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Unit 1 Festivals around the world
Period 3 Learning about language: Grammar
整体设计
教材分析
This is the third teaching period of this unit. To test whether students have grasped the important and difficult language points they learned in the last period, the teacher should first offer them some revision exercises. Then lead in the new lesson.
This teaching period mainly deals with the grammar: modal verbs—the use of can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must, can’t. Students often feel modal verbs abstract and difficult, so it is necessary to make the lesson interesting and connect it with their daily life in order to make it easy to accept and understand. Firstly, the teacher can ask students to read the reading passage FESTIVALS AND CELEBRATIONS again, tick out the sentences using modal verbs from the reading passage and translate them into Chinese. Secondly, compare and discover the uses of each modal verb by giving a lot of example sentences. Thirdly, do the exercises in Discovering useful structures on Page 5 and more exercises for students to master the related modal verbs. Finally, summarize the use of can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must, can’t.
At the end of the class, ask students to do the exercises in Using structures on Page 43 and additional exercises for consolidation.
教学重点
Get students to learn and master the use of can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must, can’t.
教学难点
Enable students to learn how to use some modal verbs correctly.
三维目标
知识目标
1. Get students to know the characters of modal verbs.
2. Let students learn the use of can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must, can’t.
能力目标
Enable students to use modal verbs correctly and properly according to the context.
情感目标
1. Get students to become interested in grammar learning.
2. Develop students’ sense of group cooperation.

教学过程
设计方案(一)
→Step 1 Revision
1. Check the homework exercises.
2. Dictate some new words and expressions.
→Step 2 Leading-in by a guessing game
The teacher prepares some little gifts wrapped in paper and let students guess what the gifts are, who will be given the gifts and answer why they guess so. Tell students they can use such modal verbs as may, must, can’t, and so on.
The teacher may write some sentences on the blackboard according to what students say and explain how to use modal verbs to express speculation, possibility, etc.
Suggested sentences:
1. It must be a toy. (speculation)
2. It may be a book about how to learn English. (possibility)
3. Can it be a pen?  (guessing)
4. You will give it to student who can speak English well. (promise; ability)
5. What you guessed can’t be true. (guessing)
→Step 3 Grammar learning
1. Reading and discovering
Ask students to turn back to Page 1 to read through the passage FESTIVALS AND CELEBRATIONS, let them pick out the sentences using modal verbs and translate them into Chinese.
Suggested answers:
1. The most ancient festivals would celebrate the end of cold weather, planting in spring and harvest in autumn.
最古老的节日总是庆祝严寒的结束、春季的种植和秋天的收获。
2. Some festivals are held to honor the dead or to satisfy the ancestors, who might return either to help or to do harm.
有些节日, 是为了纪念死者, 或者使祖先得到满足, 因为祖先们有可能回到世上(给人们)提供帮助, 也有可能带来危害。
3. For the Japanese festival Obon, people should go to clean graves and light incense in memory of their ancestors.
在日本的盂兰盆节, 人们要扫墓、烧香, 以缅怀祖先。
4. They also light lamps and play music because they think that this will lead the ancestors back to earth.
他们也点起灯笼, 奏响乐曲, 因为他们认为这样可以把祖先引回到世上。
5. It is now a children’s festival, when they can dress up and go to their neighbors’ homes to ask for sweets.
它(万圣节前夕)现在是儿童们的节日, 他们可以乔装打扮, 到邻居家要糖吃。
6. If the neighbors do not give any sweets, the children might play a trick on them.
如果邻居们不给糖果, 孩子们可能会捉弄他们。
7. Festivals can also be held to honor famous people.
有些节日也可以是纪念名人的。
8. Harvest and Thanksgiving festivals can be very happy events.
收获节和感恩节是非常喜庆的节日。
9. Some people might win awards for their farm produce, like the biggest watermelon or the most handsome rooster.
有些人可能因为他们的农产品(参加评选)而获奖, 比如最大的西瓜或最帅的公鸡。
10. These carnivals might include parades, dancing in the streets day and night, loud music and colorful clothing of all kinds.
狂欢节也许包括街头游行、昼夜跳舞、鼓噪的音乐和各种艳丽的盛装。
2. Thinking and discussing
Let students read the sentences they picked out, think over and discuss with a partner how each of these modal verbs is being used in the situations. If students have some difficulty, give them a hand.
3. Summing up: the use of can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must and can’t.
情态动词 (Modal Verbs)
情态动词主要用来表示说话人的看法、意愿、态度等。从用法上来说, 它有如下几个特点:
1)情态动词本身都有一定的词义;
2)情态动词单独不能在句子中充当谓语;
3)情态动词没有人称和数的变化;
4)情态动词后接都不带to的不定式(除ought外), 即接动词原形。
常用情态动词的基本用法
1. can/could
1)表示脑力或体力上的能力
Nobody can stop the development of science.
谁也无法阻止科学的发展。
She can sing that song in English. 她能用英文唱那首歌。
He could hardly support his family before he found the new job.
他在找到那份新工作前几乎无法养家糊口。
I could not understand the lecture on the computer given by Mr. Smith.
我听不懂史密斯先生作的那个关于计算机的讲座。
2)表示客观上的可能性
You can borrow this useful book from the library.
你可以从图书馆借到这种有用的书。
A more suitable person than him for the job can not be found.
不可能找到比他更适合这份工作的人了。
When the storm stopped, the plane could take off.
当风暴停下来时, 飞机可以起飞了。
3)表示主观上的允许
Can I ask you some questions about it?
我可以问你有关这件事的几个问题吗?
You can not leave here till I come back.
直到我回来你才能离开。
Such kind of thing can’t happen any more later.
这类事以后不准再发生了。
Can/Could you tell me how to get to the airport?
你能告诉我怎么去机场吗?
4)(用于否定句、疑问句或感叹句中)表示猜测、怀疑或惊诧
How can/could you be here?  你怎么会在这儿?
She couldn’t/can’t be so stupid to do that.
她不可能蠢得去做那种事吧。
Where could/can the boy be now?
那孩子现在能在哪儿呢?
另外, could还常用于表示客气委婉的看法、提问以及用于虚拟语气的结构中。这时could就不可以看作是can的过去式了, 而是could自己独特的用法。例如:
Could you speak a little slowly?
您能说慢一点儿吗?
I’m afraid that we couldn’t give you any definite answer at this moment.
恐怕我们这时候还无法给予您确切的答复。
I could come earlier if asked.
如果要让我早一点来, 我可以来早一点。
2. may/might
1)表示可能性
I may be busy from tomorrow on.
从明天起我可能会忙起来。
You may catch sight of the sunrise from here when you get up before 5 in the morning.
你在早晨五点钟以前起来, 或许能从这儿看到日出。
I wondered if they might agree with the idea.
我想知道他们是否会同意这种想法。
She thought it might be wise to try her luck here.
她认为在这儿碰碰运气也不错。
2)表示允许
May I come in?  我可以进来吗?
I’d like to have a smoke here if I may.
如果可以的话我想在这儿抽一支烟。
The librarian told her that she might return the book to the library in three days.
图书管理员告诉她说, 她可以在三天后还那本书。
3)may用来表示祝愿
May that day come soon. 但愿这天早日到来。
May you succeed in winning the first prize in the game.
祝愿你比赛夺冠成功。
4)might也常用于一些状语从句中或虚拟语气的结构中
I could not convince him, try as I might.
我无论用什么样的办法也不能说服他。
They left off earlier on that day so that they might catch the first train.
那天, 他们为了赶上头班车动身早一些。
He died so that the others might live.
为了其他的人能活下去, 他自己牺牲了。
If you had made better use of your time, you might have learned more.
假若你将自己的时间利用得更好一些, 你本可以学到更多东西的。
注意: 在回答以may引导的问句时, 一般避免使用may, 以免显得太严厉、或不太客气, 而改用其他方式。例如:
—May I come in?  我可以进来吗?
—Yes, please. /Sure. /Certainly. 请进。
—Please don’t. 请不要进来。/—No, you mustn’t. 不能进来。
3. must
1)表示出于职责、义务该做某事
We must protect the people’s rights.
我们应该保护人民的利益。
Everyone must be loyal to his motherland.
每个人都应该忠于自己的祖国。
Students must work hard at their study.
学生应该努力学习。
2)表示出于主观意识而必须要做某事
We must speed up the pace of our economic reform.
我们必须加速经济改革的步伐。
We must keep steps to the scientific development.
我们一定要与科学的发展保持步调一致。
You must hurry up or you’ll be late.
你必须得快点儿, 不然会迟到的。
注意: (1)must和have to的区别: must表示出于主观意识而必须要做某事; have to却表示由于某种客观原因而不得不做某事, 另外have to还有时态的变化。例如:
I have to go now for I’ve got a meeting 15 minutes later.
我现在必须要走了, 因为我15分钟后有个会要开。
He has to be back home by five to fetch his son from kindergarten.
他必须在五点钟前回家去幼儿园接他的儿子。
(2)在回答以must引导的问句时, 若是否定答复, 不用mustn’t, 而用needn’t 或don’t have to, 因为mustn’t表示禁止, 意思是“绝不能”“一定不要”, 而没有“不必”的意思。例如:
—Must we hand in our exercises today?
我们今天必须交作业吗?
—Yes, you must. 是的, 必须交。
—No, you needn’t/don’t have to. 不, 没必要。
3)用于否定句, 表示禁止
Smoking must not be allowed in the office.
严禁在办公室吸烟。
You mustn’t talk to girls like that.
你绝不能那样对女孩子说话。
4)表示推测(用于肯定句)
You must be tired after working so long.
你工作这么久了, 肯定累了吧。
It must have rained last night for it is so wet outside.
外面这么湿, 昨晚肯定下雨了。
4. shall
用作情态动词时, 适用于第二人称和第三人称。
1)表示允诺
The Fairy said, “Whatever you want, you shall have. ”
仙女说: “你想得到什么, 你就可以有什么。”
I don’t want to be hard on your daughter; she shan’t be pressed.
我不想对你女儿太严厉, 她不会太受压的。
2)表示命令
You shall come to my office immediately.
你必须马上来我的办公室。
She shall not stay in my garden.
她不许呆在我的花园里。
3)表示必然
That day shall come. 那一天一定会到来。
This law shall come into effect on January 1st 2007.
这项法律于2007年元月1日生效。
4)表示约定
The renter shall keep the house in a neat and orderly state.
租赁者要保持房屋整洁有序。
The supplier shall make shipment before October and the purchaser shall make payment within 15 days after receipt of the goods.
卖方十月以前装运, 买方在收到货物后十五天内付款。
5. should
1)表示出于职责、义务该做某事
You shouldn’t come to such a decision hastily.
你不应该匆匆忙忙地作出这么一个决定。
We should read English aloud every morning.
我们应该每天早晨朗读英文。
2)表示对某种情况的估计
She shouldn’t be out in such an early morning.
她不会这么一大早就出去了吧。
This book should be published in two months at most.
这本书最多两个月后就会出版的。
3)用于某些从句中表示虚拟语气
The doctor insisted that the girl should be hospitalized.
大夫坚持认为那个女孩要住院治疗。
If it had not been for the doctor’s care, the girl should not be speaking to you now.
要不是由于大夫的精心照料, 这个女孩现在就不能与你说话了。
6. will/would
1)用于第二人称的疑问句, 表示请求(would更客气、委婉)
Will you tell her that I’ll be back in twenty minutes?
请告诉她我二十分钟后回来, 好吗?
Would you tell me how to get to the shopping center?
您能告诉我怎么去购物中心吗?
2)表示愿望
Go where you will. 去你想去的地方吧。
He wouldn’t let the doctor take his blood pressure.
他不愿意让大夫给他量血压。
3)表示习惯、倾向
Sometimes the cat will lie there all afternoon.
有时候, 那只猫总是整个下午都躺在那儿。
He would sit there for hours, doing nothing at all.
他总是在那儿一坐就是几个小时, 什么都不干。
4)表示决心
We will never talk about that subject again.
我们决不会再谈论这个话题了。
He said he would make this computer work even if he had to stay up all night.
他说他即使整晚不睡觉也一定要让这台计算机工作起来。
→Step 4 Grammar practice
1. Turn to Page 5. Ask students to do Exercise 2 in Discovering useful structures. First let them discuss in pairs how each of these modal verbs is being used in the situations. Then check the answers with the whole class. Give some explanations if necessary.
2. Turn to Page 43. Ask students to do Exercise 1 and Exercise 2. Check the answers after most of them finish.
→Step 5 Dialogues
Show the following on the screen.
Working in pairs, complete the dialogues using modal verbs and then be ready to present your dialogues to the class.
1. A: ______________ you like to go to a special event with us on Sunday?
B: Yes, I __________________________.
2. A: ______________ Xiao Feng find the origin of Easter from that book?
B: No, he  __________________________.
3. A: _______________ I go with my friends to the harvest festival?
B: Yes, you  __________________________.
4. A: If I want to be a doctor _____________ I study science?
B: Yes, you .
5. A: He is very handsome. ______________ he play the role of the prince?
B: No, he  __________________________.
6. A: The neighbors’ children are older this year. ______________ they stop playing tricks at Halloween?
B: Perhaps, they  __________________________.
The following procedures may be followed:
1. Let students complete the dialogues using modal verbs individually.
2. Check the answers with the whole class.
3. Ask students to practice their dialogues in pairs.
4. Let some pairs perform their dialogues in the front.
Suggested answers:
1. A: Would
B: ‘d like to go with you on Sunday
2. A: Could
B: couldn’t find it
3. A: May
B: may go (with your friends)
4. A: should
B: should study science
5. A: Can
B: can’t play the role of the prince
6. A: Might/Should
B: might/should stop playing tricks at Halloween
→Step 6 Closing down by a quiz
Show the following exercises on the screen. Let students finish them within five minutes to see if they have mastered the use of modal verbs. Five minutes later, check the answers with the whole class.
1. Peter ______________ come with us tonight, but he isn’t very sure yet.
A. must
B. may
C. can
D. will
2. Michael ______________ be a policeman, for he’s much too short.
A. needn’t
B. can’t
C. should
D. may
3. It’s nearly seven o’clock. Jack ______________ be here at any moment.
A. must
B. need
C. should
D. can
4. John, you ______________ play with the knife; you ______________ hurt yourself.
A. won’t; can’t
B. mustn’t; may
C. shouldn’t; must
D. can’t; shouldn’t
5. —When can I come for the photos?  I need them tomorrow afternoon.
—They ______________ be ready by 12: 00.
A. can
B. should
C. might
D. need
6. —Are you coming to Jeff’s party?
—I’m not sure. I ______________ go to the concert instead.
A. must
B. would
C. should
D. might
7. I didn’t see her in the meeting this morning. She ______________ have spoken at the meeting.
A. mustn’t
B. shouldn’t
C. needn’t
D. couldn’t
8. Susan ______________ written a report like this.
A. can have
B. mustn’t have
C. can’t have
D. ought to not have
9. Sorry, I’m late. I ______________ have turned off the alarm clock and gone back to sleep again.
A. might
B. should
C. can
D. will
10. Jenny ______________ have kept her word. I wonder why she changed her mind.
A. must
B. should
C. need
D. would
11. We ______________ last night, but we went to the concert instead.
A. must have studied
B. might study
C. should have studied
D. would study
12. —Will you stay for lunch?
—Sorry, ______________. My brother is coming to see me.
A. I mustn’t
B. I can’t
C. I needn’t
D. I won’t
13. Mary ______________ be in Paris. I saw her in town only a few minutes ago.
A. mustn’t
B. shouldn’t
C. can’t
D. may not
14. A computer ______________ think for itself; it must be told what to do.
A. can’t
B. couldn’t
C. may not
D. might not
15. —Could I borrow your dictionary?
—Yes, of course, you ______________.
A. might
B. will
C. can
D. should
Suggested answers:
1~5 BBCBB 6~10 DDCAB 11~15 CBCAC
→Step 7 Homework
1. Finish off the workbook exercises.
2. Preview the passage A SAD LOVE STORY on Page 7, find the sentences in which modal verbs are used, and see if you can understand the situations.
设计方案(二)
→Step 1 Revision
1. Check the homework exercises.
2. Translate the following into English.
1)纪念; 追念
2)盛装; 打扮
3)搞恶作剧; 诈骗; 开玩笑
4)期望; 期待; 盼望
5)日夜; 昼夜; 整天
6)人们喜欢聚在一起, 吃吃喝喝, 互相玩得开心。(have fun with)
7)她的婚礼下周举行。(take place)
8)她看上去好像生病了。(as though/as if)
→Step 2 Warming up
Tell students that modal verbs such as may, might, will, would, can, could, shall, should and must are used for many purposes. Ask them to read through the reading passage and find out at least ten sentences that contain modal verbs. Then let them explain the meaning and discuss in pairs how each of the modal verbs is being used in the situations.
→Step 3 Learning the use of modal verbs
1. Ask students to turn to Page 89 and learn the grammar Modal Verbs by themselves.
2. Encourage them to ask as many questions as possible. Give them explanations if necessary.
3. Solve the problems students meet during their study.
4. Sum up.
→Step 4 Practice
1. Ask students to do Exercise 2 and Exercise 3 in Discovering useful structures on Page 5.
2. Let students do the following additional exercise.
Working in pairs, complete the dialogues using modal verbs and then be ready to present your dialogues to the class.
1. A: ______________ you like to go to a special event with us on Sunday?
B: Yes, I  __________________________.
2. A: ______________ Xiao Feng find the origin of Easter from that book?
B: No, he  __________________________.
3. A: _____________ I go with my friends to the harvest festival?
B: Yes, you  __________________________.
4. A: If I want to be a doctor ________________ I study science?
B: Yes, you  __________________________.
5. A: He is very handsome. ______________ he play the role of the prince?
B: No, he  __________________________.
6. A: The neighbors’ children are older this year. ______________ they stop playing tricks at Halloween?
B: Perhaps, they __________________________ .
→Step 5 Consolidation
Ask students to finish the following exercises within 8 minutes. Then check the answers with the whole class.
1. 单句改错
1)Mr. Smith looks pale. He can be ill.
2)You must be joking. That mustn’t be true.
3)Come to take the photos tomorrow morning. It may be ready by then.
4)The fire spread so fast that only one-third of the people could escape the fire.
2. Exercise 1 and Exercise 2 in Using structures on Page 43.
→Step 6 Homework
1. Finish off the Workbook exercises.
2. Read through the part Modal Verbs on Pages 89-91 again and take notes in your exercise book.
板书设计
Unit 1 Festivals around the world
Modal verbs
Modal verbs Examples
can/could —Can/Could I borrow your dictionary?
—Yes, you can.
may/might —May/Might I come in?
—Yes, please. /Sure. /Certainly.
—Please don’t. /—No, you mustn’t.
must/mustn’t —Must we hand in our exercises today?
—Yes, you must.
—No, you needn’t/don’t have to.
You mustn’t talk to girls like that.
must/can’t You must be tired after working so long.
She can’t be so stupid to do that.
will/would Will/Would you tell me how to get to the shopping center?
He will/would sit there for hours, doing nothing at all.
shall/should You shall come to my office immediately.
We should read English aloud every morning.
活动与探究
Suppose Xiao Gang is absent today. Your teacher wants to know why he is absent, but no one knows the reason exactly. Make up a dialogue between the teacher, you and some of your classmates. Try to use as many modal verbs as possible. Be ready to present your dialogue to the class.
This activity is designed not only to help students know how to use modal verbs they have learned but also to make for the development of students’ writing and speaking ability. The teacher should make proper remarks after each group present the dialogue.

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Unit1 FestivalsaroundtheworldPeriod3 Learningaboutlanguage:Grammar整体设计教材分析Thisisthethirdteachingperiodofthisunit.Totestw

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