In order to decorate our classroom, we have several paintings to choose from. Now I’d like you to look at the paintings in this unit. (p2 and p44)
Which would you like to put up on the walls of our classroom? And why? What kind of the style for each painting?
1. include v. including prep.
E.g. Thirty people, including six children, went to visit the factory.
== Thirty people, six children included, went to visit the factory.
(介词短语including six children可用独立主格结构six children included替换，
即including sb.=sb. included)
2. painting n.(油，水彩) 画 paint v.（用颜料）画
drawing n.(素描) 画 draw v.（用线条）勾画
3.abstract adj.抽象的，深奥的 n.摘要（of）
(perfect adj./v increase v./n. conduct v./n.)
an abstract painting 抽象画 abstract noun 抽象名词
in the abstract 抽象地，一般性地
e.g. Beauty is abstract but a house is not.
e.g. Salt can be abstracted from sea water.
e.g. I like dogs in the abstract, but I can’t bear this one.
4.What would you rather do … 你更愿意做什么…
1. What were the artists interested in from 5 th to 15 th century AD?
They are interested in creating respect and love for God.
2. How did Masaccio paint his paintings?
He drew things in perspective(透视画法), which make picture very realistic.
3. Why did the impressionists have to paint quickly?
Because natural light changes quickly, they had to paint quickly.
Name of Ages Time Artist Feature
The Middle Ages 5th to 15th century AD Giotto di Bondone religious, realistic
The Renaissance 15th to16th century AD Masaccio perspective, realistic
Impressionism late 19th to early 20th century detailed, ridiculous
Modern Art 20th century to today controversial, absreact, realistic
1. influence v.& n. 影响（力）；有影响（之人或物）
have an influence on/upon… 对…有影响
have influence over/with… 对…有影响力
under the influence of 受…所影响，受…所左右
e.g. The weather in summer influences the rice crops.
e.g. He has no influence over his children.
2. belief n.相信；信念；信仰；信心 believe v.
belief-believe life-live proof-prove safe-save thief-thieve
beyond believe 难以置信
have belief in… 对…有信心
It’s one’s belief that- 某人相信
to the best of one’s belief （某人）深信
e.g. My belief is that he will win. 我确信他会赢。
e.g. Her belief in God is very firm. 她对上帝的信仰很坚定。
3. consequently adv. 所以；因而(as a result)
consequent adj. 作为结果的；随之发生的；由..引起（on）
as a consequence of 作为…的结果 in consequence of 作为…的结果
be of no consequence to sb. 对…无关紧要
take/bear/suffer the consequence of one’s action 承担行动的后果
e.g. As a/In consequence of your laziness and rudeness, I am forced to dismiss you.
e.g. It’s of no consequence to me.
e.g. You made the wrong decision, and now you must take the consequences.
e.g. Severe flooding was consequent on the heavy rain. 大洪水是由大雨所致。
4. …starting from the 5th century AD. 分词短语做方式状语
e.g. Please translate the following sentences, using the words and phrases you have learnt.
5. …the main aim of painters was to represent religious themes.(不定式作表语)
aim n.目标；目的；瞄准 v.瞄准；努力 aimless adj. 没有目标
take aim at 瞄准
achieve one’s aim 达到某人的目标
aim to do sth. 意欲/力求做某事
aim (sth.) at sb./sth. （用某物）瞄准某人/某物
be aimed at 目标是；目的是
e.g. What’s your aim in life? 你人生的目标是什么？
e.g. He aimed the gun at a bird. 他用枪瞄准鸟。
6. …by the 13th century
by prep. 在…之前，不迟于…
e.g. I had learnt eight thousand words by the end of last month.
e.g. By the time this letter reaches you I will have left the country.
7. value n.价值；（pl.）价值观 v.给…估价
be of great(some, little, no) value to… 对…有很大（一些，几乎没有，没有）价值
put great value on sth. 认为某事十分有益
go up/rise/increase in value 升值
go down/fall/drop in value 贬值
cultural/social/moral values 文化/社会/道德观念
valuable adj. 有价值的；重要的
valueless adj. (worthless) invaluable adj. (priceless)
8. take the place of 替代，取代（replace）
take one’s place 入座，就位（当one与主语指同一人时）；代替某人的职位
in the place of 代替；取代（instead of）
take place 发生；被举行（无变动）
e.g. Please take your place. From now on I will take the place of Mr. Li as chairman of the meeting.
9. focus v. 使聚焦；使集中 n. 焦点
focus sth. on sth. 聚焦于；集中于
in focus 焦点对准的；清晰的
out of focus 焦点未对准的； 模糊不清的
e.g. All our eyes were focused on the speaker. 大家的目光都集中在发言人身上。
10. possession n. 所有；占有；（pl.）所有物；财产
possessor n. 所有人；持有人
personal possessions 个人财产
in possession of 占有；拥有；持有 (主语是人，拥有某物)
in sb’s possession/in the possession of sb.
come into possession of sth. / take possession of sth. 占有某物
e.g. He was found in possession of some dangerous drugs.
== Some dangerous drugs were found in the possession of him / in his possession.
e.g. The soldiers took possession of the enemy’s base.
11. in perspective 用透视画法 perspective n. 透视画法；透视图；观点
12. convince vt 使确信；使信服
convince sb. to do sth. 说服某人做某事
convince sb. of sth. / that- 使某人相信
be convinced. of sth. / that- 相信
e.g. It took many hours to convince John of his wife’s mistake.
e.g. We convinced Anne to go by train rather than plane.
e.g. It’s hard to convince my family that we can’t afford a new car
e.g. I am convinced that he is telling the truth.
13. If the rules of perspective had not been discovered, people would not have been able to paint such realistic pictures. (if条件句中表过去情况的虚拟语气)
14. a great deal 大量；很多（a lot, much）
修饰不’ 修饰可’ 修饰可’+不’
much a large/great number of a lot of/lots of
a great/good deal of large/great numbers of a large quantity of
a great amount of a great/good many large quantities of
dozens of(几十) plenty of
15. mostly adv. 大部分地；主要地（mainly, largely）
most n.大部分；最大程度（作主，宾） adj. 大多数的（表） adv. 最，极其，非常（状）
e.g. Most students say that it is a most (a very) interesting book, but it isn’t the most (最高级)interesting they’ve read, and that they read such books mostly on weekends. .
16. be accepted as… 被认为是…
17. nowadays adv 现今；如今 Nowadays many people travel by air
18. scores of 许多的；大量的；几十的（修饰复数名词时，不与数词连用）
e.g. I have been there scores of times.
score n. （比赛）比分；（测试）分数；二十
three score (of) years 六十年 (表示“二十”时与数词连用，不加s)
scores of years 许多年
19. …but without the impressionists many of these painting styles would not exist….
without the impressionist介词短语相当于一虚拟条件句 if there were not the impressionists…
20. attempt vt.& n. 尝试；努力；企图
attempt a difficult problem 试着解答难题
attempt to do sth 试图做某事
make an attempt to do/at doing sth. 试图做某事
21. …using colour, line and shape to represent them. (现在分词作伴随或方式状语)
e.g. He often went running to school.
22. on the other hand 另一方面，反过来说（状）
on (the) one hand 一方面
on hand 现有的，手头上的，即将发生的
Learning about language
1. historical adj. 历史（上）的；史学的
historic adj. 历史性的；具有历史意义的
a historical event 历史事件 a historic event 历史性事件
2. at (the) least 至少，最低限度 at (the) most 至多，最多
e.g. A child must sleep at least eight hours a day.
e.g. I can give you 20 dollars at most.
3.doubt n.& v.(作 v.时，肯定句可用whether/if/that引导，否定句只用that引导)
no doubt 很可能，无疑 in doubt 怀疑，不肯定
There is no doubt of&about sth./ that-- 毫无疑问…
There is doubt whether- 令人怀疑…
e.g. There is no doubt that he is honest./of his honesty.
e.g. He doubted whether they would be able to help. 他拿不准他们是否能够帮忙。
e.g. I doubt (that) he will come to the meeting. 认为他未必会来
4. refer to 指，说（某事）
e.g. Are you referring to me?
refer to ①查询，参考②提及，涉及，指
e.g. The teacher often refers her pupils to this dictionary.
e.g. Her pupils often refer to this dictionary.
e.g. Don’t refer to this matter again.
5. bunch n. 束，串 a bunch of flowers
What’s the main idea of this passage?
The passage introduces some best art galleries of Manhattan.
(It is perhaps from a tourist guide book)
1. collection n. 收集，收藏；收藏品
make a collection of… 收藏
make a collection for… 为…募捐
have a large collection of… 收藏有大量的…
2. …leaving his house,… (现在分词短语作状语)
e.g. Both of them died in the accident, leaving their son alone.
3. worth adj. 值得的，价值为
e.g. This pen is worth five yuan.
e.g. I think his suggestion is well worth considering. (很值得的用well 修饰)
It is worth sb’s while / worthwhile to do sth. /doing sth.
be worth doing
be worthy of doing / to be done
e.g. This book is worth reading.
e.g. This book is worthy of reading / to be read
4. exhibition n.展览，陈列；展览会
hold an exhibition
5. It is amazing/strange/interesting/disappointing/clear that-
6. work un. 工作 cn. 作品 (指工厂时，单复均可)
e.g. Have you read his works？
7. every two years=every other year=every second year
every + 基数词 +复数名词
every + 序数词 + 单数名词
every few +复数名词
every three days=every third day
prefer to do sth.
prefer doing sth.
prefer + n./doing sth. + to + n./doing sth.
prefer to do sth. rather than do sth. = would rather do sth. than do sth.
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