山课件 w ww.5 Y K j.Co M Grammar: 动词不定式
to be done
to have done
to have been done
to be doing
不定式的否定形式：not to do/ not to have done / not to be doing/ not to be done/ not to have been done
①不定式的进行式由to be + V-ing构成，用来表示谓语动词动作发生时，不定式的动作正在进行。
eg. Some students pretended ____________ (read) English when the teacher came in.
②不定式完成式由to have + V-ed构成，用来表示动作发生在谓语动作之前。
eg. --- Is Bob still performing?
--- I’m afraid not. He is said __________ (leave) the stage already as he has become an official.
③不定式的被动式分为一般式被动to be V-ed和完成式被动to have been V-ed。当不定式的逻辑主语是不定式所表示的动作的承受者时，不定式要用被动语态。
eg. It is an honour for me_____________ (invite) to the party.
The book is said _______________________ (translate) into many languages.
All these gifts must be mailed immediately _____ in time for Christmas.
A. in order to have received B. in order to receive
C. so as to be received D. so as to be receiving
To find a true friend is difficult.
It is difficult to find a true friend.
Is it difficult to find a true friend?
How difficult it is to find a true friend!
a) It is + adj. (easy, important, difficult…) + to do sth.
b) It is + n. (a pity, a pleasure, one’s duty, a shame) + to do sth.
eg. It’s a pleasure to go shopping at weekends.
c) It takes/needs/requires + some time (hours, months, days, patience…) + to do sth.
eg. It requires patience to be a good teacher.
当句子的主语是aim, idea, policy, question, suggestion, wish, task, duty, job, purpose等或者主语是what引导的名词性从句时，后面可以用不定式做表语，用以说明主语所包含内容。
eg. Our most important task now is to make a plan.
eg. The only thing we can do now is wait and see.
The teacher said “Remember to bring the book tomorrow!”
a) 可以直接用不定式作宾语的动词很多，常见的有：agree, afford, tend, ask, decide, determine, expect, fail, hope, learn, intend, manage, offer, plan, promise, refuse, want, wish等
当复合宾语中的宾语是不定式时，先用形式宾语it代替不定式，把不定式置于补语之后，即：主语＋动 词＋it＋补语＋to do句式,常用动词有feel, think, find, believe, consider, make等。
如: He feels it his duty to help the poor.
I think it difficult to find a true friend.
b) 不定式一般不作介词的宾语，只有少数介词如but, except等后面可以跟不定式作宾语。一般情况下作介词宾语的不定式都带to，如果but或except前面有do, does, did, to do时，通常省略to。
eg. The bus hadn’t come. We had no choice but to wait.
= We could do nothing but wait.
a) 通常作宾语补语的不定式要带to，常用于以下动词之后：ask, tell, advise, allow, permit, enable, expect, force, get, like, order, teach, want, invite, wish, beg等
You should get them to help you.
在谓语动词believe, find, think, feel, consider, suppose, imagine, prove等后面跟to be…作宾补，不跟to do, 有时to be可省略
①We all believe John (to be) honest.
②I consider him (to be) one of the best teachers of No. 1 Middle School.
但当不定式是完成式时，to不能省略，如：We consider him to have been foolish.
①使役动词，如：let, have, make等
②感官动词，如： see, watch, notice, look at ,listen to ,hear, feel,等
Don’t let the children trouble you.
I heard someone open the door.
His father made him go to bed early.
→He was made to go to bed early by his father.
a) would rather, had better, why not do
I would rather go swimming.
You had better tidy your bedroom.
Why not visit your cousin in Japan
b)当两个动词不定式由and, or, except, but, than, rather than相连接时，通常情况下第二个to要省略
Do you want to go shopping or watch a film?
I decided to write rather than phone.
We had nothing to do but watch TV.
=we had no choice but to watch TV.
(注：一般情况下作介词but, except后接to do，但是如果but或except前面有do, does, did, to do时，通常省略to。)
①能带不定式作宾语的动词，其同源名词可以带不定式作定语。常见的有attempt, decision, promise, plan等
eg. He hasn’t kept his promise to write to his parents regularly.
②常与不定式搭配的形容词，其同源名词一般可以用不定式作定语。常见的有ability, determination, anxiety, eagerness等
eg. His eagerness to finish his homework was quite clear.
③序数词、形容词最高级或被only, last, next等修饰的名词可以用不定式作定语：
She was the only person to survive after the earthquake.
Eg. He’s always the first to come and the last to leave. 主谓关系
I’ve no time to listen to your excuse. 同位关系
She has a meeting to attend. （动宾关系=attend a meeting）
There’s nothing to worry about. (动宾关系=worry about nothing)
(1) ①I stayed there to see what would happen.
②Henry has decided to go to the hospital to be examined by the doctor.
(2)有时为了强调，不定式前可加in order或so as。如：
Bob took down my telephone number so as (in order) not to forget it.
有时为强调目的状语可把in order to或不定式置于句首，但so as to不能这样用。在这种句式中不定式部分可转换为so that, in order that,成为目的状语从句，如：
I stayed there in order (so as) to see what would happen.
=I stayed there so that (in order that) I could see what would happen.
在部分表示感情色彩的形容词、过去分词或动词之后可接不定式，如：astonished, glad, happy, laugh, pleased, sad, smile, sorry, surprised等。
①We are glad to hear the news.
②I was surprised to see that a three-year-old baby could write so well.
如：The question raised by the student is difficult to answer.
The room is really comfortable to live in.
常这样用的形容词有: easy, difficult, heavy, light, comfortable, fit, impossible等。
We came home after our holiday to find our garden neat and tidy.
①so…as to; such…as to
I'm not so stupid (a fool) as to put it in writing.我不至于愚蠢到会把它写下来。
I'm not such a stupid fool as to put it in writing.
The boy isn’t old enough to go to school.
= The boy is too young to go to school.
③only to 用于表示意想不到的结果
Jane hurried back only to find her mother dying in the hospital.
I'm too tired to stay up longer.
①I'm only too glad to have passed the exam.考试及格我太高兴了。（too修饰glad to have…，相当 于very）
②We have too much to learn.我们要学的太多了（不定式作定语）。
To tell the truth, the play was a great disappointment tome.
常见的短语有to be exact（确切地说），to begin with（首先），to do him justice（说句对他公道的话），to be sure（真的）等等。
Eg. To tell you the truth, I dislike you.
eg. The order to start the general attack soon came.
不定式的复合结构，以it为形式主语或形式宾语引导的复合结构，如果其前的形容词是指行为的性质就用：for sb. to do sth.这种复合结构在句中可作主语、表语、宾语、定语、状语等。
It is necessary for me to learn English well.
如果该形容词是指行为的性质，同时又指行为的人，则用of sb. to do sth.。这种句式中的常用形容词有：right, wrong, brave, careful, careless, clever, wise, stupid, cruel, foolish, good, honest, kind, nice, silly等。
eg. It’s very kind of you to come to see me.
连接代（副）词+不定式（包括whether, what, which, whom, where, when, how, 不包括why），在句中起名词的作用，通常跟在诸如tell, know, show, decide, learn, wonder, explain等动词后作宾语,也可作主语或表语。
eg. No one can tell me where to find John.
When to start the exam is still unknown.
The problem is how to get enough money.
1. I've worked with children before, so I know what ________in my new job.
A．expected B．to expect C．to be expecting D．expects
2. _______late in the morning, Bob turned off the alarm.
A．To sleep B．Sleeping C．Sleep D．Having slept
3. One learns a language by making mistakes and _______them.
A．correct B．correcting C．corrects D．to correct
4.The mother didn't know _________ to blame for the broken glass as it happened while she was out.
Ａ．who Ｂ．when Ｃ．how Ｄ．What
5. Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains _________ whether they will enjoy it.
Ａ．to see Ｂ．to be seen Ｃ．seeing Ｄ．Seen
6. It is said in Australia
there is more land than the government knows _______.
Ａ．it what to do with Ｂ．what to do it with
Ｃ．what to do with it Ｄ．to do what with it
7. ― How do you deal with the disagreement between the company and the customers?
― The key ____ the problem is to meet the demand ____ by the customers.
A. to solving; making B. to solving; made
C. to solve; making D. to solve; made
8. The teacher asked us __________ so much noise.
A. don’t make B. not make C. not making D. not to make
9. My advisor encouraged______ a summer course to improve my writing skills.
A for me taking B me taking C for me to take D me to take
10. The man insisted_______ a taxi for me even though I told him I lived nearby.
A. find B. to find C. on finding D. in finding
11. The news reporters hurried to the airport, only______ the film stars had left.
A．to tell B．to be told C．telling D．told
12. Having been ill in bed for nearly a month, he had a hard time_____ the exam.
A．pass B．to pass C．passed D．passing
13. If you are planning to spend your money having fun this week, better ______ it—you’ve got some big bills coming.
A. forget B. forgot C. forgetting D. to forget
14. Helen had to shout _____ above the sound of the music.
A. making herself hear B. to make herself hear
C. making herself heard D. to make herself heard
15. You were silly not ____ your car.
A. to lock B. to have locked C. locking D. having locked
16. I don’t know whether you happen , but I’m going to study in the U.S.A.
A．to be heard B．to be hearing C．to hear D．to have heard
17. According to a recent U.S.
survey, children spent up to 25 hours a week _________ TV.
A. to watch B. to watching C. watching D. watch
18. The flu is believed _______ by viruses that like to reproduce in the cells inside the human nose and throat.
A. causing B. being caused C. to be caused D. be have caused
19. I'm going to the supermarket this afternoon. Do you have anything ________ ?
A. to be buying B. to buy C. for buying D. bought
20. Victor apologized for __________ to inform me of the change in the plan.
A. his being not able B. him not to be able C. his not being able D. him to be not able
21. It’s necessary to be prepared for a job interview.________ the answers ready will be of great help.
A. To have had B. Having had C. Have D. Having
22. He glanced over at her, ______ that though she was tiny, she seemed very well put together.
A. noting B. noted C. to note D. having noted
23. I send you 100 dollars today, the rest ______ in a year.
A. follows B. followed C. to follow D. being followed
24. ---- Is Bob still performing?
---- I'm afraid not. He is said________ the stage already as he has become an official
A. to have left B. to leave C. to have been left D. to be left
25. I think you’ll grow ________ him when you know him better.
A．liking B．to be like C．to like D．to be liking
26. While watching television, __________.
A．the doorbell rang B．the doorbell rings
C．we heard the doorbell ring D．we heard the doorbell rings
27. It was unbelievable that the fans waited outside the gym for three hours just _______ a look at the sports stars.
A. had B. having C. to have D. have
28. _________ more about university courses, call (920) 746-3789.
A．To find out B．Finding out C．Find out D．Having found out
29. I don't want _______like I' m speaking ill of anybody, but the manager’s plan is unfair.
A. to sound B. to be sounded C. sounding D. to have sounded
30. Soon they saw the boy _________ in the crowd.
A. disappear B. to disappear C. disappears D. disappeared
31. Did you notice the little boy __________ away?
A. took the candy and run B. take the candy and run
C. taking the candy and run D. who taking the candy running
32. I heard him __________ so.
A. says B. saying C. say D. said
33. Professor Black had us __________ compositions every Friday.
A. to write B. written C. write D. writing
34. Mrs Smith made her pupils __________ the text three times a week.
A. recite B. recited C. reciting D. to recite
35. She was seen __________ model ships in the room.
A. made B. to make C. makes D. make
36. Birds are seldom heard __________ at night.
A. sing B. singing C. to sing D. to be singing
37. The areoplane was noticed __________ at six.
A. take off B. to take off C. get off D. to get off
38. Mr Crossett was make __________ his teaching because of his poor health and old age.
A. give up B. give in C. to give up D. to give in
39. The book is said __________ into many foreign languages.
A. to have been translated B. to have translated
C. to be translating D. having been translated
40. The Marquis was thought _________ some terrible wrongs to his tenants.
A. of doing B. that he had done C. to have done D. to have been done
41. Do you think it difficult __________ a horse __________?
A. to train, jumping B. training, for jumping
C. to train, jump D. to train, to jump
42. My car has broken down. Would you help me__________?
A. to get the car to start B. get the car start
C. to get the car started D. get to start the car
43. He ordered the room __________.
A. to sweep B. to be swept C. should sweep D. swept
44. Tell Tom and Jack _________ each other.
A. not quarrel B. not to quarrel with
C. to not quarrel with D. they not quarrel
45. He would like them __________ every day.
A. to practice B. to practise C. practicing D. practicing
46. ---“Are you going to leaving now?”
---“Unless you would prefer me __________ here.”
A. to stay B. will stay C. that I’ll stay D. staying
47. What a pity! One cannot help __________ sorry for the injured.
A. to feel B. oneself to feel C. feeling D. oneself from feeling
48. Nothing could __________ the boy from __________ the tall building.
A. prevent, risking climbing B. prevent, risking to climb
C. stop, risk climbing D. keep, risking climb
49. On Sundays I prefer __________ at home to __________ out.
A. to stay, go B. staying, go C. staying, going D. to stay, going
50. Though it sounds a bit too dear, it is worth __________.
A. being bought B. buying C. to buy D. buying it
51. The novel is well __________.
A. worth to read B. worth being read
C. worthy to read D. worthy of being read
52. I didn’t feel __________ going out for a walk.
A. so B. as C. rather D. like
53. You’d better _________ her the sad news now.
A. not to tell B. won’t tell C. not tell D. don’t tell
54. I’d rather lose the game __________.
A. not to hurt him B. not hurt him C. than to hurt him D. than hurt him
says _________ tonight, because there will be an exam tomorrow morning.
A. she’d rather not go B. she’d not rather go
C. she’ll rather not go D. she won’t rather go
56. Tom did nothing but _________ back what he had said.
A. taken B. took C. taking D. take
57. There seemed nothing else to do but __________ a doctor.
A. to send for B. send for C. call for D. to call in
58. ---“I usually go there by train.”
---“Why not __________ by boat for a change?”
A. to try going B. trying to go C. to try and go D. try going
59. Have I any choice but __________as you tell me?
A. to do B. do C. doing D. I’ll do
60. ---“Would you like to go with us for a picnic tomorrow?”
A. I would like B. I’d like to go C. I’d love D. I’d like to
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山课件 w ww.5 Y K j.Co M