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1. be doing/ be about to do/ had done…, when…(when：这时, 强调一个动作的突然发生)
1). I was walking along the river, when I heard a drowning boy cry for help.
2). I was about to leave when it began to rain.
3). I had just finished my test paper when the bell rang, announcing the exam was over.
2. It was (not ) + 时间段+before +一般过去时 过了一段时间就……..
It will (not )be+ 时间段+before +一般现在时 要过一段时间才会…
It is/ has been +时间段+ since…..
It was +点时间+ when…..
It was +时间状语+ that …..（强调句）
1). It was not long before he sensed the danger of the position.不久他就意识到他处境危险（动作已发生）
2). It will be half a year before you graduate from the school. 还有半年你才从这个学校毕业（动作未发生）
3). It is 3 years since he worked here.=he left here.（since从句中的谓语动词若是延续性动词，要从这个动作结束的时候算起）
4). It was 3 o’clock when they received the telephone.
5) It was at 3 o’clock that they received the telephone.
3. no 比较级 than: A 与B都不……… /仅仅，只有
not比较级 than: A 不如B / 不超过，至多
more……… than……… 与其….倒不如……(= not as/ so……..as……)
more than=not only 不仅仅……..
1). He works no harder than I.他和我都不用功
2). He doesn’t work harder than I.他不如我用功
3). There are no more than seven people in the room. 屋里仅有七个人
4). There are not more than seven people in the room. 屋里至多有七个人
5). He is more diligent than clever. 与其说他聪明，倒不如说他勤奋
à He is not as/ so clever as diligent.
6)It is more like a meeting than like a party.--> It is not as a party as a meeting
7).Mr. Zhang is more than my teacher, he is also my best friend.张先生不仅仅是我的老师，他还是我的朋友
4. once…..一旦….., 表示时间和条件
1)Once you understand what the teacher explained, you will have no difficulty doing the work.
2). Once you have decided to do something, you should finish it and do it well.
5. The +比较级…….，the +比较级……..越……, 越……
1) The more books you read, the more knowledge you will get.
2)The busier he is, the happier he feels.
6. as if/ as though…..（表示与事实相反，用虚拟；若表示即将成为事实或有可能成为事实，则用陈述语气）
1). He was in great trouble, but he acted as if nothing had happened.
2). Although they just met for the first time, they talked as if they had been friends for many years
3). The clouds are gathering. It looks as if it is going to rain.
7. n. /adj. / adv. / v. + as / though +主语+谓语，…… 尽管……,…….引导让步状语从句
1).Child as he is, I already know what career I want to follow.
2). Try as he might, he couldn’t solve the problem.
3). Much as I respect him, I can’t agree with his idea.
8. whether….or…. 无论是….还是….
1). Whether the weather is good or bad, they will set off as they planned.
2). Any person, whether young or old, has his own worth.
9. 疑问词+ever = no matter +疑问词, 引导让步状语从句或名词性从句
1). Whichever(=No matter which) you like, you can take it away .( 让步状语从句)
You can take away whichever(=any one that) you like ( 名词性从句)
2). Whenever you comes, you will be welcome. ( 让步状语从句)
3). Whatever happens, I will support you. ( 让步状语从句)
4). Whoever breaks the law, he will certainly be punished. ( 让步状语从句)
à Whoever breaks the law will certainly be punished. ( 名词性从句)
5). However great the difficulty is, we can overcome it. ( 让步状语从句)
10. if/ as long as/so long as/ providing that/ provided that/ supposing that/ on condition that 假如…..
1). I will lend you money on condition that you can return it within 3 months.
11. given that/ considering that 考虑到….., 鉴于……
1). Given her interest in children/ Given that she is interested in children, I’m sure teaching is the right career for her.
2). Considering his age and his experience, he has done well.
12. in case that/ in case of….. 万一….., 以防…..
1). In case of fire, please dial 119 at once.
2). In case that John comes/ John should come, tell him to wait.
13. 祈使句+ or/otherwise +结果句 或 祈使句+ and +结果句
1). Stop doing such foolish thing, or you will be punished in time.
2). More effort, and the problem would have been settled.
3). Think it over, and you will find the answer.
14. so/ such……..that…….引导结果状语从句时须注意
l 当名词前many, much, little, few有修饰时, 用so不用such因为此时的中心词不再
是名词，而是many, much, little, few这些表示数量的词。
1). The westerners eat so much fat and sugar that they put on weight easily.
2). There are so few fish in the lake that we couldn’t fish them easily.
l 当名词是单数可数名词，前面又由adj.修饰时，注意冠词的位置，即so+ adj +a(n)+n 或such+ a(n) + adj.+ n
1). He is such an honest person/ so honest a person that you can depend on him when you are in trouble.
1). Such great progress has he made in his studies that we all admire him.
l 当主从句主语一致时可与动词不定式相互转换,即变成so/such…….as to do结构。
1).The westerners eat so much fat and sugar as to put on weight easily.
15. so that 引导目的状语从句与结果状语从句
l so that引导目的状语从句时常与情态动词连用（= in order that），当主从句主语一致时可转换为so as to do/ in order to do.
1). He turned up the radio a little so that he could hear the news clearly.
He turned up the radio a little so as to hear the news clearly.
2). He closed all the windows while driving so that he shouldn’t catch cold.(否定句中情态动词用shouldn’t)
l so that 引导结果状语从句一般不与情态动词连用
1). He turned up the radio a little so that he heard the news clearly.
16.can never/ can’t 与too, too much, enough, over- 搭配表示“无论怎样….都不过分”
1). While you are doing your homework, you can’t be careful enough.
2). He is such a great man that we can’t praise him too much.
3). William Hartley was handsome, determined and hardworking, in a word, I couldn’t speak too highly of him.
4). The development of society has made it necessary for us to have a good knowledge of English, so we can’t overemphasize the importance of learning English.
5). Since it is a good thing, we can’t do it too soon.
It +系动词+adj./ n..+ for sb. to do (for sb.表示动词不定式动作的执行者)
It +系动词+adj.+ of sb. to do （of sb.既表示动词不定式动作的执行者有表示人所具备的性质或特征）
1). It’s important for us to have a good knowledge of English.
2). How rude of him to treat a child like that!
3). It’s thoughtful of him to fix us up for the night.
主语+think/ consider/believe/ make/ feel+ it +adj./n. +for sb./ of sb. +to do
1). I feel it foolish of him to believe such a man.
2). The timely rain had made it possible for the crops to grow well.
19. won’t/ can’t have sb. doing/ done 不能容忍某行为发生
1). You are too rude, and I won’t have you speaking to Mother like that again.
2). We can’t have anything done against the school rules.
20. It is said/ thought/ hoped/ believed…..that……
Sb. is said/ thought/ hoped/ believed to do…..
1). It is said that he is studying abroad.--> He is said to be studying abroad.
2).It is considered that many countries highly value China’s role in helping world’s peace.
à Many countries is considered to highly value China’s role in helping world’s peace.
l had hoped to do=hoped to have done.。类似的词还有：expect, think, intend, design, plan, mean, suppose等
l would like/prefer/ love to have done
l was/ wee to have done
l was/were supposed to have done
1).--- Did you go to see the film “Titanic” last night?
---I’d like to have, but I had an unexpected guest.
2). The plane was to have take off at 7 this morning, but was held up by the heavy fog.
22. How did sb come to do…..? = How come that….为什么会…../……是怎么回事？表示要求对所发生的事情说明理由或做出解释
1). How did you come to find out where she’s living?= How come that you found out….
2). How come that you sat there ,doing nothing?为什么坐在那儿什么也不干?
3). How did he come to be so foolish?
23.It is (not ) like sb. to do….. ….（.不）像某人的所作所为
1). It’s like him to answer for what he has done.敢对自己的行为负责，这是他的一贯作风
2). It’s not like him to have been so rude to his mother.
24. when it comes to….. 当谈到或涉及到……
1). He is a man of few words, but when it comes to playing computer, he will be excited and full of energy.
2). When it comes to helping his wife with the housework, John never complains.
25.every time/ each time/ next time/ the first time/ any time等短语引导时间状语从句，表示“每当….., 每次…..,下次…..”
1). Every time you meet with new words while reading, don’t always refer to your dictionary.
àWhen you meet with new words every time…..
2) Next time you come , do remember to bring your son here.
3) You are welcome to come back any time you want to.
26. There is (no) need to do…../ for ….-àIt is( not )necessary for sb. to do….
There is( no )hope/ chance / possibility of doing….
There is( no )difficulty/ trouble/ point/ delay( in )doing
1). Is there any chance of us/ our winning the match?
2). There is no point in discussing the problem again.
27.It is up to sb. to do sth. 应由某人来做某事……..
1) ---When shall we start out? ---It’s up to you to decide.
2). It’s up to you to babysit my so while I am away on business.
28.be up to sth. 忙于….., 从事……., 胜任…..
1). John isn’t really up to that job. 约翰不适合干那项工作
2).What have you been up to recently? 最近你一直在忙些什么
29. It is time to do/ It is time that +主语+动词的一般过去式 该是做…..的时候了
It is time that we ended the discussion.
30. it 强调句：
l 基本构成形式：It is/ was +被强调部分+ who/ that+原句剩余部分
e.g.: I met him in the street yesterday afternoon.
à It was I who/ that met him in the street yesterday afternoon.(强调是我，不是别人)
à It was him who/ that I met in the street yesterday afternoon.( 强调我遇见的是他，不是别人)
à It was in the street that I met him yesterday afternoon.( 强调是在大街上，不是在别的地方，强调的是地点，但不用where)
à It was yesterday afternoon that I met him in the street (强调是昨天下午，不是在别的时候, 强调的是时间，但不用when)
l 强调句的一般疑问句：Is/ Was it +被强调部分+ who/ that+原句剩余部分
l 强调句的特殊疑问句：What/ When/ Where/ Who/ How……is/ was it + who/ that+原
1). Who was it that/ who you met in the street yesterday afternoon?
àTell me who it was that/ who you met in the street yesterday afternoon?
31.do, did, does 用于强调谓语动词，加强语气
1). He is a good student.--> He does be a good student
2). He helped us yesterday. à He did help us yesterday.
3). Be careful! àDo be careful!
32.There be 句型：
l there be 之后如有几个并列主语，be 动词的选择要取决于第一个主语，即就近原则。
1). There is a pen and two books on the desk.--> There are two books and a pen on the desk.
l There be 句型中，be动词还有其他变化形式，常见的有：There seem to be,
There happen to be, There used to be, There is likely to be, There have been/has been 等
1). There seems/ appears to be much hope of our team winning the match.
2). There happened to be nobody in the room when I came in.
3). There have been great changes in my hometown since 1978.
4). There used to be a bus station at the corner of the street.
5). There are likely to be more difficulties than expected while we are carrying out the plan.
l There be句型的独立主格结构作状语：（有连词，用句子，没有连词，用独立结构）
1). There being no buses, we had to walk home.
= Because there were no buses, we had to walk home.
2). There having been no rain for a long time, the crops in the field died.
= Because there had been no rain for a long time, the crops in the field died.
l There be句型的非谓语形式：
1). I don’t want there to be any misunderstanding between us.
2). We expect there to be a chance of studying abroad.
3). It is usual for there to be a generation gap between parents and children.
33. not/ never ……. until 直到…..才
1). The villagers didn’t realize how serious the pollution was until all the fish died in the river.
àIt was not until all the fish died in the river that the villagers realized how serious the pollution was. (强调句)
àNot until all the fish died in the river did the villagers realize how serious the pollution was.（倒装句）
34. not only….. but (also)…..
1). Not only the teacher but also the students have their eyes examined regularly.
Not only the students but also the teacher has his eyes examined regularly.
2). They suggested we should not only attend the party, but give a performance.
à They suggested we should give a performance as well as attend the party
l not only….. but (also)…..引导并列句时，not only引导的部分置于句首时要部分倒装
1). Not only was everything he had taken away, but also his German citizenship was taken away.
2). Not only should we students study hard, but also we should know how to enjoy ourselves in our spare time.
35. prefer to do A rather than do B…（两者相比）愿意干A而不愿意干B
== would rather do A than do B
1). I prefer to stay at home rather than go to the park in such weather.
2). Rather than ride on a crowded bus, he always prefer to ride a bicycle.
36.would rather +从句（从句要用虚拟语气，即从句中谓语动词用一般过去式，表示现在或将来的愿望；从句中谓语动词用过去完成时，表示对过去的愿望）
1). I’d rather you posted the letter right now. 我想让你现在就把信寄出去。
2). ---A friend of yours will come to see you today. 你的一位朋友今天要来看你。
--- I’d rather he came here tomorrow. 我倒情愿他明天来。
3). I’d rather you were not a celebrated actor. In that case, we could spend more time together. 我倒情愿你不是什么名演员，这样我们可以有更多的时间在一起。
4). I’d rather I hadn’t seen her yesterday. 我情愿昨天没见到她。
37. 不能用would rather sb. do （更愿让某人干某事）的形式，可转化为would rather have sb do或转化为 would rather +从句
**1). Who would you rather _____ with the teacher about the problem?
A. talking B. talk C. have talked D. have talk 答案：D
38. so, neither/ nor 引导得倒装句
l 表示“另一者也如如此”及前者的情况也适用于后者，用so, neither/ nor 引导得倒装句，助动词的选择依据前一句的谓语动词。
1). He has finished his homework, so have I.
2). My sister prefers coffee, so do I.
3). John can’t ride a bicycle, neither/ nor can I.
4). If he buys the book, so will his classmates.
l 若前句的谓语动词既有肯定又有否定形式时，或谓语动词不属于一类时，用It is /was the same with sb. 或 So it is/ was with sb.
1). He is a worker and he works hard, so it is with John.
1). ---It is cold today. ---Yes. So it is
2). ---He visited Tokyo last week. --- Yes. So he did.
l A + 谓语+倍数+the +n.(size/ height/ length……)+of B
l A + 谓语+倍数+as + abj. + as B
l A + 谓语+倍数+adj. 比较级+than Bà A + 谓语+adj. 比较级+than B+by+倍数
1).This square is twice the size of that one.
à This square is twice as large as that one.
à This square is once larger than that one.
2).This factory produced three times as many cars as they did 10 years ago.
3).He is 3 years older than I-à He is older than I by 3 years
40. sb. spend money/ time on sth.
in doing sth
sb. pay money (to sb) for sth.
sth. cost sb. money/ time
It takes sb. some time to do sth.
1). The time he spends watching TV is as much as he does doing his homework.
2). The mp3. for which he paid only ￥150 proved to be useful.
3). The naughty boy cost his mother many sleepless nights.
41. 当all, each, both, every 基every, each 的复合词语否定词连用时，为部分否定，“并非都….”
1). Not all of them went to the party last night.--> All of them didn’t go to the party last night.
2). Both of the answers are not right.(=Only one of the two answers is right.)
3). We couldn’t eat in the restaurant, because ___ of us had ____ money.
A. all, no B. all, any C. none , any D. none, no 答案：C
42.as/ with表示“随……进展”，as 后面接句子，with后面接短语
1). With the industry developing, the pollution is becoming more and more serious.
àAs the industry develops, the pollution is becoming more and more serious.
43.Only if 与If only
l Only if=if, 引导条件状语从句
1). ---Only if I lend you a hand? ---I’m sure I can finish it on time.
l If only = How I wish…., 引导的句子用虚拟语气，表示难以实现的愿望
*** If only = How I wish 主语+情态动词+V.（谓语动词的动作在wish之后进行）
1). If only we didn’t have so many examines!
2). If only he could come tomorrow!
3). If only I hadn’t made so many mistakes !
3). He couldn’t work out a single problem when he was in the exam. hall. How he wished he knew all the answer!
àHe couldn’t work out a single problem when he was in the exam. hall. How he wished he
had studied hard before!
44. with 的复合结构（作状语或作定语）
l with+ n. +n. (with可以省略)
1). The workforce is made up of 400 workers, (with )most of them women.(=most of whom are women./ and most of them are women.)
l with+ n. +adj. (with可以省略)
1).(With) the street wet and slippery, we had to ride our bikes slowly and carefully.
àBecause the street were wet and slippery, ……….
2). The students were listening to the teacher, (with)their eyes wide open.
à The students were listening to the teacher, and their eyes were wide open.
l with+ n. +adv. (with可以省略)
1). He put on his coat hurriedly, (with) the wrong side out
l with+ n. +prep-phrase (with可以省略)
1). The old man was seated in the sofa, (with) a pipe in his mouth.(Also: pipe in mouth)
l with+ n.+ to do/ to be done （动词不定式的动作还未进行）
with+ n.+ doing/ being done （动词不定式的动作正在进行）
with+ n.+ done （动词不定式的动作已经完成或指n. 所处的状态）
1). With so many problems to settle, the newly-elected president is having a hard year.
2). He was lying in bed, with his eyes fixed on the ceiling
3). With the temple being repaired, we can’t visited it.
45. 以here, there, in, out, up, down等副词开头的倒装句(多用一般现在时表示正在进行的动作。)
1). Here comes the bus! (=The bus is coming here! )
2). Away he went. 他走远了（若主语是代词则主语与谓语不倒装）
1). In front of the house stopped a police car.
2).Under the tree sat a boy, with a book in his hand.
47. 具有否定意义的副词或短语位于句首时句子要部分倒装。常用的此有：little, never, seldom, hardly, rarely, no sooner, in no time, by no means, in no case 等
1). Not a single mistake did he make in the exam.
2). In no time did the man realize what was happening.
3).In no case can you tell him the truth.
4). Hardly had the train left when he remembered he had left his suitcase on it.
No sooner had the train left than he remembered he had left his suitcase on it.
48.the moment, the minute, immediately, directly, on doing…表示“一….就”
1). On arriving (his arrival )at the airport, he was surrounded by the reporters .
2). ---Have you give John the book? ---Yes, the moment I saw him.
49. rather than
1).It is better to ask for help at the beginning rather than to wait until a busy period when everyone is rushed off their feet.
2).It is the boss who is to blame rather than the workers.
50. while/ but ：while侧重两者之间的对比，but 多指一件事的两个对立面。
1). He likes listening to music while I like watching TV.
2). I badly wanted that book, but I haven’t enough money.
51. only to do 作结果状语，多用来表示出人意料、结局令人沮丧的结果。动词多是终结性的词，如：find, learn, to be told, to be caught等
1). His father disappeared, never to heard from again.
2). He hurried to his office, only to be told that he was dismissed.
52.one moment…… and now…….刚才还…….现在却……
1). One moment the two boys were playing, and now they are quarrelling.
2). One moment it was fine, and now it is raining.
53. of +n. 表示某物具备某种性质或特征
1). New Zealand wine is of high quality and is sold all over the world.
2). They are of the same height.
3). Coins are of different sizes, weights, shapes and of different metals.
4). Sports and games are of great value for children’s study.
1). The teacher told me that only in that way, could I learn English well.
2). I received my mother’s call at 11a.m., only then did I remember it was my birthday today.
55. What do you think of……? （这三个句式用来询问某人对某个事物的评价或看法，
How do you find……? 其回答应该是评价性的话语）
How do you like…..?
1). ---How do you find the film last night?
---I have never seen a worse one before.
56. What is/was………like? 用来询问人或事物的特征或本质
1). ---What is your mother like?
---She is a very nice person./ She is very beautiful./ She looks like her father.
2). ---What is the weather going to be this weekend?
---It is going to be fine.
l If +were/ did (动词过去式)，主语+情态动词（would, could, might, should）+do（用
1). I don’t have a cellphone. If I had one , it would be convenient for me to contract others.
l If +had done (过去完成式)，主语+情态动词（would, could, might, should）+have
1). If I had gone to the concert, I would have seen the famous singer.
l If +were/ did (动词过去式)，主语+情态动词（would, could, might, should）+ do
were to do
should do （用来表示对将来情况的假设）
1). If I were not to take/ should take/ took the exam tomorrow, I would go shopping with you.
l 虚拟语气条件句的倒装：在虚拟语气条件句中，如果出现助动词were, should, had，
1). Should he act like that again, he would be fined. àIf he should act like that again, ……
Were he to act like that again, he would be fined. àIf he were to act like that again, ……
***If he acted like that again, ……（不可以倒装）
2). Had the doctor come in time last night, the boy would have been saved.
à If the doctor had come in time last night, ………..
3). If I had time now, I would go to the film with you. （不可以倒装,因为句中的had不是助动词）
l But for….--> If it were not for…../ If it hadn’t been for
1). But for the determined captain, all the passengers on board wouldn’t have been saved.
àIf it hadn’t been for the determined captain, all the passengers on board……
2). But for your rich parents, you wouldn’t live such a easy life.
à If it were not for your rich parents, you wouldn’t live such a easy life.
l 再suggest, insist, demand, require, request, order, advise, propose等表示建议、要求、命令、主张的动词引导的名词性从句中，从句的谓语动词要用(should )do的形式
1). Mother insisted that John (should) go to bed before 9 o’olock.
对比：He insisted that I had taken away his dictionary.（不是建议、要求、命令或主张）
2). His suggestion that Tony (should) be invited to the party was refused.（同位语从句）
对比：His words suggested that he was very angry with me.（不是建议、要求、命令或主张）
58. taste, smell, look, sound, feel等感官动词作为系动词后面要接adj.作表语。
1). Apple of this kind taste very nice.
2). Smelling nice, this kind of bread sells well.
59.有些动词常用作不及物动词与well或easily连用，表示某物具备的某种特征。常用的词有sell, cut , wash, last, burn等。
1).His latest work sells well
2). Dry wood burns easily.
1).I have never seen a better film.
2).I can’t agree you more. 我非常同意
1). I earn more than I did in the past.
2). John spends as much time watching TV as he does writing.
3). China is no longer what it was/ used to be.
those 代替指人或指物的复数名词，一般是特指的=the ones
1). The output of coal this year is twice as much as that of last year.
2). The students in this class are more active than those in that one.
3). A bridge made of steel is stronger than one made of stones.
4). Small bananas usually taste better than bigger ones.