15. ask (sb.) for sth.向(某人)要某物 You shouldn't ask your parents for money any more. 16. pay attention to对……注意 When you write an essay, you have several things to pay attention to. 17. be away from远离…… When you friend is in trouble, don't be away from him/her; instead, you should try your best to help. 18. go/run away逃跑 It's dangerous! Go/run away immediately. 19. beat… to death将……打死 He was nearly beat to death once after he was caught stealing. 20. go to bed上床休息 I was so tired that I went to bed earlier than before. 21. make the bed铺床 You are old enough to make the beds by yourself. 22. beg one's pardon请某人再说一遍 Sorry I didn't catch it. I beg your pardon. 23. begin… with以……开始 The party began with a cheerful song. 24. believe in信仰 In western countries, many people believe in God. 25. belong to属于 That Taiwan belongs to China should be unquestionable. 26. do one's best尽最大的努力 If you have done your best, then there's nothing to regret. 27. had better最好 You had better stop smoking. 28. blow away吹走 The wind blew the heat away. 29. take a boat乘船 I took a boat to go to the island in the center of the lake. 30. be born出生 He was born in a wealthy family. 31. break away from从……脱离,断绝关系 We won't say "Yes" to anyone's breaking away from our country. Can't you break away from old habits? 32. break down(指计划、打算)破灭;(机器)坏了;(身体状况)变差 Our plans have broken down. Negotiations between the two countries have broken down. The engine broke down. His health broke down after the death of his wife. Sugar and starch are broken down in the stomach. 33. break into破门而入 His house was broken into last week. 34. break off 从中间打断 He broke off in the middle of a sentence. Let's break off for an hour and have some tea. The mast broke off. 35. break out(指战争、灾难、争吵等)突然爆发 A fire broke out during the night. The quarrel broke out afresh. 36. break the rules违反规则 Everyone in the group mustn't break the rules. 37. break up击碎、驱散 终止 结束 分裂 分开 分手放学The ship was breaking up on the rocks. The gathering broke up in disorder. The police broke up the crowd. 38. hold one's breath屏住呼吸 He held his breath and sneaked into his room. 39. bring down击落、打倒 A moment ago, we brought down a hostile aircraft. We should bring down the tyrant. 40. bring in赚得、赢得(利润) His farms bring (him) in $20000 a year. The program brings in a new fashion. 41. bring on导致……结果 He was out all day in the rain and this brought on a bad cold. The fine weather is bringing the crops on nicely. The coach is bringing on some youngsters in the reserve team. 42. bring up抚养 She has brought up five children. If children are badly brought up they behave badly. 43. build up建立;恢复(身体状况等) He has built up a good business. He went on holiday and soon built up his health. 44. burn…to the ground把……夷为平地 The Japanese invaders burnt the houses to the ground. 45. burn down烧光 The house was burnt down. 46. burst into laughter.突然爆发大笑 On seeing the amusing scene, she burst into laughter. 47. burst into tears突然大哭 She suddenly burst into tears. 48. be busy doing/with sth.忙于做某事 We are busy preparing for/with the exam. 49. call at (a place)拜访某地 I called at the tailor's a couple of days ago. 50. call back回电话 I will call back later. 51. call for到某地取东西;接人;要求;呼吁 A man calls every Monday for old newspapers. I'll call for you at 6 o'clock. The occasion calls for prompt action. People all over the world call for peace. 52. call in请(医生) Please call in a doctor at once. 53. call on拜访某人 My uncle called on me yesterday on his way home. 54. take care of照顾;负责 The nurse took good care of the patients. Here, let me take care of the cleaning. These are the devices that take care of the waste from the factory. 55. care for 担心、关心、想 My parents care for my safety when I travel by myself. The elders should care for the younger generation. Would you care for a game of table tennis? 56. carry off夺走(生命);取得(奖励等) The terrible war carried off her father's life. Tom carried off all the school prizes. 57. carry on进行 The discussion carried on after a short break. 58. carry out实施 The plan has to be carried out as soon as possible. 59. catch fire起火 This material is easy to catch fire. Be careful. 60. catch up with赶上 I have to study even harder than before in order to catch up with my peers. 61. change…for把……换成 The shirt is too big. Can I change for another one. 62. change…into把……变成 He changed into his working clothes when he began to work. 63. change one's mind改变主意 I persuaded him to change his mind. 64. check out核对,检查 Would you help me to check out the names and numbers. He checked out and left the hotel. 65. clear away收拾,整理 Please help me to clear away the tea things. 66. clear up(指天)晴朗;清理 The weather/sky is clearing up. Clear up the desk before you leave the office. 67. catch/take cold; have a cold感冒 He was absent because he caught cold last night. 68. come about产生……结果 How does it come about half of the class are absent? 69. come across碰巧遇到;突然想起 I came across this old brooch in a curio shop. The thought came across my mind that we … 70. come back回想起来 Their names are all coming back to me now. 71. come down(指雨)下得很大;(指气温)下降 The rain came down in bucketfuls. The temperature came down suddenly. 72. come from来自 Much of the butter in England comes from New Zealand. 73. come off脱落 The button has come off my coat. 74. come on加油 Come on! Let's race to the bottom of the hill. 75. come out出现;(指花)开放; The stars come out. The flowers are coming out. When will his new book come out? 76. come to(指数字)达到 The total number of people who attended the conference came to 1000. 77. come true(指梦想)实现 I hope that my dream will come true one day in the future. 78. come up He came up the hard way. The question hasn't come up yet. 79. compare with与……比较 Compared with education in western countries, China has her own special features. 80. compare to把……比作 Teachers are sometimes compared to candles. 81. connect to 与……联系 It's a railway that connects Beijing to Shenzhen. 82. connect with与……联接 Where does cooker connect with the gas-pipe? 83. be considered as被认为是 She is considered as the best teacher in our school. 84. consider doing sth.考虑做…… I'm considering moving abroad. 85. be covered with被……覆盖 The ground was covered with heavy snow. 86. cut down砍倒 Don't cut down the young trees. 87. cut off砍掉;截断 Don't cut your fingers off! The enemy had cut off our food supply. 89. cut up切碎 I'll cut up the meat. 90. date from起始于 The temple dates from over a thousand years ago. 91. deal with处理;对付;相处;涉及 How do you deal with the difficulties? The man is hard to deal with. The book deals with health problems. 92. do a good deed做好事 During his lifetime, Lei Feng had done many good deeds. 93. depend on取决于;信任 Whether we go to park this weekend depends on the weather. You can always depend on Jim, for he is an honest man. It depends on you. Any time is all right for me. 94. devote to把(时间、精力等)专注于…… Mary Curio devoted all her life to the research of radiation matters, 95. die of死于 He dies of a disease. 96. die out绝种 Many old customs are gradually dying out. 97. be different from与……不同 The picture on the right is different from the one on the left. 98. divide up把……分开 We divided the money up equally. How shall we divide the work up? 99. divide into把……分成(几部分) The house was divided into two parts. 100. do sb. a favor给某人帮忙 Would you do me a favor? 101. do well in在……方面表现好 He did well in maths when he was in high school. 102. do wrong犯错误,犯罪 He was sentenced three years for his doing wrong. 103. dream of梦想 I am always dreaming of traveling around the world. 104. drop in顺路拜访 Some friends dropped in to tea. 105. earn one's living挣钱维持生计 She earned her living by writing. 106. eat up吃光 He was so hungry that he ate up all the food on the table. 107. have an effect on对……有影响 Her childhood life had a great effect on her later life. 108. end up结束(一般是不太好的结果) If you continue stealing you will end up in prison. 109. fall asleep入睡 He was so tired that he fell asleep very soon. 110. fall behind落后 He always falls behind when we're going uphill. 111. fall down摔倒 Babies often fall down when they are learning to walk. The basket is full of eggs -don't let it fall down. 112. fall ill生病 He has fallen ill. 113. fall in love with与……相爱 He fell in love with an actress. 114. fall off从……摔下 The daily number of passengers by this line shows a slight falling off. The naughty boy fell off the tree when he reached the bird nest. 115. fall over摔入 He fell over into the water and broke his legs. 116. fall to pieces摔成碎片 The window was broken and fell to pieces. 117. be familiar with与……熟悉 He was familiar with English and did the translation work well. 118. be famous for因……出名 Bill Gates is famous for his greatest fortune of the world. 119. feel like doing想做…… I don't feel like eating too much. 120. fill in填写 Please fill in the application forms before you go for a interview. 121. find out找出事实真相 I made up mind to find out the truth. 122. be fit for对……合适 She is the very person who is fit for the position. 123. fix up给某人提供住宿;安排 I'll fix you up for the night. Don't worry about that. My secretary has fixed up a meeting with you. Please fix your drawers up. 124. be fond of喜欢…… I was very fond of teaching, so I decided to work in a high school as a teacher. 125. set free解放 One of the great contributions Lincoln had made was setting the slaves free. 126. make friends with与……交朋友 She was very popular, and she had made lots of friends after she moved to the new school. 127. be full of充满…… The hall was full of crowds of people. 128. make fun of开……的玩笑 Never make fun of the disabled people. 129. get along with与……相处 She is getting along with her studies and new friends well. 130. get away逃走 Two of the prisoners got away. 131. get back回来 You can arrange you time yourself after school as long as you get back before 10p.m. 132. get close to接近 In order to be a famous actor, he tried to get close to those movie stars. 133. get down下车 Remember to get down after three stops. 134. get down to集中精力做…… I should get down to my work after the long holiday. 135. get in(表示火车)进站;收割 Th train got in five minutes early. Farmers get in harvest in September. 136. get in touch with与……取得联系 I've lost my phone book, so I can't get in touch with my old friends. 137. get into the habit of形成某种习惯 After coming here, I've got into the habit of getting up early in the morning. 138. get married结婚 He has got married and has the twins. 139. get off We got off immediately after breakfast. She got off the scarf after getting in. 140. get rid of摆脱,除掉 We should get rid of bad habits. 141. get though接通;通过(考试); I rang you several times yesterday but couldn't get through. Tom failed but his sister got through. 142. get together聚会 We got together to celebrate the New Year's Day. 143. give a talk作演讲 A well known expert is supposed to give a talk tomorrow afternoon. 144. give advice提建议 We need friends to give advice. 145. give back还回 You should give back what you've borrowed. 146. give birth to生育 The mother panda gave birth to two baby pandas yesterday. 147. give in让步,退让 The rebels were forced to give in. Mary usually has to give in to her big brother. 148. give off放出(某种气体、光、射线等) The special matter gives off radiation. 149. give out消耗尽;分发 Our food supplies began to give out. Her patience gave out. Please help me to give out the books. 150. give up放弃 Don't give up when you get in trouble. 151. go ahead向前,前进 Don't mind it. Please go ahead. 152. go bad变质 Food is easy to go bad in summer. 153. go by经过 Time went by slowly. 154. go for a walk去散步 Let's go for a walk after dinner. 155. go off(指枪)走火;(食物)变坏;(演员)下场 The gun went off by accident. This milk has gone off. Hamlet goes off. 156. go on继续 Don't stop. Go on please. How much longer will the hot weather go on? 157. go on doing sth.继续做某事 Never give up! Go on trying. I hope it won't go on raining all day. 158. go on with one's work继续某人的工作 Let's stop here today. We'll go on with our work tomorrow. 159. go out(灯)熄灭;参加社交活动 There was a power cut and all the lights went out. She still goes out a great deal, even at seventy-five. 160. go through浏览;翻找;经历(苦难) Go through all the exercises before you start the listening practice. The police went through the pockets of the suspected thief. My grandfather is a real man who has gone through hardships. 161. go up上升 The temperature is going up. 162. be good at擅长于 She is an excellent student who is good at nearly everything. 163. grow up长大 When you grow up you will understand all this. 164. hand down流传 We can not always observe the traditions handed down to us from the past. 165. hand in上交 Remember to hand in the paper before Next Tuesday. 166. hand in hand手拉手 We should act hand in hand in international affairs. 167. hand out分发 Please help me t o hand out the reading materials. 168. have…on有……活动 I have nothing on tomorrow evening. I'm free. 169. have…to do with与……有关 It has nothing to do with you, so you can leave now. 170. have a gift for有……方面的天赋 She has had a gift for music since she was quite young. 171. have got to不得不 It's too late and I have got to go right now. 172. have sth. on穿着…… The emperor had nothing on, for he believed that he had had the most beautiful new clothes in the world. 173. use one's head动脑子 Use your head and you'll work it out by yourself. 174. hear about听说 I've just heard about his dismissal. 175. hear from有……的消息 I haven't heard from you for a long time. 176. hear of听说 I've never heard of that place. 177. learn/know sth. by heart把……牢记 If you have learned/known a great deal of poems by heart, you will know how to write poems by yourself. 178. say hello to…向某人问好 Please say hello to your parents for me. 179. help oneself to随意 Make yourself at home. Help yourself to some fish. 180. help sb. with sth.帮助某人做某事 I should thank you for helping me with English. 181. help out帮……出困境 I don't know how to translate the passage. Please help me out. 182. hold on别挂电话 -- Is that Mary speaking? -- Hold on, please. I'll get her. 183. hold out伸出 Hold your right arm out and let me examine it. 184. hold up举起 He is such a proud men., always holding his head up. They were held up by the immigration authorities. 185. hurry up快点 Hurry up or we'll be late. 186. insist on坚持 He insisted on his innocence. The little boy insisted on doing it by his own. 187. join in加入 Why don't you join in the conversation? 187. join up连接起来 We should join up and take actions to defend ourselves. 188. keep a record做记录 When you do an experiment, you'd better keep a record. 189. keep back扣 They keep back $200 a month from my salary for National Insurance. 190. keep fit保持身体健康 Nowadays keeping fit is a hot topic of people's conversations and focus of magazines and newspapers. 191. keep in touch with保持联络 Although he is abroad now, he can keep in touch with his friends by e-mail. 192. keep off让……远离 They made a big fire to keep wild animals off. 193. keep on doing sth.重复地做某事 Don't keep on asking silly questions. Keep on working for a whole day made me exhausted. 194. keep one's balance保持平衡 It's very important for an gymnastic to keep his/her balance. Keeping balance of nature is of great significance. 195. keep one's promise遵守诺言 no one will believe those who don't keep their promises. 196. keep up振作精神;保持(习俗);维持 Keep up your spirits! Keep you chin up! Sometimes we should keep up old customs. How much does it cost you to keep up such a large house and garden? 197. knock at敲门 Listen, I heard somebody knocking at the door. 198. knock into sb.撞倒 When I fell from the tree, I knocked into a passer-by. 199. knock out of把……敲出来 Grandfather was sitting at the table, knocking the ash out of his pipe. 200. laugh at嘲笑 Don't laugh at those who seem to be inferior. 201. lay the table摆桌子 Please lay the table. Dinner is ready. 202. lead to 导致 Carelessness led to the terrible traffic accident and death of five passengers. 203. do one's lesson做功课 You have to do your lesson before you can watch TV. 204. have lesson上课 We don't have any lessons on weekends. 205. let in让……进入 Windows let in light and air. These shoes let in water. Who let you in? 206. let out把……放出;泄露(秘密) He let air out of the tyros. He tried to be calm, but his voice let him out. 207. live on 以……为生 He lives on a small wage. 208. look after照顾 I decide to stay home and look after my grandmother. 209. look back upon回顾 Sometimes when we look back upon the past, we will cherish what we have more. 210. look down upon (on)瞧不起 I look down upon those independent women. 211. look for寻找 I've been looking for my key for half an hour. 212. look forward to盼望、期待 Winter vacation is coming. I'm looking forward to seeing my family. 213. look into.朝里看;调查 I looked into the bush and found a ball. I should look into this complicated case later. 214. look out当心 Hey! Look out, the truck is coming behind. 215. look (a)round环视;仔细分析情况 Don't make a hurried decision; look (a)round well first. 216. look up查找 I'll look up the new word in the dictionary. 217. have/take a look看一眼 Oh, what a pretty dress. Let me have/take a look. 218. lose heart.丧失信心 Never lose heart. Keep on trying. 219. lose one's life丧命 In the earthquake, some two thousand residents lost their lives. 220. lose one's voice失声 Being a teacher, she often loses her voice after a three-hour lesson. 221. lose weight减轻体重 If you want to enjoy yourselves in Lunar New Year holiday, it's impossible to lose weight. 222. be in love with与……相爱 Romeo was in love with Juliet. 223. be made from由……制成(看不出原材料) Wine is made from grapes. 224. be made of由……制成(看得出原材料) Cloth is made of cotton, wool, silk and other materials. 225. be made in在哪制造 You can find many products in the USA which are made in China. 226. be made up of由……组成 A year is made up of 12 months. 227. make…to one's own measure 给某人量体裁衣。 This is a nice fit. It must have been made to your own measure. 228. make a decision做决定 Think over before you make a decision. 229. make a good effort做出努力 If you make a good effort to study, you will definitely make progress. 230. make a plan for为……制定计划 It's a good habit to make a plan for what you are going to do next. 231. make a promise做出承诺 If you've make a promise, you have to keep it. 232. make a record制唱片 She was very excited, because it was the first time that she had been invited to make a record of her own music. 233. make ends meet让收支平衡 Since Mike lost his job, we can hardly make ends up. 234. make sense有意义 I'm sorry to say that what you said doesn't make any sense. 235. make sure of对……有把握 Before making a decision, I want to make sure of whether what I heard about him is true. 236. make up虚构;弥补 The whole story is made up. We still need $5 to make up the sum we asked for. 237. make up one's mind下定决心 It's hard to make up one's mind to quit smoking. 238. make use of利用 We should make good use of time to learn more things. 239. have a match举行比赛 It is said that we are going to have a match with Class Three this afternoon. 240. have some medicine服药 Since you don't feel well, why not have some medicine. 241. have/hold a meeting开会 It's urgent to have/hold a meeting about this matter. 242. take a message for给某人带消息 Kate is not in. Shall I take message for her? 243. make a mistake犯错误 It's nothing serious to make a mistake, as long as you realize it and correct it. 244. move on继续前进 After a short rest the troop moved on towards east. 245. make a noise发出噪声 Don't make a noise outside. The baby is still asleep. 246. take part in参加活动 There are three hundred people taking part in the international conference. 247. pay… a visit拜访 Next month, the president will pay a visit to a neighbor country. 248. pay back还债 I worked hard in order to pay back what I owed to others. 249. pay for sth.为……付款 He'll have to pay for this foolish behavior. 250. pay off把债还清 After ten years' hard work I finally paid off the debt. 251. pick out辨别出;挑选 I looked about to pick out my friends in a crowd. The coach intended to pick out some talented youngsters to the training team. 252. pick up拾起来;不太费力地学得一种外语 This what I picked up on the beach this morning. It's easy for a child to pick up a foreign language when abroad. 253. take one's place代替某人 Mr. Samuel is sick, so his assistant came to take his place. 254. take place发生 The story took place in a small village in 1950's. 255. take the place of 代替…… Plastics have taken the place of many materials. 256. play a part in起到……作用 Computers are playing an important part in nowadays' science and economy. 257. play the piano弹钢琴 She is playing the piano and all the guests enjoy her performance. 258. play the role of扮演……的角色 In this play, she played the role of a fairy, and she did it very well. 259. point out指出 He pointed out the finest picture to me. 260. point at/to指向 The needle of a compass points to the north. Don't point a gun at me. 261. be popular with sb.与某人有人缘 She is friendly to everyone around her and she seems to be quite popular with her friends. 262. prevent…from阻止……发生、行动 Such dangerous behavior should be prevented from beforehand. 263. be proud of以……骄傲、自豪 Father is very proud of his able son. 264. push over推搡 Several children were pushed over in the stampede. 265. put away收拾好 Put your toys away. Tony! 266. put down记录 Put down any important information while observing. 267. put…in prison将……投放到监狱. He committed a case and was put in prison. 268. put on穿上 Put on the jacket, for the weather outside is freezing. Good news-The play "Hamlet" will be put on in the new theater. 269. put sth. down把某物放下 We are the police. Put down your gun. 270. put on performances举行演出 On Christmas Day various performances will be put on for celebration. 271. put on weight增加体重 If you keep on eating these sweet things you will surely put on weight. 272. put out灭火 The firemen hurried here and put out the big fire in half an hour. 273. put up张贴 A notice was put up, saying that the new film was going to be shown on next week. 274. quarrel about为……争吵 Although they quarrel about some chores, they still support each other and are considered to be a fine couple. 275. get/be ready (for)为……作好准备 Are you ready for the practice? Go. 276. refer to所指 What does this pronoun refer to in this line? The lecture mainly refers to religions. 277. be related to有关系 She is related to the royal family. 278. remember me to…记得代我向……问好 Please remember me to your family. 279. ring back回电话 I'll ring back a moment later. 280. ring off挂电话 Don't ring off. Hold on please. 281. ring up打电话 I'll ring you (up) this evening. 282. roll over翻滚 The bicycle hit me and rolled me over. 283. make room for给……腾出空地 The bus was extremely busy and we couldn't make any room for a single person. 284. round up集合 The courier rounded up the tourists and hurried them back into the coach. 285. run away逃避 Don't run away-I need your advice. 286. run out of消耗完,用完了 We're fast running out of beer. 287. be seated坐下 Please be seated and make yourself at home. 288. have a seat就坐 Would you have a seat and let's have a talk? 289. take a seat就坐 He came into the room, put off his coat, and took a seat at the desk. 290. see sb. off为某人送行 I am going to see my friends off at the airport, so I'll be late or a couple of minutes. 291. sell out卖光 All the reference books for senior three have been sold out. 292. send for派人叫/请来 Mother is ill. Send for a doctor immediately. 293. send up发送(卫星) An satellite has been sent up by China. 294. send out放射;发送;发出 The sun sends out light and warmth. I've sent out a letter of invitation. The trees send out new leaves in spring. 295. make sentences with用……造句 Could you make sentences with the phrase "put up"? 296. separate from把……与……分离 Separate the good apples from the bad ones. 297. set … on fire给……放火 The slaves set the houses of slave owners on fire. 298. set an example成为一个榜样 Lei Feng set a good example for several generations. 299. set fire to给……放火 The rebels set fire to the houses of landlords. 300. set off出发 They've set off on a journey round the world----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------三、高级词汇1.occur 替换 think of Suddenly I had an idea that someone had broken into my house. → An idea occurred to me that someone had broken into my house. It occurred to me that someone had broken into my house.2.devote替换spend He spends all his spare time in reading. → He devotes all his spare time to reading.3.seek替换want / look for They sought ( wanted ) to hide themselves behind the trees.4.average 替换ordinary I’m an average ( ordinary ) student.5.but替换very The film we saw last night was very interesting. → The film we saw last night was nothing but interesting. The film we saw last night was anything but boring.6.seat 替换sitOn his way to school, he found an old lady seated (sitting) by the road, looking worried.7.suppose 替换should He is supposed to ( should ) have driven more slowly.8.appreciate 替换thank Thank you very much for you help. → We appreciate your help very much. / Your help is much appreciated.9.the case替换 true I don’t think it is the case ( true ).10.on替换as soon as As soon as he arrived, he began his research. → On his arrival, he began his research..11.due to替换because ofHe arrived late due to ( because of ) the storm. 12.cover替换walk/read After covering (walking) 10 miles, we all felt tired.13.contribute to替换 be helpful/usefulPlenty of memory work is undoubtedly helpful to English study. → Plenty of memory work will undoubtedly contribute to English study.14.round the corner 替换 coming soon/ nearby ① The summer vacation is round the corner ( coming). Do you have any plans?② Li Ming studies in a school round the corner (nearby). 15.come to light替换discoverThe family were so pleased when they discovered the lost jewels. →The family were so pleased when the lost jewels came to light.16.have a ball替换have a good time/ enjoy oneself After visiting the workshop, we went back to school. Every one of us had a ball ( had a good time ).17.come up with替换think of Jack is very clever. He often comes up with ( thinks of ) new ideas.18.set aside替换save Some students think that they should set aside some of their pocket money for books. (2004天津卷)19.be of + n. 替换adj. The products are of high quality (very good ) and are sold everywhere in China.20.refer to 替换talk about/of, mention The professor you referred to (talked about ) is very famous.21.can not but / can not help but替换have to doI could not but (had to) go home.22.more often than not替换usually More often than not (Usually), the meaning of many words can be easily guessed.23.lest替换so that /in order that I wrote down his telephone number so that I would not forget it. → I wrote down his telephone number lest I (should) forget it.24.be long for sth. / be long to do sth. 替换want to do sth./wish for I want to see you very much. → I am long to see you.25.be caught up in/be crazy about/be absorbed in/be addicted to替换be interested in He is caught up in ( very interested in ) collecting stamps.26.more than替换very ① I’m very glad to learn that you are coming in September. → I’m more than glad to learn that you are coming in September. ( NMET 2003 ) ② If there is anything I can do for you, I would be more than glad to help.(2004全国卷)27.perfect (ly) 替换good/ very wellHe speaks perfect ( good ) English./ He speaks English perfectly ( very well ).28.do sb a/the favor 替换help Would you please do me the favor ( help me ) to turn down the radio?29.the other day替换a few days ago The other day my brother and I went to the cinema by bicycle. ( NMET 1997 )30.in the course of替换during In the course of (During) the mountain-climbing, please help each other and pay special attention to your safety.31.the majority of替换most The majority of (Most of ) the interviewees prefer watching TV at home to going to the cinema.32.consist of替换be made up of Our class consists of ( is made up of ) 50 students.33.be worn out替换 be tired / broken ① After five hours’ non-stop work, we were all worn out (tired). ② My shoes are worn out (broken). Please buy me a new pair.34.become of替换 happen What do think has become of ( happened to ) him ?35.attend to替换look after 36.on condition that替换as long as37.nevertheless替换however38.express one’s satisfaction with替换be satisfied with 39.spare no efforts to do替换try one’s best to do40.many a 替换many41.be rushed off one’s feet 替换be busy in doing42.a handful of替换a little / some43.meanwhile替换at the same time44.get to one’s feet替换stand up 45.beneath替换under46.occasionally替换sometimes /once in while47.for instance替换for example48.seldom替换not often49.wealthy替换 rich50.amazing替换surprising 51.as a matter of fact 替换in fact四、词组固定搭配1. 接不定式(而不接动名词)作宾语的24个常用动词afford to do sth. 负担得起做某事agree to do sth. 同意做某事arrange to do sth.安排做某事ask to do sth. 要求做某事beg to do sth. 请求做某事care to do sth. 想要做某事choose to do sth. 决定做某事decide to do sth. 决定做某事demand to do sth. 要求做某事determine to do sth. 决心做某事expect to do sth. 期待做某事fear to do sth. 害怕做某事help to do sth. 帮助做某事hope to do sth. 希望做某事learn to do sth. 学习做某事manage to do sth. 设法做某事offer to do sth. 主动提出做某事plan to do sth. 计划做某事prepare to do sth. 准备做某事pretend to do sth. 假装做某事promise to do sth. 答应做某事refuse to do sth. 拒绝做某事want to do sth. 想要做某事 wish to do sth. 希望做某事注:有些不及物动词后习惯上也接不定式,不接动名词:aim to do sth. 打算做某事fail to do sth. 未能做某事long to do sth. 渴望做某事happen to do sth. 碰巧做某事hesitate to do sth. 犹豫做某事struggle to do sth. 努力做某事2. 接不定式作宾补的36个常用动词advise sb. to do sth. 建议某人做某事allow sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事ask sb. to do sth.请(叫)某人做某事bear sb. to do sth.忍受某人做某事beg sb. to do sth. 请求某人做某事cause sb. to do sth. 导致某人做某事command sb. to do sth. 命令某人做某事drive sb. to do sth .驱使某人做某事elect sb. to do sth. 选举某人做某事encourage sb. to do sth. 鼓励某人做某事expect sb. to do sth. 期望某人做某事forbid sb. to do sth. 禁止某人做某事force sb. to do sth. 强迫某人做某事get sb. to do sth. 使(要)某人做某事hate sb. to do sth. 讨厌某人做某事help sb. to do sth. 帮助某人做某事intend sb. to do sth. 打算要某人做某事invite sb. to do sth. 邀请某人做某事leave sb. to do sth. 留下某人做某事like sb. to do sth. 喜欢某人做某事mean sb. to do sth. 打算要某人做某事need sb. to do sth. 需要某人做某事oblige sb. to do sth. 迫使某人做某事order sb. to do sth. 命令某人做某事permit sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事persuade sb. to do sth. 说服某人做某事prefer sb. to do sth. 宁愿某人做某事request sb. to do sth. 要求某人做某事remind sb. to do sth. 提醒某人做某事teach sb. to do sth .教某人做某事tell sb. to do sth. 告诉某人做某事train sb. to do sth. 训练某人做某事trouble sb. to do sth. 麻烦某人做某事want sb. to do sth. 想要某人做某事warn sb. to do sth. 警告某人做某wish sb. to do sth. 希望某人做某事汉语的“原谅某人做某事”,英语可说成excuse [forgive] sb. for doing sth.。汉语的“希望某人做某事”,英语可说成wish sb. to do sth.。汉语的“建议某人做某事”,英语可说成advise sb. to do sth.。汉语的“安排某人做某事”,英语可说成arrange for sb. to do sth.。汉语的“要求某人做某事”,英语可说成demand of sb. to do sth.。汉语的“感谢某人做某事”,英语可说成thank sb. for doing sth.。汉语的“祝贺某人做某事”,英语可说成congratulate sb. on doing sth.。汉语的“阻止某人做某事”,英语可说成prevent sb. from doing sth.。3. 接动名词(不接不定式)作宾语的34个常用动词admit doing sth. 承认做某事advise doing sth. 建议做某事allow doing sth. 允许做某事 appreciate doing sth. 感激做某事avoid doing sth. 避免做某事consider doing sth. 考虑做某事delay doing sth. 推迟做某事deny doing sth. 否认做某事discuss doing sth. 讨论做某事 dislike doing sth. 不喜欢做某事enjoy doing sth. 喜爱做某事escape doing sth. 逃脱做某事excuse doing sth. 原谅做某事fancy doing sth. 设想做某事finish doing sth. 完成做某事forbid doing sth. 禁止做某事forgive doing sth. 原谅做某事give up doing sth. 放弃做某事imagine doing sth. 想象做某事keep doing sth. 保持做某事mention doing sth. 提及做某事 mind doing sth. 介意做某事miss doing sth. 错过做某事pardon doing sth. 原谅做某事permit doing sth. 允许做某事 practice doing sth. 练习做某事prevent doing sth. 阻止做某事prohibit doing sth. 禁止做某事put off doing sth. 推迟做某事 report doing sth. 报告做某事risk doing sth. 冒险做某事stop doing sth. 停止做某事suggest doing sth. 建议做某事 understand doing sth. 理解做某事4. 接现在分词作宾补的20个常用动词bring sb. doing sth.引起某人做某事catch sb. doing sth. 碰上(撞上)某人做某事discover sb. doing sth. 发现某人做某事feel sb. doing sth. 感觉某人做某事find sb. doing sth. 碰上(撞上)某人做某事get sb. doing sth. 使某人做某事have sb. doing sth. 使某人做某事hear sb. doing sth. 听见某人做某事keep sb. doing sth. 使某人不停地做某事listen to sb. doing sth. 听某人做某事look at sb. doing sth. 看着某人做某事notice sb. doing sth. 注意到某人做某事observe sb. doing sth. 观察某人做某事prevent sb. doing sth. 阻止某人做某事see sb. doing sth. 看见某人做某事send sb. doing sth.使某人(突然)做某事set sb. doing sth. 使(引起)某人做某事start sb. doing sth. 使某人开始做某事stop sb. doing sth. 阻止某人做某事watch sb. doing sth. 观5. 接动词原形作宾补的11个常用动词feel sb. do sth. 感觉某人做某事have sb. do sth. 使某人做某事hear sb. do sth. 听见某人做某事let sb. do sth.让某人做某事listen to sb. do sth. 听着某人做某事look at sb. do sth. 看着某人做某事make sb. do sth. 使某人做某事notice sb. do sth. 注意某人做某事observe sb. do sth. 观察某人做某事see sb. do sth. 看见某人做某事watch sb. do sth. 观察某人做某事6. 接不定式或动名词作宾语意思相同的12个动词like to do sth / like doing sth. 喜欢做某事love to do sth / love doing sth. 喜欢做某事hate to do sth / hate doing sth. 憎恨做某事prefer to do sth / prefer doing sth. 宁可做某事begin to do sth / begin doing sth. 开始做某事start to do sth / start doing sth. 开始做某事continue to do sth / continue doing sth. 继续做某事can’t bear to do sth / can’t bear doing sth. 不能忍受做某事bother to do sth / bother doing sth. 麻烦做某事intend to do sth / intend doing sth.想要做某事attempt to do sth / attempt doing sth. 试图做某事cease to do sth / cease doing sth. 停止做某事7. 接不定式或动名词作宾语意思不同的7个动词(1) remember to do sth. 记住要做某事 remember doing sth. 记住曾做过某事(2) forget to do sth. 忘记要做某事 forget doing sth. 忘记曾做过某事(3) regret to do sth. 后悔(遗憾)要做某事 regret doing sth. 后悔(遗憾)曾做过某事(4) try to do sth. 设法要做某事 try doing sth. 做某事试试看有何效果(5) mean to do sth. 打算做某事 mean doing sth. 意味着做某事(6) can’t help to do sth. 不能帮助做某事 can’t help doing sth. 禁不住做某事(7) go on to do sth. 做完某事后接着做另一事 go on doing sth. 继续做一直在做的事注:stop to do sth. 与stop doing sth.也不同,前者指停下来去做某事,后者指停止正在做的事,但stop to do sth. 中的不定式不是宾语,是目的状语。8. 可接双宾语的38个常用动词(1) 双宾语易位时需借助介词to的常用动词 award sb. sth. = award sth. to sb. 颁奖给某人bring sb. sth. = bring sth. to sb. 把某物带给某人hand sb. sth. =hand sth. to sb. 把某物递给某人lend sb. sth. = lend sth. to sb. 把某物借给某人mail sb. sth. = mail sth. to sb. 把某物寄给某人offer sb. sth. = offer sth. to sb. 将某物给某人owe sb. sth. = owe sth. to sb. 欠某人某物pass sb. sth. = pass sth. to sb. 把某物递给某人pay sb. sth. = pay sth. to sb. 付给某人某物(钱)post sb. sth. = post sth. to sb. 把某物寄给某人read sb. sth. = read sth. to sb. 把某物读给某人听return sb. sth. = return sth. to sb. 把某物还给某人send sb. sth. = send sth. to sb. 把某物送给某人sell sb. sth. = sell sth. to sb. 把某物卖给某人serve sb. sth. = serve sth. to sb. 拿某物招待某人show sb. sth. = show sth. to sb. 拿某物给某人看take sb. sth. = take sth. to sb. 把某物拿给某人teach sb. sth. = teach sth. to sb. 教某人某物tell sb. sth. = tell sth. to sb. 告诉某人某情况throw sb. sth. = throw sth. to sb. 把某物扔给某人write sb. sth. = write sth. to sb. 给某人写信(2) 双宾语易位时需借助介词for的常用动词book sb. sth. = book sth. for sb. 为某人预定某物buy sb. sth. = buy sth. for sb. 为某人买某物choose sb. sth. = choose sth. for sb. 为某人选某物cook sb. sth. = cook sth. for sb. 为某人煮某物draw sb. sth. = draw sth. for sb. 为某人画某物fetch sb. sth. = fetch sth. for sb. 为某人去取某物find sb. sth. = find sth. for sb. 为某人找到某物fix sb. sth. = fix sth. for sb. 为某人准备某物get sb. sth. = get sth. for sb. 为某人拿来某物make sb. sth. = make sth. for sb. 为某人做某物order sb. sth. = order sth. for sb. 为某人订购某物pick sb. sth. = pick sth. for sb. 为某人采摘某物prepare sb. sth. = prepare sth. for sb. 为某人准备某物save sb. sth. = save sth. for sb. 为某人留某物sing sb. sth. = sing sth. for sb. 为某人唱某物(歌)spare sb. sth. = spare sth. for sb. 为某人让出某物steal sb. sth. = steal sth. for sb. 为某人偷某物注:有的动词后接的双宾语易位时,既可用介词to引出间接宾语,也可用介词for引出间接宾语,含义相同,如bring,play等:Bring me today’s paper. = Bring today’s paper to [for] me. 把今天的报纸拿给我。He played us the record he had just bought. = He played the record he had just bought for [to] us. 他放了他刚买的唱片给我们听。有的动词后接的双宾语易位时,即可用介词to引出间接宾语,也可用介词for引出间接宾语,含义不同,如leave等:They left me no food. = They left no food for me. 他们没给我留一点食物。My uncle left me a large fortune. = My uncle left a large fortune to me. 我叔叔死后留下一大笔财产给我。而有的动词后接双宾语时,既不能用介词to引出间接宾语,也不能用介词for引出间接宾语,如allow, ask, cause, charge, cost, forgive, refuse等:He allows his son too much money. 他给他儿子的钱太多。He asked me some questions. 他问了我一些问题。This caused me much trouble. 着给我带来了许多麻烦。He charged me five dollars for a cup of tea. 他一杯茶向我要了5美元。His mistake cost him his job. 他的错误让他丢了工作。I envy you your good luck. 我羡慕你的好运。They forgave him his rudeness. 他们原谅了他的鲁莽。He refused her nothing. 她要什么就给什么。9. 可用于“动词+sb+of sth”的8个常见动词accuse sb. of sth. 控告某人犯某事(罪),指责某人做某事cheat sb. fo sth. 骗取某人某物cure sb. of sth. 治好某人的病,改掉某人的坏习惯inform sb. of sth. 通知某人某情况(事)remind sb. of sth. 使某人想起某情况(事)rid sb. of sth. 使某人摆脱某物rob sb. of sth. 抢劫某人的某东西warn sb. of sth. 警告某人有某情况10. 可用于“动词+sb+for doing sth”的8个常见动词blame sb. for doing sth. 指责某人做某事criticize sb. for doing sth. 批评某人做某事forgive sb. for doing sth. 原谅某人做某事excuse sb. for doing sth. 原谅某人做某事pardon sb. for doing sth. 原谅某人做某事punish sb. for doing sth. 惩罚某人做某事scold sb. for doing sth. 指责(责备)某人做某事thank sb. for doing sth. 感谢某人做某事11. 可用于“动词+sb+into doing sth”的9个常见动词cheat sb. into doing sth. 欺骗某人做某事 trick sb. into doing sth. 欺骗某人做某事food sb. into doing sth. 欺骗某人做某事 force sb. into doing sth. 迫使某人做某事argue sb. into doing sth. 说服某人做某事 talk sb. into doing sth. 说服某人做某事terrify sb. into doing sth. 威胁某人做某事 frighten sb. into doing sth. 吓唬某人做某事persuade sb. into doing sth. 说服某人做某事12. 容易误用作及物动词的9个不及物动词误:deal a problem 正:deal with a problem 处理问题误:depend sb. 正:depend on sb. 依靠(依赖)某人误:insist doing sth. 正:insist on doing sth. 坚持要做某事误:knock the door 正:knock on [at] the door 敲门误:operate sb. 正:operate on sb. 为某人做手术误:participate sth. 正:participate in sth. 参加某事误:refer sth. 正:refer to sth. 查阅(参考)某物误:rely sb. / sth. 正:rely on sb. / sth. 依靠(依赖)某人(某物误:reply a letter 正:reply to a letter 回信注:在某些其他用法中,以上有的动词也可能及物,如insist, reply等动词后可接宾语从句,operate表示“操作”、“管理”等时则及物。13. 容易误用作不及物动词的8个及物动词误:serve for sb. 正:serve sb. 为某人服务误:marry with sb. 正:marry sb. 与某人结婚误:discuss about sth. 正:discuss sth. 讨论某事误:mention about sth. 正:mention sth. 提到某事误:enter into a room 正:enter a room 进入房间误:contact with sb. 正:contact sb. 与某人联系误:equal to sth. 正: equal sth. 等于某物误:ring to sb. 正:ring sb. 给某人打电话注:有个别词在用于其他意义时,可以是不及物的,如enter into可以表示开始进入或从事某一状态或活动,或用于较抽象的概念。如:The country entered into a state of war. 这个国家进入战争状态。I can enter into your feelings at the loss of your father. 我理解你失去父亲后的心情。The two old men entered into a long conversation. 两位老人开始长谈起来。14. 17个常用“be+形容词+about”结构be angry about 为……生气 be anxious about 为……担忧be careful about 当心…… be certain about 确信……be curious about 对……好奇 be disappointed about 对……失望be excited about 对……感到兴奋 be glad about 对……感到高兴be happy about 为……感到高兴 be hopeful about 对……抱有希望be mad about 对……入迷 be nervous about 为……感到不安be particular about 对……讲究 be sad about 为……而难过be serious about 对……认真 be sure about 对……有把握be worried about 为……担忧15. 10个常用“be+形容词+at”结构be angry at 为……生气 be bad at 不善于……be clever at 擅长于…… be disappointed at 对……失望be expert at 在……方面是内行 be good at 善于……be mad at 对……发怒 be quick at 在……方面敏捷be skilful at 在……方面熟练 be slow at 在……方面迟钝16. 18个常用“be+形容词+for”结构be anxious for 渴望 be bad for 对……有害,对……不利be bound for 前往 be celebrated for 以……出名be convenient for 对……方便,在……附近 be eager for渴望be famous for 因……闻名 be fit for 合适,适合be good for 对……有益(方便) be grateful for 感谢be hungry for 渴望得到 be late for 迟到be necessary for 对……有必要 be ready for 为……准备好be sorry for 因……抱歉 be suitable for 对……合适(适宜)be thankful for 因……而感激 be well-known for以……出名17. 6个常用“be+形容词+from”结构be absent from 缺席,不在 be different from 与……不同be far from 离……远,远远不 be free from 没有,免受be safe from 没有……的危险 be tired from 因……而疲劳18. 13个常用“be+形容词+in”结构be concerned in 与……有关 be disappointed in 对(某人)感到失望be engaged in 从事于,忙于 be experienced in 在……方面有经验be expert in 在……方面是行家 be fortunate in 在……方面幸运be honest in 在……方面诚实 be interested in 对……感兴趣be lack in 缺乏 be rich in 富于,在……方面富有be skilful in 擅长于 be successful in 在……方面成功be weak in 在……方面不行19. 18个常用“be+形容词+of”结构be afraid of 害怕 be ashamed of 为……感到羞愧be aware of 意识到,知道 be capable of 能够,可以be careful of 小心,留心 be certain of 确信,对……有把握be fond of 喜欢 be free of 没有,摆脱be full of 充满 be glad of 为……而高兴be nervous of 害怕 be proud of 为……自豪be short of 缺乏 be shy of 不好意思be sick of 对……厌倦 be sure of 肯定,有把握be tired of 对……厌烦 be worthy of 只得,配得上20. 20个常用“be+形容词+to”结构be accustomed to 习惯于 be blind to 对……视而不见be close to 靠近,接近 be cruel to 对……残酷,对……无情be devoted to 献身,专心于 be equal to 等于,能胜任be familiar to 为(某人)所熟悉 be harmful to 对……有危害be important to 对……重要p; be open to 对……开放,易受到be opposed to 反对,不赞成 be opposite to 在……对面,和……相反be polite to 对……有礼貌 be related to 与……有关(是亲戚)be respectful to 尊敬 be rude to 对……无礼be similar to 与……相似 be true to 忠实于,信守be used to 习惯于 be useful to 对……有用21. 16个常用“be+形容词+with”结构be angry with 对(某人)生气 be bored with 对……厌烦be busy with 忙于 be careful with 小心be concerned with 关于,与……有关 be content with 以……为满足be delighted with 对……感到高兴 be disappointed with 对(某人)失望be familiar with 熟悉,精通 be honest with 对(某人)真诚be ill with 患……病 be patient with 对(某人)有耐心be pleased with 对……满意(高兴) be popular with 受……欢迎be satisfied with 对……满意 be strict with 对(某人)严格22. 24个常用“in+其他词+of”结构in advance of 在……前面 in aid of 帮助in behalf of 为了,为了……的利益 in case of 如果,万一,以防in celebration of 庆祝 in charge of 负责,管理in commemoration of 纪念,庆祝 in defence of 保卫in explanation of 解释 in face of 面对in favour of 赞成,主张 in front of 在……前面in honor of 纪念,祝贺,欢迎 in memory of 纪念in need of 需要 in place of 代替in possession of 拥有 in praise of 称赞in respect of 关于,就……而言 in search of 寻找,搜找in sight of 看得见,在看见……的地方 in spite of 虽然,尽管in support of 为了支持(拥护)…… in view of 鉴于,考虑到注:同时注意一下相似结构:in exchange for 作为对……的交换 in preparation for 为……作准备in return for 作为……的报答 in reward for 作为……的报酬in addition to 加之,除……之外 in answer to 回答,响应in contrast to [with] 与……形成对比 in opposition to 与……相反,反对in reply to 作为对……的回答(答复) in response to 回答,响应in [with] reference to 关于 in [with] regard to 关于23. 27个带to doing sth.的常用结构1).动词+介词to+动名词(1) admit to doing sth. 承认做了某事(2) apply to doing sth. 适用于做某事(3) object to doing sth. 反对做某事(4) see to doing sth. 负责做某事(5) stick to doing sth. 坚持做某事(6) take to doing sth. 喜欢上做某事,逐渐习惯做某事2).动词+宾语+介词to+动名词(1) apply oneself to doing sth. 专心致力于做某事(2) devote sth. to doing sth. 把……献给做某事(3) devote oneself to doing sth. 献身于做某事(4) limit sth. to doing sth. 把……限制在做某事的范围内(5) reduce sb. to doing sth. 使某人沦为做某事3).动词+名词+介词to+动名词(1) give one’s life to doing sth. 献身于做某事(2) give one’s mind to doing sth. 专心做某事(3) have a dislike to doing sth. 厌恶做某事(4) have an eye to doing sth. 注意做某事(5) have an objection to doing sth. 反对(反感)做某事(6) pay attention to doing sth. 注意做某事(7) set one’s mind to doing sth. 决心做某事4).be+形容词+介词to+动名词(1) be equal to doing sth. 等于做某事,能胜任做某事(2) be used to doing sth. 习惯于做某事(3) be opposed to doing sth. 反对做某事(4) be reduced to doing sth. 使某人沦为做某事(5) be devoted to doing sth. 把时间(钱,精力等)献给做某事(6) be limited to doing sth. 把…限制在做某事的范围内5).其他结构+介词to+动名词(1) get down to doing sth. 开始做某事,认真处理某事(2) look forward to doing sth. 盼望做某事(3) What do you say to doing sth? 你认为做某事如何?五、高级句型结构◆ It句型 ① It will be + some time + before… It won’t be long before humans visit the Mars. ② It is + adj./n.+ for sb to do sth. It is very important for us to learn computer well, because it has changed our life so much.He said since it was a new model in China, it was impossible to fix it without the right spare parts.(2008年湖北卷) ③ It is + 被强调部分 + that… 1) It is what Yang Liwei has done that encourages us a lot. 2) Those who like reading extensively say it is through reading that we get our knowledge.◆ more …than any other 表示最高级 Among the optional courses, spoken English and computer study are more popular than any one else.◆ 名词从句① It would mean a great deal to me to listen to the tape and learn what is covered in the talk. ( 2004 全国卷 Ⅲ ) ② My hometown is no longer what it used to be.◆(非限制性)定语从句 ① The flat is in a building on Fangcao Street. It is not far from Jianxin Chinese School.→ The flat is in a building on Fangcao Street, which is not far from Jianxin Chinese School. (NMET 2003) ② It was quite an experience for us both, which I’ll never forget for the rest of my life. (2002 北京卷)◆ 分词结构① I don’t know about others, but I used to have to work even at weekends doing endless homework and attending classes as well. (NMET 2001)② We’ll mostly stay at home in the evening watching TV, playing games, and meeting people. (2004 全国卷Ⅱ)③ Hearing this, a few people began to run after him.(2004 辽宁卷)④ Born in American, Thomas Edison was a great scientist and inventor.(2008年湖南卷)◆ with结构 ① A terrible accident happened yesterday, with nine people killed and almost eighty injured. ② He was carrying a bedroll and a large bag on his shoulder, with a large suitcase in his left hand. ◆ 倒装句① The library is to the east of the teaching building. → East of the teaching building is the library.② Although we are tired, we are happy.→ Tired as we are, we are happy. ③ Only in this way can he grow to be a useful man. (2002 上海卷)④ May all your dreams come true! May our friendship last till the end of the universe.!(2007年湖南卷)◆ 被动语态 ① Opinions are divided on the question. (NMET 2002)② All classes are taught by teachers with rich experience in teaching foreign students. (2004全国卷 Ⅳ) ③ New factories, houses and roads have been built.(2004 江苏卷)◆ 巧妙的改写(1).Only 改成no one but Only Tom passed the exam last week. → No one but Tom passed the exam.(2).as soon as …改成No sooner…than…/Hardly…when…/Immediately…/The moment No sooner had we arrived at the cinema than the film started.(3).have sb/sth do/done The girl was knocked off her bicycle and had her leg broken (her leg was broken.).(4).变换插入语的位置 ① However, they suggest fees should be charged low. → They suggest, however, fees should be charged low. (NMET 2002) ② I think this is a good chance for you to show your singing talent, and how well you’ve learned Chinese. → This is a good chance for you, I think, to show your singing talent, and how well you’ve learned Chinese. (2004 全国卷Ⅰ)(5). 用同位语代替非限制性定语从句 Meimei, who is seven years old, has been learning to ride a bicycle for several days.→Meimei, a girl of thirteen, has been learning to ride a bicycle for several days. (2002上海卷)Shakespeare, a son from a poor family, a man of little education, wrote plays and poems that are read all over the world.(2008年湖南卷) ◆ 其它 (1)注重句子的开头 ① 用with复合结构开头 With the sun setting in the west, we had to wave goodbye to the workers. With his help, we've learned how to analyze and settle problems.(2006年湖南卷)With the functions of inserting, deleting, moving and copying, it enables us to edit test, browse web page and download what we want.(2009年江苏卷) ② 用非谓语动词形式开头 ⅰ)In order to improve our English, our school held an English contest. ⅱ)Walking towards the cinema, he met a foreigner. (2)长短句交错使用(注意:应突出主题句;长句子并非越长越好)◆◆ 相关过渡语1). 表示时间顺序: first, then, afterwards, meanwhile, later,first of all, finally, at last…2). 表示空间顺序: near, next to, far from, in front of, on the left, on one side…3). 表示比较、对照: like, unlike, such as, but, however, on the other hand, on the contrary, nevertheless, otherwise…4). 表示因果关系: because, for, as a result, therefore, thus…5). 表示递进关系: besides, what’s more, what was worse, moreover, furthermore, in addition, on top of…6). 表示并列关系: and, as well as, also…7). 表示总结性: in general, in a word, in short, on the whole, to sum up, in brief, to conclude…六、过去完成时概念  过去完成时表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作,即所谓“过去的过去”。过去完成时的基本用法1、表示在过去某一时刻或动作以前完成了的动作,即“过去的过去”。可以用by, before等介词短语或一个时间状语从句来表示,也可以用一个表示过去的动作来表示,还可能通过上下文来表示。  例如:   By nine o’clock last night, we had got 200 pictures from the spaceship.  到昨晚9点钟,我们已经收到200 张飞船发来的图片。 2、表示由过去的某一时刻开始,一直延续到过去另一时间的动作或状态,常和for, since构成的时间状语连用。  例如:   I had been at the bus stop for 20 minutes when a bus finally came.  当车来的时候,我在车站已等了20分钟。   He said he had worked in that factory since 1949.  他说自从1949年以来他就在那家工厂工作。 3、叙述过去发生的事情,在已叙述了过去发生的事情后,反过来追述或补述以前发生的动作时,常使用过去完成时。  例如:   Mr. Smith died yesterday. He had been a good friend of mine.  史密斯先生昨天去世了。他以前是我的好友。   I didn’t know a thing about the verbs, for I had not studied my lesson.  我对动词一无所知,因为我没有好好学习功课。 4、在含有定语从句的主从复合句中,如果叙述的是过去的事,先发生的动作常用过去完成时。  例如:   I returned the book that I had borrowed.  我已归还了我借的书。   She found the key that she had lost.  她丢失的钥匙找到了。 5、过去完成时常常用在宾语从句(或间接引语)中,这时从句中的动作发生在主句表示的过去的动作之前。  例如:   He said that he had known her well.  他说他很熟悉她。   I thought I had sent the letter a week before.   我认为我一星期前就把信寄出去了。 6、在包含有when, until等连词的复合句中,如果主句谓语动词和从句谓语动词所表示的过去动作不是同时发生的,那么先发生的动作通常用过去完成时表示。  例如:   When I woke up, it had already stopped raining.  我醒来时雨已停了。   She didn’t go to bed until she had finished he work.  她直到把工作做完之后才睡觉。   注意:如果两个动作紧接着发生,则常常不用过去完成时,特别是在包含before和after的复合句中,因为这时从句的动作和主句的动作发生的先后顺序已经非常明确,这时可以用一般过去时代替过去完成时。例如:   After he arrived in England, Marx worked hard to improve his English.  马克思到达英格兰之后,努力提高他的英语水平。 7、动词think, want, hope, mean, plan, intend等用过去完成时来表示过去未曾实现的想法,希望,打算或意图等。  例如:   They had wanted to help but could not get there in time.  他们本来打算去帮忙,但没有及时赶到那里。   We had hoped to be able to come and see you.  我们本来希望能来看看你。 8、过去完成时还可用在hardly…when…, no sooner…than…, It was the first (second, etc) time (that)…等固定句型中。  例如:   Hardly had he began to speak when the audience interrupted him.  他刚开始演讲,听众就打断了他。   No sooner had he arrived than he went away again.  他刚到就又走了。   It was the third time that he had been out of work that year.  这是他那一年第三次失业了。过去完成时与一般过去时的比较1. 当一个由before, after, as soon as 等连词引导的从句所表示的动作和主句的动作紧接着发生时,两个动作均可用一般过去时来表示。  We had breakfast after we did morning exercises.   做完早操后,我们吃早饭。  The train started to move just before he reached the platform.   他到月台时火车刚开走。  They started ploughing as soon as they got to the fields.   他们一到地里就开始耕地。2. 按时间顺序叙述两个或两个以上接连发生的动作时,用一般过去时。  He entered the room, turned on the light and sat down at the table.   他走进屋子,打开灯,坐在桌子旁。3. 在表示某人过去未曾完成的“心愿”、“打算”、“计划”、“想法”、“许诺等时,hope, mean, plan, think, intend等谓语动词常用过去完成时。  I had hoped to be back last night, but I didn’t catch the train.   我本来希望昨晚回来的,但没搭上火车。  We had thought to return early but they wouldn’t let us go.   我们本想早回来的,但他们不让我们走。4.在表示过去的句子中出现常与完成时态连用的词,如:already,yet,since,for,ever,never及次数名词等时,常用过去完成时来表示。  When we got there the basketball match had already started.   我们到那里时,篮球赛已经开始了。  The old man said that he wanted to go where he had never been.   老人说他想到他从未去过的地方去。5.如果句中出现了表示具体的过去时间的状语,句子的内容为过去的实际情况或句子的内容为历史事实时,句中的动词时态常用一般过去时。  如:  The teacher said that it was Columbus who first discovered the American  continent.  老师说是哥伦布最早发现了美洲大陆。6.表述说话人始料未及的事情时,句子的谓语动词常用一般过去时。由于受汉语表述习惯的影响,常会用错时态。  Jack, you are also here! I didn’t see you.   杰克,你也在这啊!我没有看见你。七、阅读理解解题指导一、解题方法1.先看选项有意识有目的地在细节处和关键处圈画2.锁定最醒目的字眼(time age number place…)3.搜寻信息词,如:(1)5W:Who what when where why(how)(2)时间先后: First then after that next finally (3)因果: Because /thus /lead to/ is caused by /as a result of /Likeness/alike /common just as/ either…or (4)比较 :Similarly, differently, likeness, unlike, But/while/however/instead/on the contrary二、解题步骤:1.略读—快速浏览抓住文章中心大意以及文章的结构(借助所给图表结构)。2. 细读—带着问题,找到文章对应点,确认题型,分析整理归纳信息并且准确表达信息。3.复读 —复读文章,反复揣摩所填之词是否符合文章内容,其拼写是否正确。解题时要注意什么?①.字数的限制1.审文章提示②.是否可以用原文中的单词。①.整个文章结构(大小标题)2.审结构表达短语类对应②.内容表达 句子类①.字母大小写 ②.名词的数和格3.审语法运用 ③.动词的形式④.形容词副词的比较级最高级,⑤. 连词,介词,⑥.时态语态,主谓一致,第三人称等必须熟背的常用归纳概括词汇: 表原因:reasons(for),causes (of)表概括、总结:summary ,conclusion表目的:purpose,aim,goal表特点:feature,characteristic,character表种类:kind,type,category,style, forms表评论、评价:comment,remark,assessment表方式、方法:means,way,method,solution,approach表问题:problem,question,issue表建议:advice,suggestion,tip表要求、需求:demand,need,requirement,qualification表态度、观点:attitude,idea,opinion表情绪、感觉:feeling,emotion,motivation表用途、功能:use,usage,function表步骤:step,producedure,process表描述:description,appearance,look,color,size,length,width,distance,height,shape,names,age,sex,time,cost,event表关系:relation,relationship表来源、历史:history,source,orign表异同:difference,similarity表影响、结果:effect,influence,result,consequence表反应:response,reaction表措施、行动:measure,action,activity,behavior表定义:definition 表利弊:benefit,advantage,disadvantage,convenience表质量、数量:quality,amount,quantity,number

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