2019届高考英语总复习--定语从句和名词性从句(共2套附答案)

作者:佚名 资料来源:网络 点击数:    有奖投稿

2019届高考英语总复习--定语从句和名词性从句(共2套附答案)

本资料为WORD文档,请点击下载地址下载
文 章
来源莲山
课件 w ww.5 y kj.Co m

第八讲 定语从句和名词性从句
  定语从句
 
        句子结构细辨别
Ⅰ 示之以范 ____________________________________________________原则这样运用
1.(2017•全国卷Ⅲ)But Sarah,____________ has taken part in shows along with top models, wants to prove that she has brains as well as beauty.
who 解析:所填词引导非限制性定语从句,并在从句中作主语,指人,故用who。
2.(2017•浙江卷6月)Pahlsson and her husband now think the ring probably got swept into a pile of kitchen rubbish and was spread over the garden, ____________ it remained until the carrot’s leafy top accidentally sprouted(生长) through it.
where 解析:所填词引导非限制性定语从句,并在从句中作状语,先行词是表示地点的the garden,故填where。
3.(2017•天津卷)My eldest son,____________ work takes him all over the world,is in New York at the moment.
whose 解析:所填词引导非限制性定语从句,并在从句中作work的定语,故用whose。
4.(2017•全国卷Ⅲ)Around me in the picture are the things they were very important in my life at that time: car magazines and musical instruments.____________________
they→that/which 解析:分析句子结构可知,things后是定语从句,引导词在从句中作主语,指物,应用that或which。
Ⅱ通关点击 ____________________________________________________原则这样解读
1.高考对定语从句的考查集中在对关系代词、关系副词的选用上,故分清句子结构,搞清定语从句部分缺少何种成分至关重要。
(1)当定语从句部分缺少主语、宾语、定语时,要想到分别采用who(指人)/that(指人或物)/which(指物)/whom(指人)/whose(指人或物)。
The person who called yesterday wants to buy the house.
昨天打电话的人想买这套房子。
The school shop,whose customers are mainly students,is closed for the holidays.
这家校内商店的主要顾客是学生,放假时商店关门。
She showed the visitors around the museum that/which had been constructed three years before.
她带着这些游客参观了那座三年前建造的博物馆。
(2)当定语从句部分缺少时间状语、地点状语、原因状语时,要想到分别采用when,where,why。
I still remember the day when/on which I first came to this school.
我仍旧记得第一次来这个学校的那一天。
A bank is the place where they lend you an umbrella in fair weather and ask for it back when it begins to rain.
银行是在天晴之时借伞给你,到了下雨时就催你还回去的地方。
2.注意以下几点:
(1)定语从句中用that不用which的情况:
①当先行词是all,any,anything,everthing,nothing等不定代词或被它们修饰时;
②当先行词被形容词的最高级或序数词修饰时;
③当先行词被the only,the very,the same,the last等修饰时;
④当先行词既有人又有物时。
I refuse to accept the blame for something that was someone else’s fault.
我拒绝接受因别人的错误而对我进行的指责。
They will never forget the persons and things that they’ve seen or heard of during their long journey.
他们将永远不会忘记在他们的长途旅行中见到或听说过的人和事。
(2)判定定语从句部分关系词的“四步走”策略:
首先找出先行词和定语从句,然后把先行词与定语从句组成一个句意完整、结构完整的句子(可增加介词);接着分析组成的句子中先行词(包括加入的介词)在句中充当什么成分;最后依据关系代词或关系副词在句中充当的成分填入合适的关系词。
 
        限制非限要分清
Ⅰ 示之以范 ____________________________________________________原则这样运用
1.(2017•北京卷)The little problems ____________ we meet in our daily lives may be inspirations for great inventions.
that/which 解析:所填词引导定语从句,并在从句中作宾语,先行词为The little problems,因此用that或which。
2.(2016•全国卷Ⅲ)Some people think that the great Chinese scholar Confucius,____________ lived from roughly 551 to 479 B.C., influenced the development of chopsticks.
who 解析:所填词引导非限制性定语从句并在从句中作主语,指人,所以填who。
3.(2017•浙江瑞安第一次四校联考)The air quality in the city, ____________ is shown in the report,has improved over the past two months.
as 解析:句意为:正如报告中所表明的,在过去的两个月里,城市的空气质量有所改善。此处as引导的是非限制性定语从句,意为“正如,正像”,指代整个主句。
4.(2017•全国卷Ⅱ)In their spare time, they are interested in planting vegetables in their garden, that is on the rooftop of their house.____________________
that→which 解析:分析句子结构可知,此处为非限制性定语从句,引导词在从句中作主语,指代their garden,应用which。
5.(2017•石家庄检测一)Also, I think it’s helpful to put up some boards along the tourist attractions that tourists can leave messages.____________________
that→where 解析:考查定语从句的关系词。分析该句结构可知,该句为定语从句,先行词为boards,关系词在从句中作地点状语,故用where引导该定语从句。
Ⅱ 通关点击 ____________________________________________________原则这样解读
1.定语从句分为限制性和非限制性两种,如果在先行词的后面出现逗号的,即为非限制性定语从句。
(1)that不能引导非限制性定语从句。
(2)which引导非限制性定语从句,可以代表主句的全部或者部分内容。
Tom failed again in the match,which was a great pity.
汤姆在比赛中又一次失利了,这是一个非常大的遗憾。
2.as/which引导非限制性定语从句的区别。
as和which都可引导非限制性定语从句,代表主句的内容。as在句中的位置比较灵活,意为“正如,正像”;which只能用在句中,意为“这,这一点”。
The mother tried to persuade her son to give up smoking,which didn’t help.
母亲竭力说服儿子放弃吸烟,但没有效果。
“You can’t judge a book by its cover,”as the old saying goes.
正如老话所说的那样:“人不可貌相”。
3.在限制性定语从句中,充当宾语的that/whom/which不与介词直接连用时可省略,但在非限制性定语从句中,充当宾语的关系代词不能省略。
 
        介宾结构记心中
Ⅰ 示之以范 ____________________________________________________原则这样运用
1.(2016•浙江卷)Scientists have advanced many theories about why human beings cry tears, none of ____________ has been proved.
which 解析:句意:就人类为什么哭出眼泪,科学家提出了许多理论,但没有一项理论得到过证明。先行词为theories,将先行词代入定语从句后为:None of the theories has been proved.,由此可见先行词(指“物”)在定语从句中作介词of的宾语,且介词of已被提前,故答案为which。
2.(2016•江苏卷)Many young people, most of ____________ were well­educated, headed for remote regions to chase their dreams.
whom 解析:句意:很多年轻人都去了偏远地区追求自己的梦想,他们中大部分都受过良好的教育。先行词为young people,指人,将先行词代入定语从句后为:Most of the__young__people were well­educated.,由此可见先行词在定语从句中作介词of的宾语,故答案为whom。
3.(2015•重庆卷)He wrote many children’s books,nearly half of ____________ were published in the 1990s.
which 解析:此题的先行词是children’s books,指物,因此关系词用which。此处是“代词+介词+which”型的非限制性定语从句。
4.(2017•湖北八校第一次联考)Altogether I had five roommates,two of which arrived later.____________________
which→whom 解析:考查定语从句。分析句子结构可知,应用whom引导非限制性定语从句,在从句中作介词of的宾语,修饰先行词five roommates。
Ⅱ 通关点击 ____________________________________________________原则这样解读
1.介宾结构是解决定语从句问题的一大法宝,即介词后面需要跟名词(动名词)作宾语。
(1)在定语从句中,充当宾语的为that/which/whom,而that不能与介词直接连用,故介词后填写关系代词时,只可能为which(指物)和whom(指人)。
(2)关系副词when,where在定语从句中,一般可改为“介词+which”的情况。而why在定语从句中可替换为for which。
I saw some trees,the leaves of which were black with disease. 我看到一些树,树叶由于疾病是黑色的。
I still remember the factory in which/where I worked.
我仍记得我工作过的那个工厂。
2.“名词+of which”常代替“whose+名词”在定语从句中作定语。
He mentioned a book,the title of which(=whose title) I’ve forgotten. 他提到了一本书,书的名字已经忘了。
  名词性从句
 
        从句判定依定义
Ⅰ 示之以范 ____________________________________________________原则这样运用
1.(2016•北京卷)The most pleasant thing of the rainy season is ____________ one can be entirely free from dust.
that 解析:本空需要连接词引导表语从句,连接词在从句中不作任何成分,也无任何意义,只起连接作用,故用that引导。
2.(2016•天津卷)The manager put forward a suggestion ____________ we should have an assistant. There is too much work to do.
that 解析:suggestion后是同位语从句,从句的结构和意义均完整,故用that引导。
3.(2017•陕西检测一)Such stories set up thinking,wondering ____________ we should do under similar circumstances.
what 解析:考查连接词。what引导宾语从句,在从句中作do的宾语。
4.(2017•重庆南开中学月考)____________ I am talking about is not the recent movies,but the village in England with the same name.
What 解析:句意:我正谈论的不是最近的电影,而是与这部电影同名的一个英国村庄。分析句子结构可知____________ I am talking about为主语从句,从句中缺少about的宾语,表示事物,故填What。
5.(2016•全国卷Ⅰ)My uncle is the owner of a restaurant close to that I live.____________________
that→where 解析:宾语从句中缺少地点状语,故用where引导。
6.(2016•全国卷Ⅱ)My classmates and I are talking about how to do during the holiday.____________________
how→what 解析:从句中的do是及物动词,故应用连接代词what作动词do的宾语。
Ⅱ通关点击 ____________________________________________________原则这样解读
1.名词性从句“语法性”最强,难度最大。在解答这类问题时要紧抓其基本定义,掌握名词性从句的引导词。
引导词 用法
连词 that, whether, if等 均不在句中作成分。that没有意义,引导宾语从句时可省略;whether和if意为“是否”,在宾语从句中可互换,但在其他名词性从句中只能用whether
连接代词 what,who,whom,which, whatever,whoever, whichever等 在从句中作主语、宾语、表语等成分
连接副词 when,where,why,how, whenever,wherever, however等 在从句中作状语
The doctor really doubts whether my mother will recover from the serious disease soon. 医生真正怀疑的是我妈妈是否能从严重的疾病中很快康复。
We promise whoever attends the party a chance to have a photo taken with the movie star. 我们保证,任何参加这个聚会的人都有机会与那个电影明星合影。
2.如果一个从句在句中充当主语,则称作主语从句,在句中充当宾语则称作宾语从句,在句中充当表语则称作表语从句,在句中充当同位语则称作同位语从句。
What Barbara Jones offers to her fans is honesty and happiness.(主语从句)
芭芭拉•琼斯展现给她的粉丝们的是诚实和快乐。
That he passed the driving test made us very happy.(主语从句) 他通过了驾照考试使我们非常高兴。
I’d like to start my own business—that’s what I’d do if I had money.(表语从句)
我愿意自己创业——那就是如果我有钱将会做的事情。
When the news came that the war broke out,he decided to serve in the army.(同位语从句)
当战争爆发的消息传来时,他决定参军。
3.名词性从句需要注意以下两点:
(1)当句子作主语或宾语时往往显得“头重脚轻”,故常用it作形式主语或形式宾语,而把真正的主语或宾语放在后面。
It had never occurred to him that he might be falling in love with her.
他从来没想到过他也许爱上了她。
The teacher made it clear that ice cream is junk food.
老师使大家明白了冰激凌是垃圾食品。
(2)“the reason why...+be+that从句”形式的表语从句。
The reason why he moved to Australia was that he wanted to have a good knowledge of Australian literature.
他移居澳大利亚的原因是想学习(精通)澳大利亚文学。
 
        句意语境巧解题
Ⅰ 示之以范 ____________________________________________________原则这样运用
1.(2017•天津卷)She asked me ____________ I had returned the books to the library, and I admitted that I hadn’t.
if/whether 解析:所填词引导宾语从句,在从句中不作成分,但表示“是否”意义,故用if或whether。
2.(2017•北京卷)Every year, ____________ makes the most beautiful kite will win a prize in the Kite Festival.
whoever 解析:句意:每年,无论是谁,只要制作出最美的风筝,他就会在风筝节上赢得奖品。分析句子结构可知,主语从句缺少主语,表示“无论是谁”,故填whoever。
3.(2017•北京卷)Jane moved aimlessly down the tree­lined street, not knowing ____________ she was heading.
where 解析:句意:Jane漫无目的地沿着绿树成荫的街道往前走,不知道要去哪里。此处应用where引导宾语从句。
4.(四川卷)Grandma pointed to the hospital and said,“That’s ____________I was born.”
where 解析:句意:“那就是我出生的地方。”奶奶指着那家医院对我说。前面提到了医院,所以设空处应该是表地点,故用where引导该表语从句,并在从句中作地点状语。
5.(2015•全国卷Ⅱ)As natural architects, the Pueblo Indians figured out exactly____________thick the adobe walls needed to be to make the cycle work on most days.
how 解析:根据语境和空后的形容词thick可知应用how引导宾语从句,表示程度。此处表示要弄清楚到底土坯房的墙需要多厚。故答案为how。
6.(2017•湖南株洲二中月考)With an optimistic attitude and a strong will,we can overcome ____________difficulties we might meet with and achieve our goals.
whatever 解析:句意:带着乐观的态度和强烈的愿望,我们能够克服可能遇到的任何困难,取得成功。通过分析句子可知,overcome后为宾语从句,动词短语meet with后缺少宾语,再结合句意可知用whatever修饰名词difficulties引导宾语从句。
Ⅱ 通关点击 ____________________________________________________原则这样解读
有些引导词在句中具有非常鲜明的“含义”,如if/whether是否;whatever无论什么;whoever无论谁;because因为;why为什么。在解答这类题目时,只要句意翻译不出问题,充分了解语境即能解决。
Whether she is coming doesn’t matter much.
她来不来没多大关系。
The poor boy is seen doing whatever work he can find.
我们看到,只要有工作,这个可怜的男孩就干。
 ,[学生用书P36]    )
Ⅰ 单句语法填空
1.(2017•广东七校联合体第二次联考)This woman has set a good example to her son, ____________ is a really lucky guy.
who 解析:考查定语从句。分析该句结构可知,空处引导非限性定语从句,先行词为her son,故用who。
2.(2017•安徽师大附中高三阶段性测试)Over the years, I have met some interesting people.Two of the most interesting people were two elderly sisters,Joan and Bernice,____________ way of talking about people inspired me.
whose 解析:考查定语从句。whose引导非限制性定语从句,在从句中作定语,先行词为Joan and Bernice。
3.(2017•河南、河北七所名校联考)The shelter, ____________ is designed for the thousands of traders and shoppers at Bangkok’s night market,has become an attraction itself.
which 解析:考查定语从句。先行词是The shelter,空处引导非限制性定语从句,且在从句中作主语,故用which。
4.(2017•湖南岳阳一中检测)The old man turned his business over to his younger son, ____________ made his elder son discouraged.
which 解析:句意:那位老人把生意交给了小儿子,这使他的大儿子很沮丧。设空处引导非限制性定语从句,指代前面一整句话的内容,并在从句中作主语,故填which。
5.(2017•河北保定、唐山联考)I asked him ____________ his father had done so that he became such a good person.
what 解析:句意:我问他他的父亲做了什么,使他成为一个如此好的人。设空处引导宾语从句,作asked的宾语,从句中缺少had done的宾语,指“什么”,因此用what引导该从句。
6.(2017•福建安溪模拟)Success partially depends on ____________you have the patience to do simple things perfectly.
whether 解析:句意:成功部分取决于你是否有耐心把简单的事情做得完美。设空处引导宾语从句,作介词on的宾语,意为“是否”,故填whether。
7.(2017•山西晋商四校联考)Finally, after four hours, they  arrived at the campsite ____________ their parents were waiting.
where 解析:句意:最后,在4个小时之后他们到达了营地,他们的父母正在那里等着他们。先行词为campsite,将先行词代入定语从句后可知先行词在定语从句中作地点状语,故填where。
8.(2017•山东师大附中二模)My first task was to decide where to go and ____________ to get there.
how 解析:句意:我的第一项任务是决定去哪里及如何到达那里。根据常识可知设空处表示“如何”,故填how。
9.(2017•福建龙岩五校期中)Therefore, it is advisable ____________ you should value and treat them with care.
that 解析:句意:因此人们建议你应该珍惜、谨慎对待它们。“____________ you should value and treat them with care”为主语从句,该从句不缺任何成分,故用that引导。
10.(2017•山东泰安期中)Students can choose ____________ they want to do and register online.
what/whatever 解析:句意:学生们可以选择他们想做的(任何)事情并在网上注册。“____________ they want to do”为宾语从句,该从句缺少宾语,故填what或whatever。
Ⅱ 单句改错
1.(2017•汕头质量监测)The first reason why I consider him as my best friend is because he has a very warm personality.____________________
because→that 解析:考查名词性从句。主语为名词reason,表语从句中的连接词要用that。
2.(2017•武汉武昌区调研)Last term, I couldn’t accept the truth which I failed in my math examination.____________________
which→that 解析:考查名词性从句。名词truth后为同位语从句,从句中不缺少成分,故用that。
3.(2017•江西名校联盟5月检测)One day,Margaret told me her grandma was coming and her parents would want my basement room back,what didn’t surprise me.____________________
what→which 解析:分析句子结构可知,which在此引导非限制性定语从句,指代前面整句话的内容,且在从句中作主语。
4.(2017•吉林吉大附中月考)From this experience I have learnt that questioning can serve as a bridge helps us to seek the truth.____________________
bridge后加that或which 解析:分析句子结构可知,本句主语为I,谓语为have learnt,that引导宾语从句,作learnt的宾语,can serve为从句的谓语,与helps之间无连词连接,由此可判断,bridge后为定语从句,先行词为bridge,指物,在从句中作主语,故用that或which引导该从句。故在bridge后加that或which。
5.(2017•湖南师范大学附中第三次月考)It was known to all,the Internet is playing an important part in our daily life.____________________
It→As 解析:逗号前为定语从句,所以要用关系词引导;It是指示代词,不能起到连接的作用;又因这个定语从句在先行词前,结合语境可知只能用As,在句首要大写。
6.(2017•湖北八校第一次联考)During the break time, we argued about what club was the best.____________________
what→which 解析:考查宾语从句。休息时我们争论哪个俱乐部是最好的。根据语境可知,应用which引导宾语从句,意为“哪一个”。
7.(2017•海南海口调研)As students,which we can repay our mothers is to spare no effort to study hard.____________________
which→what 解析:分析句子结构可知,逗号后至is前的部分为主语从句,引导词在从句中作repay的宾语,指“什么”,应用what引导。故将which改为what。
8.(2017•遵义航天高级中学模拟)And you should also have a belief you are sure to succeed as long as you keep your direction all the time.____________________
belief后加that 解析:考查同位语从句。belief后为同位语从句,that不可缺失。
Ⅲ 短文改错
(2017•河北承德实验中学期中考试)I was sorry to know that you’re having so a bad time nowadays. In actually fact, as a Senior Three student, it is normal that everyone will have to face the special periods when things seem be going worse and worse. Besides, you don’t have to be worry so much.The most important thing is to learn how to control my temper.Here are two useful tips:
First, talking to someone you trust about how you feel.Second, go outdoors and play team game with your friends. I hope you’ll soon feel calmer but carry on to achieve your goal.
答案:
I wasam sorry to know that you’re having sosuch a bad time nowadays. In actuallyactual fact, as a Senior Three student, it is normal that everyone will have to face the special periods when things seem to∧ be going worse and worse. BesidesHowever, you don’t have to be\ worry so much.The most important thing is to learn how to control myyour temper.Here are two useful tips:
First, talkingtalk to someone you trust about how you feel.Second, go outdoors and play team gamegames with your friends. I hope you’ll soon feel calmer butand carry on to achieve your goal.

 


 

文 章
来源莲山
课件 w ww.5 y kj.Co m
最新试题

点击排行

推荐试题

| 触屏站| 加入收藏 | 版权申明 | 联系我们 |