2019届高考英语总复习--助动词、情态动词和虚拟语气(共2套含答案)

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2019届高考英语总复习--助动词、情态动词和虚拟语气(共2套含答案)

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第七讲 助动词、情态动词和虚拟语气
  助动词
 
        顺口溜巧记助动词
Ⅰ 示之以范 ____________________________________________________原则这样运用
1.(2017•贵州适应性测试)What about Japanese? They dislike the lotus and ____________ not give it as a gift to Japanese because they regard it as the mourning flower.
do 解析:考查时态和主谓一致。结合语境可知,该句陈述的是一般常识,应用一般现在时,且主语为they,故该空用助动词do。
2.(2017•浙江卷)Without hesitation, I decided to follow them and we did had lots of fun that day.____________________
had→have 解析:did加强语气,后跟动词原形。
3.She doesn’t her homework in the morning but in the evening.____________________
doesn’t后加do 解析:doesn’t为一般现在时的否定式后加动词原形。
4.This experience has been shown that traveling by train actually is the safest way of making journeys.____________________
去掉been 解析:show和this experience为主动关系,故去掉助动词been。
5.My father has always go to work by bike since then.____________________
go→gone 解析:由since then可知该句应用完成时,go的过去分词为gone。
Ⅱ 通关点击 ____________________________________________________原则这样解读
1.助动词do/does/did主要帮助构成疑问句、否定句及部分倒装。助动词do/does/did后只能跟动词原形,助动词不能用作实义动词。
2.助动词be/being/been主要帮助构成进行时、完成进行时和各种被动语态。需注意be虽然没有实际意义,但却是结构中不可缺少的。
3.助动词have/has/had主要是帮助构成完成时态和完成进行时态。需注意其构成形式have/has/had done和have/has/had been doing。
[助记]
助动词,用法怪;只当佐料不当菜。
句型变换显身手;常与时态谈恋爱。
have完成be进行,will将来三大块。
加上各自过去式,总共构成六时态。
否定疑问靠它们,过去did,do现在。
一般现在和过去,没有助动也无碍。
第三人单用does,否定疑问照常变。
  情态动词
 
        基本含义要知晓
Ⅰ 示之以范 ____________________________________________________原则这样运用
1.(2017•北京卷)Samuel, the tallest boy in our  class, ____________ easily reach the books on the top shelf.
can 解析:此处表示“班里最高的男孩塞缪尔可以很容易地够到书架顶部的书”,应填can“能够;可以”。
2.(2015•四川卷)You ____________ be careful with the camera.It costs!
must 解析:考查情态动词的基本用法。句意:你千万要当心这个相机。它价格不菲!从后面It costs!可以推知说话者要求“你”对相机“千万要小心”,此处表示必须,因此要用must。
3.(2016•北京卷)I love the weekend, because I ____________ not get up early on Saturdays and Sundays.
need 解析:句意:我喜欢周末,因为在周六周日我不必早起。根据句意可知填need。
4.(2017•安徽江淮十校联考)As the deadline is drawing near, no one ____________ leave with his own work uncompleted.
shall 解析:句意:因为截止日期即将到来,不完成工作,任何人不许离开。shall用于第三人称陈述句中,表示命令、警告,符合句意。
5.(2015•全国卷Ⅰ)We must found ways to protect our environment.____________________
found→find 解析:情态动词must后接动词原形。
Ⅱ 通关点击 ____________________________________________________原则这样解读
1.情态动词的基本用法
(1)can/could:表示能力、请求、可能性。相关的特殊句型有:can not...too.../enough再怎么……也不过分;can’t help but do不得不做……
The smallest good habits can make a big difference.
最小的好习惯会产生很大的作用。
You can’t be too careful while driving.
你开车时越小心越好。
(2)may/might:表示较小的可能性。相关句型或搭配:may/might as well do表示“还是……好,最好……”。
If you forgot to turn it off when you went away, you might burn down the house.
当你离开时如果忘记关掉它,你可能把整个房子都烧毁的。
Since it is raining hard, you may as well stay here.
既然雨下得这么大,你倒不如待在这儿。
(3)must表示非常肯定的推测;表示与说话人意愿相反或不耐烦等感情色彩,意为“偏要,非要……不可”;表示“必须”。mustn’t意为“禁止”,表示“不必”应用needn’t。
Men and women must be treated equally in education and employment.
在教育和就业方面,男性和女性必须被平等对待。
He thought that Joe must be dead, but he didn’t want to leave immediately.
他以为乔一定死了,但是他不想立刻就离开。
Must you make so loud noise?
你非得弄出这么大声吗?
(4)shall的用法:①用于第二、三人称的陈述句中,表命令、警告、许诺或威胁等,语气强于should。②用于第一、三人称的疑问句中,表示征询意见,肯定回答应用must,否定回答应用needn’t或don’t have to。
I promised he shall get a present for his birthday.
我许诺给他一件生日礼物。
Shall I tell Brett to come over straight after school tomorrow?
要我告诉布雷特明天放学以后直接过来吗?
(5)should/ought to
①表示责任、义务、劝告、建议等,意为“应该”。
(陕西卷)Why shouldn’t we buy the lady a flower?It will make her feel better.
为什么我们不给那位女士买一朵花呢?这会让她感觉好一些。
②should表示出乎意料的口气,意为“竟然;居然”。
It is quite surprising that he should speak to you like that.
他竟然那样对你说话,真是令人惊讶。
③should和ought to表示推测,指预期的可能性,意为“应该,估计”。
He ought to/should be here on time—he started early enough. 
他应该按时到这里了——他很早就出发了。
2.“情态动词+have done”的用法
(1)must have done“一定做过了某事”,表示对过去事情有把握的推测。
(2)could/can have done“本能做某事(而实际上未做)”,can’t/couldn’t have done“(过去)不可能做过某事”。
(3)may/might have done“(过去)有可能做过某事”。
(4)should/ought to have done“本该做某事而没做”。
(5)needn’t have done“本不必做某事(而实际上做了)”。
The boy might have known the truth, but I am not quite sure.
那个男孩(当时)也许知道了真相,但我不是很确定。
(2016•浙江卷)George can’t have gone too far.His coffee is still warm. 乔治一定没走远,他的咖啡仍旧热呢。
  虚拟语气
 
        虚拟语气对比记
Ⅰ 示之以范 ____________________________________________________原则这样运用
1.(2015•江苏卷)It might have saved me some trouble if I ____________(know) the schedule.
had known 解析:句意:如果我早知道这个计划表,可能会给我省去一些麻烦。根据语境和主句中的might have saved可推知,此处表示对过去情况的虚拟,故if引导的条件状语从句中谓语动词用had done结构,故填had known。
2.(2016•北京卷)Why didn’t you tell me about your trouble last week?If you ____________(tell) me,I could have helped.
had told 解析:根据句意和相关信息判断,条件句表示与过去事实相反的假设,此时从句用过去完成时,主句谓语用“情态动词+have done”形式。
3.(2016•浙江卷)____________(have) the governments and scientists not worked together, AIDS­related deaths would not have fallen since their highest in 2005.
Had 解析:这是一个省略了从属连词if的虚拟语气句,使用了倒装句式。根据主句的would not have fallen可知,这里是表示对过去的虚拟,故填Had。
4.(2015•四川卷)If you are me, would you talk to them?____________________
are→were 解析:根据句意可知,此处为虚拟语气,与现在事实相反,be动词应用were。
Ⅱ 通关点击 ____________________________________________________原则这样解读
1.虚拟语气在非真实条件句中的具体用法:

 

情况 从句谓语动词 主句谓语动词
与现在事实相反 过去式(be的过去式形式用were) would/could/ should/might+动词原形
与过去事实相反 过去完成式 would/could/ should/might+have done
与将来事实相反 (1)were to do
(2)should do
(3)过去式 would/could/ should/might+动词原形
If my brother were here,everything would be all right.
要是我哥哥在这儿的话,一切都没问题了。
If it should rain this afternoon, the basketball match would be put off.
要是今天下午下雨,篮球比赛就会被推迟。
—John went to the hospital alone.
——约翰自己一个人去的医院。
—If he had told me about it, I would have gone with him.
——要是他告诉我,我就陪他去了。
 
在if引导的虚拟条件句中,条件句的谓语动词中含有had, were, should时,可以把if省略,把had, were, should提到句首,变为倒装句。
Had you(=If you had) come earlier, you would have caught the early bus.
如果你早点来,就能赶上早班车了。
Were I(=If I were) twenty now, I would join the army.
如果我现在20岁,我就参军。 
2.虚拟语气在含蓄条件句中的用法
有时假设的条件不通过条件状语从句表达出来,而是隐含在某些词或短语中,或隐含在上下文中,被称为含蓄虚拟语气。常见的这类词或短语有:
without         (要是)没有
in case   万一;以防
but for   要不是
otherwise/or   否则
We could not have stayed together for a single minute but for a phone call.
要不是一个电话,我们不可能在一起待一分钟。
 
        其他情况需注意
Ⅰ 示之以范 ____________________________________________________原则这样运用
1.(2017•湖北四地七校第一次联考)It is high time that you ____________(consider) that if there were no stress in your life, you would achieve a little.
considered/should consider 解析:在It is high time that...句式中,从句用虚拟语气,即:谓语动词用过去式或should+动词原形。
2.(2015•天津卷)I wish I ____________(be) at my sister’s wedding last Tuesday, but I was on a business trip in New York then.
had been 解析:wish引导的虚拟语气,与过去事实相反用had done形式表达。
3.(2017•湖北华大联盟高三2月质检)I suggest that the school organizes a cooking­learning activity to teach students to prepare some delicious food.____________________
organizes→organize 解析:句中动词suggest表建议,其后跟从句时,从句谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,其中should可以省略。
4.Most citizens in Hong Kong strongly insisted that those who attacked the police with violence were put into prison.____________________
were→be 解析:句意:大多数香港市民坚决要求那些用暴力袭击警察的人被关进监狱。insist作“坚持,坚决要求”讲时,其后的宾语从句的谓语用“(should+)动词原形”,这里those与put之间存在动宾关系,所以用be put。
Ⅱ通关点击 ____________________________________________________原则这样解读
1.wish后面的宾语从句一般用虚拟语气,表示一种不可能实现的愿望,其谓语动词构成形式如下表:
虚拟语气 从句谓语动词
与现在事实相反 过去式(be动词一般用were)
与过去事实相反 had+过去分词
与将来事实相反 would/could/might+动词原形
I wish (that) I were a bird and could fly freely in the sky.
我希望我是只小鸟,能在天空自由飞翔。
I wish (that) I had met that film star yesterday.
我多希望昨天见到了那个影星。
2.在表示要求、建议、命令等的动词后的宾语从句中,常用虚拟语气,从句谓语动词用“(should+)动词原形”。常见的此类动词有:
一坚持:insist
二命令:order,command
四建议:suggest,advise,propose,recommend
五要求:require,request,demand,desire,urge
It is strongly recommended that the machines(should) be checked every year.
强烈建议将这些机器每年检查一次。
3.在would rather后的宾语从句中,从句的谓语也常用虚拟语气,其谓语动词构成形式如下表:
虚拟语气 从句谓语动词
与现在事实相反 过去式(be动词一般用were)
与将来事实相反 
与过去事实相反 had+过去分词
I would rather they didn’t hear of the news.
我宁愿他们没有听到这个消息。
I would rather I hadn’t told him the bad news.
我宁愿我没有告诉他那个坏消息。
4.在It’s important/strange/natural/necessary...that...sb. (should) do...
It is necessary that he (should) sort out the information for my reference.
他有必要整理些信息供我参考。
5.当表示建议、提议、命令、要求等的名词作主语时,其表语从句或同位语从句中的谓语动词用“(should+)动词原形”。常见的这类名词有:
advice 建议
decision 决定
demand 要求
desire 渴望
idea 想法
order 命令
proposal 提议
request 要求
recommendation 建议
suggestion 建议
We followed his advice that we (should) ask our teacher for help.
我们接受了他的我们应该向老师求助的建议。
6.even if/though, as if/though等引导的让步状语从句、方式状语从句和目的状语从句中,其谓语动词构成形式如下表:
引导词 从句谓语动词
even if/though 与if引导的条件从句结构相同
as if/though 发生在主句动作之前 had done
as if/though 与主句动作同时发生 过去时(be用were)
 发生在主句动作之后 would/could/might/ should+动词原形
She looks as if nothing had happened to her.
她看起来好像什么事都没发生似的。
7.It is(high/about) time (that)... sb. did/should do sth...
It is high time that you set/should set aside some time to think about your future.
该到你留出一些时间思考未来生活了。
 ,[学生用书P33]    )
Ⅰ 单句语法填空
1.(2017•浙江宁波九校联考)So you ____________ pay attention to sleeplessness.
must/should 解析:根据句意可知,此处为给别人提出建议,所以填must/should,表示“务必/应当”。
2.(2017•浙江温州普通高中8月模拟)I rewired the house and lowered the light switches so that Paul ____________ reach things.
could 解析:根据so that可知,此处表示结果,意为“这样保罗就能够够到了”,故填could。
3.(2017•江西师大附中等五校联考)It has been accepted that all the students ____________ put on masks before going to school in case they are infected with flu virus.
shall 解析:在第三人称作主语的陈述句中,表示规定、制度,应用shall。
4.(2017•浙江杭州地区七校模拟)When you phoned me, I was having a meeting; how I wish I ____________(answer) your call.
had answered 解析:句意:当你给我打电话的时候,我正在开会。我多么希望我(之前)接了你的电话。wish后的从句中用虚拟语气,根据句意可知是对过去情况的虚拟,所以谓语动词用had done形式。
5.(2017•天津七校联考)I was ill that day, or I ____________(take) part in the sports meet.
would have taken 解析:由句中or可知此处为含蓄条件句,表示与过去事实相反的假设,故用would have done结构。
6.I should not have laughed if I ____________(think) you were serious.
had thought 解析:句意:如果我(当时)认为你是认真的,我就不会笑了。主句中谓语动词使用should not have laughed,表明与过去的事实相反,从句谓语动词应该使用had done形式。
7.(2017•天津卷)My room is a mess, but I ____________ not clean it before I go out tonight.I can do it in the morning.
need 解析:由后面的“I can do it in the morning.”可知,此处表示“没必要今晚打扫”,故need not符合语意。
8.(2017•东北三校联考)The order came that the medical supplies ____________(send) to the earthquake­stricken area soon.
(should) be sent 解析:表示建议、要求、命令等的名词suggestion,order,request,advice等的表语从句、同位语从句中谓语动词用(should+)动词原形。
Ⅱ 单句改错
1.(2017•南昌十校二模)As a result,I suggest we are given less homework and more time for out­of­classroom activities.Only in this way can we live a happy and healthy life.____________________
are→be 解析:虚拟语气错误。suggest在此处表示“建议”,因此后跟的宾语从句应用虚拟语气,即从句谓语用“should+do”形式,且should可以省略。故此处应把are改为be。
2.(2017•郑州第三次预测)He became very angry, but I dared not to tell him about the game.____________________
删除to 解析:考查情态动词。dare既可以作情态动词又可以作实义动词。dare的过去式为dared,此处其前没有用助动词,说明dare在此用作情态动词,故后跟动词原形。
3.(2016•全国卷Ⅲ)I should available any time after school next week.____________________
should后加be 解析:助动词后如果跟形容词应该加be。
4.(2016•江苏卷)Therefore,rules should worked out and strictly observed.____________________
should后加be 解析:句意:因此,应该制定规则并严格遵守。rules和work out之间是被动关系,故应用被动语态。
5.(2017•四川成都五校联考)People neglect the fact that our parents are the dearest persons in the world, so we should nice to our parents.____________________
should后加be 解析:情态动词后用动词原形,而nice为形容词,因此其前缺少be动词,故在should后加be。
6.(2017•河北“五个一”名校联盟联考)There will a lecture in our library, at 4:00 on Wednesday afternoon.____________________
will后加be 解析:情态动词后用动词原形,而a lecture为名词,因此缺少be动词,故在will后加be。
7.(2017•河北邯郸联考)However, just several days later, I began to feel tired and can’t concentrate in class.____________________
can’t→couldn’t 解析:and连接两个并列的谓语,根据began可知,can’t也应用过去式形式。故将can’t改为couldn’t。
8.(2017•湖南衡阳八中二模)It is true that no one should live without money in modern society.________________
should→can 解析:根据句意可知,表示“能,能够”,应用can。
Ⅲ 语法填空
(2017•河北石家庄一模)Chinese are the first people to have tea. One thousand and two hundred years ago, Lu Yu wrote a book called “The Classic of Tea”, 1.____________ is honored as “The Bible of Tea”. The book gives a detailed 2.____________(explain) of the origin, the processing skills and the classification of tea.
However, Chinese tea culture goes far beyond tea 3.____________(it).Take green tea for instance, the ideal temperature of the water should be around 80 degrees Celsius.If the water is too hot,nutrients(营养物) in the tea 4.____________(destroy).On the other hand,if the water is not hot enough,the tea 5.____________(leaf) won’t open up and you will miss the pleasantly fresh flavor.So Chinese people are accustomed 6.____________ drinking hot tea.When you visit a Chinese friend,your friend will 7.____________(constant) add hot water to your emptying cup of tea.It is polite 8.____________(offer) the tea cup to guests with both hands.Of course,the guests should pay respect as well 9.____________(take) over the cup with both hands.
Talking about adding water to the tea cup,there is 10.____________ saying:wine full,full cup.Tea half,half cup.For wine,full cup symbolizes whole heartiness.For tea,half,it means modesty.
[解题导语] 本文是一篇说明文,主要介绍了中国的茶文化。
1.which 解析:根据设空处前的逗号可知本题考查非限制性定语从句。先行词为book,指“物”,将先行词代入定语从句后可知先行词在定语从句中作主语,故填which。
2.explanation 解析:设空处作宾语,故设空处应填名词,根据设空处前的不定冠词可知设空处填explanation。
3. itself 解析:然而中国茶文化远远超出了茶本身。itself作tea的同位语。
4.will be destroyed 解析:如果水温太高,茶里的营养将会被破坏。条件状语从句用一般现在时表示将来,因此主句用一般将来时;nutrients与destroy之间为被动关系,故用被动语态,因此填will be destroyed。
5.leaves 解析:根据常识可知设空处需用名词复数形式,故填leaves。
6.to 解析:句意:因此中国人对饮热茶很习惯。be accustomed to为固定短语,意为:习惯于。
7.constantly 解析:设空处作状语,故填副词constantly。
8.to offer 解析:it为形式主语,设空处用不定式形式作真正的主语;It is polite后常用不定式作真正主语,故填to offer。
9.taking 解析:本题考查非谓语动词作状语。主语the guests与take为逻辑上的主动关系,故用现在分词作状语。
10.a 解析:saying为可数名词,在本句中表示泛指,故填a。

 


 

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