3) 具体 前面几段分别说明，末段总结。主题在末段。
4) 对比 进行对比的各事物之间的基本共同点或差异为主
5) 分类 分类说明的各大项相加为主题。
主题句表达中心思想，其它句子均围绕它进行说明或议论。它在 文章中的通常位置为第一段首句、第一段末句和全文末句等地方。所 以阅读时对这些地方要特别关注。
argue for(论证)，argue against(驳斥)(这两种答案仅适用于议论文体裁)
which of the following is true except…?
which of the following is mentioned except…
which of the following is true?
which of the following mentioned except…
which of the following is not mentioned…?
例子为高考阅读理解的常见考点之一，这类题的基本结构为the author provides in line…(或paragraph…)an example in order to…意思是问文中举出某现象或例子的目的。高考阅读理解文章如果是说明文和议论文，文章中举出一些例子无非是为了说明一定的道理。关键在于这个例子在原文出现的位置，但不管如何，这个例子之前或之后不远处通常都有一句总结说明性的话，这句话就是答案，即举例的目的。如果例子与全文主题有关，则例证主题，答案为主题句。如果例子与段落主题有关，就例证段落主题，则答案为段落主题句；此外，答案为例子前后总结说明性的话。
这种题的答案在原文通常有一些表示因果关系的词汇手段提示：1)表示因果关系的名词：result,reason;2)表示因果关系的动词：result in(结果)，result from(由于，由)，base…on…(以……为基础)，be due to (由于)；3)表示因果关系的连词或介词：because,for,why;4)表示因果关系的副词；as a result,consequently等，阅读时对这些提示词应该予以注意。
5 startling statistics about rhinos
1. Rhinos have been on Earth for around 50 million years. In that time, species in the rhino family have roamed across not only Africa and Asia but also Europe and North America. There was even a rhino species we dubbed the Giant Unicorn, which grew up to 20 feet in length and had a horn that reached 7 feet long!
2. Some 500,000 rhinos could be found across Asia and Africa just one century ago. But since the beginning of the 20th century, their numbers have fallen precipitously. There were just 70,000 by 1970 and a mere 29,000 in the wild today.
3. The price for rhino horn is extremely high — so high, in fact, that Save the Rhino asks journalists not to publicize it. Although the price is widely reported anyway, many conservationists worry this publicity can encourage more criminals to enter the rhino-horn trade and stimulate more consumer demand. And regardless of the specific price for a kilogram of rhino horn, it's worth noting that all this fuss is about keratin — a product that's the exact same material as horse hooves, cockatoo beaks, and even our hair and fingernails. Yes, you can get the basically the same thing for free every time you trim your nails or get a hair cut.
Why the high price? Primarily rhino horn is used in traditional Chinese medicine, however there's no scientific proof that rhino horn has any medicinal value. According to PBS:
"Overall there isn’t much evidence to support the plethora of claims about the healing properties of the horns. In 1990, researchers at Chinese University in Hong Kong found that large doses of rhino horn extract could slightly lower fever in rats (as could extracts from Saiga antelope and water buffalo horn), but the concentration of horn given by a traditional Chinese medicine specialist are many, many times lower than used in those experiments. In short, says Amin, you’d do just as well chewing on your fingernails."
4. If poaching levels continue as they are going, wild rhinos could disappear within the next 20 years. This would be not only a devastating blow to the world as a whole, but also to many national economies, which could continue to make money from rhinos through eco-tourism and photo safaris. Rhinos, like so many big fauna, are worth far more alive than dead over the course of their long lifetimes, both through the ecological benefits they provide to their habitats as well as through the thousands upon thousands of dollars tourists are willing to pay to see a rhino grazing peacefully in the wild.
5. South Africa is home to 74 percent of the continent's remaining rhino population, according to Stop Rhino Poaching, yet more than 6,100 rhinos have been poached in that country in the last nine years. "This poaching is by no means isolated to South Africa; rhino poaching is surging across the entire African continent, and is a constant threat to the smaller rhino populations in Asia," according to Save the Rhino. "Other rhino states do not regularly publish poaching statistics, however updates are available in news reports and press releases."
21. According to paragraph 1, what can we infer about the Giant Unicorn ?
A. It belonged to rhino species, whose size was extremely large.
B. It was a kind of species similar to rhino species.
C. It belonged to rhino species, whose size was the largest among rhino species.
D. It was a common rhino species.
22. From what time have the numbers of rhinos dropped dramatically ?
A. Not mentioned
B. One century ago
C. From the start of the 20th century
D. At the end of the 20th century
23. What is the passage mainly about ?
A. Some figures about rhinos.
B. The dangers rhinos were faced with
C. The ways to protect rhinos
D. The alarming figures about rhinos and their current situation
In the food industry right now there are a lot of words being thrown around like GMO, organic, natural, fresh or local. But do all of these words really mean better for you? I recently saw a green Diet Coke can and above it the word “organic” in italicized cursive letters. Is this supposed to mean it is better for you than regular Diet Coke? Does it mean that the ingredients in it are less likely to be processed and possibly affect your health? Probably not.
The proof lies in the pudding when it comes to foods that are good for your health. As a Registered Dietitian, I encourage my patients to focus on “whole foods” that are nutrient dense rather than “processed foods” that are energy dense. What is the difference between the two? Well, nutrient dense foods provide nutrients for your body such as fiber, vitamins and minerals with low added sugar and fat, while energy dense foods, or high calorie foods, provide many calories with little value to your body.
A whole food would be considered, ideally, as a food with only one ingredient i.e. corn on the cob, apple, chicken or a cucumber. These foods will assist you in reducing your cholesterol, regulating your blood sugars and reducing risk for diabetes while also assisting you in maintaining your weight. A processed food is any food with more than one ingredient, and food companies typically add additional sugars, preservatives, dyes and “bad” fats such as saturated and trans fats. A perfect example would be a baked potato (one ingredient) compared to instant mashed potatoes. The ingredients list on the Hungry Jack instant mashed potatoes include: POTATO FLAKES (SODIUM BISULFITE, BHA AND CITRIC ACID ADDED TO PROTECT COLOR AND FLAVOR), CONTAINS 2% OR LESS OF: MONOGLYCERIDES, PARTIALLY HYDROGENATED COTTONSEED OIL, NATURAL FLAVOR, SODIUM ACID PYROPHOSPHATE, BUTTEROIL. (Note: hydrogenated oil is trans fat, which is directly linked to heart disease and plaque build up.) It makes you wonder, with all of these added ingredients and chemicals and altering of oils, is this a real food?
Here's how to incorporate whole foods into your daily routine:
• Buy seasonal food directly from a local farmer at a farmer's market or through a CSA
• Shop around the perimeter of the grocery store — that’s where all the whole foods are! Avoid the aisles as that is where the processed foods are located. Make a grocery list that takes you around the outside of the store — fruits and vegetables, low-fat meat and low-fat dairy — and includes just 1-2 aisles per trip.
See below for foods to look for at the grocery store, and foods to avoid:
Fruits and Vegetables
Whole foods: fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, frozen vegetables, frozen fruits, unsalted nuts
Processed foods to avoid: fruit or vegetable juices, fruits canned in heavy syrup, fruit snacks/fruit roll ups, veggie or potato chips, salted/seasoned nuts
Whole foods: fresh lean meats, fresh fish/shellfish, eggs
Processed foods to avoid: bacon, sausage, chicken fingers, fish sticks, hot dogs, deli meats, potted meats and spam
Whole foods: low-fat milk (skim or 1%), plain yogurt, low-fat cheese and cottage cheese
Processed foods to avoid: ice cream bars, processed cheese such as Velveeta, sweetened yogurt/parfaits
• Fill half your plate with fruits and vegetables! Check out choosemyplate.gov for recipe ideas and tips for healthy eating.
• Last but not least, garden! Try growing your own fruits, vegetables and herbs at home. Check out your local cooperative extension for landscape, garden and indoor plant information and find a Master Gardener in your area.
Happy gardening to my fellow gardeners out there and wishes for a healthy summer!
24. How does the writer feel about the words like GMO, organic, natural, fresh or local ?
A. Not mentioned
25. According to paragraph 2, which kind of foods can provide more value for you, whole foods or processed foods ?
A. whole foods
B. processsed foods
C. Neither of them
D. Both of them
26. What effect does the whole foods have on your body ?
A. Increasing your cholesterol
B. Affecting your blood sugars negatively
C. Increasing risk for diabetes
D. Keeping your weight stable
27. What does the underlined word “ incorporate’’mean ?
We've all seen movies in which a character has a retinal scan to prove his or her identity before walking into a top-secret installation. That's an example of a biometric system. In general, biometrics is a collection of measures of human physiology and behavior. A biometric system could scan a person's fingerprint or analyze the way he or she types on a keyboard. The purpose of most biometric systems is to authenticate a person's claimed identity.
Biometrics tend to be more convenient than other methods of identity authentication. You might forget your ID at home when you head out the door, but you'll still be able to use biometric devices. Imagine verifying your identity while at the store by swiping your finger across a sensor.
But along with convenience and security comes a concern for privacy. For biometrics to work, there needs to be a database containing the relevant information for each individual authorized by the system. For example, at that top-secret installation, every employee's biometric signature would have to be recorded so that the scanners could verify each person's identity.
This might not present much of a problem on its own. If the only data the system stores relates to the actual biometric measurements, privacy violations are at a minimum. But by their very nature, biometric systems collect more information than just the users' fingerprints, retinal patterns or other biometric data. At a basic level, most systems will record when and where a person is at the time of a scan.
You might think of fingerprint or retinal scanners when you hear the word biometrics, but the term has a broader definition. Facial recognition technology falls into the biometric category. There are already several cameras on the market that can detect faces. A few are able to recognize and remember a group of faces. You just take a picture of a friend, tag the photo and the camera will automatically tag any future photos of that friend. It's both cool and creepy.
Imagine using this technology in public places to identify the people passing through. For example, a major city might install cameras at high-traffic areas to scan for terrorists or identify criminals. While the motivation for using that technology might be pure, it creates difficult privacy issues. The city would have a record of everyone who passed through that neighborhood. The technology treats everyone as a suspect as if it's only a matter of time before each of us commits a crime.
And what happens if the technology makes a mistake and misidentifies someone? Weather conditions, clothing, hairstyles and even the cleanliness of the lens could affect the ability of the camera to identify people. Critics might ask: Why install a system that's unreliable?
What happens if a person suffers an illness or injury that changes his or her appearance? Such a change could present problems with biometrics. Adjusting the biometric system to accommodate the change could also result in a violation of the user's privacy. The system administrator now knows more details about the user.
A society with pervasive biometric systems would make anonymity a virtual impossibility. Should that society become oppressive or otherwise abusive to the population, the citizens would have few opportunities to react without revealing their own identities.
Groups like the Biometrics Institute are aware of privacy concerns and strive to create processes to limit the chance for biometric applications to violate a person's privacy. Other groups advocate that companies, governments and other organizations conduct a privacy assessment before installing a biometric system. With vigilance and caution, we may find a way to incorporate biometrics into our lives and still maintain our privacy.
28. According to paragraph 1, what can we infer about biometrics ?
A. It hasn’t been applied to real life so far.
B. Its purpose is unknown.
C. It can only scan a person's fingerprint.
D. It collects measures of human physiology and behavior.
29. What advantage does biometrics have over other methods of identity authentication ?
A. Not mentioned
B. More convenient
C. More efficient
D. Not mentioned
30. What is the nature of biometric systems ?
A. Collecting the information only about the users' fingerprints, retinal patterns or other biometric data.
B. Not mentioned
C. Recording when and where a person is at the time of a scan apart from biometric data.
D. Collecting the information only about some biometric data.
31. Which of the following can be the best title for the text ?
A. The convinence biometrics brings
B. The influence of biometrics on human beings
C. The future develpoment of biometrics
D. The negative effect biometrics has on our privacy
Julian Treasure cares very deeply for your ears. That’s why he’s given TED talks like “The 4 ways sound affects us” and “Why architects need to use their ears.” Treasure is on a mission to make policymakers, engineers, architects and, well, everyone think more about what they hear around them — because the way things sound have a tangible, measurable effect on how we feel, how we heal, how we work and how we live.
To this end, Treasure’s The Sound Agency has teamed up with Biamp Systems to create a whitepaper called “Building in Sound,” a look at the data linking sound and well-being.
“This paper is based on exhaustive review of academic papers, and reports from national governments and multinational bodies, going back some 40 years,” it begins. “The research examines the causes and impacts of sound on our health, recovery from illness or surgery, our ability to absorb information and learn, our productivity, and general sense of wellbeing.”
Read the paper in full, or check out some of the most fascinating facts below.
The estimated cost of noise pollution is $30.8 billion a year — and that’s just in Europe. The World Health Organization Europe’s 2011 report, “Burden of disease from environmental noise,” analyzes the relationship between environmental noise and health. In this study, they calculate the financial cost of lost work days, healthcare treatment, impaired learning and decreased productivity due to noise. The total they came up with is staggering, considering they’re looking at just one continent.
Each year, noise pollution takes a day off the life of every adult and child in Europe. This same study also looked at the cost of noise pollution in terms of lost life expectancy. Shockingly, they determined that every 365 days, one million years are taken off European’s collective life expectancy — averaging to a day per person.
If you can hear someone talking while you’re reading or writing, your productivity dips by up to 66%. Open floor-plan offices distract workers without them even noticing it. In a classic study published in the British Journal of Psychology in 1998, researchers found that employers were highly distracted when they could hear conversation around them, and less able to perform their duties. Another classic study found that noise in the office also correlated to increased stress hormone levels and a lower willingness to engage with others. According to Sound Agency case study, when sound masking technology was used in an office, there was a 46% improvement in employees’ ability to concentrate and their short term memory accuracy increased 10 percent.
The average noise level in many classrooms is not just associated with impaired learning — but with permanent hearing loss. Noise can deeply affect learning too. The WHO recommends a noise level in classrooms akin to that you’d find in a library — 35 decibels. However, a study in Germany found that the actual average noise volume in classrooms is 65 decibels — a level associated with permanent hearing loss. As Treasure outlines in this talk, for a student sitting in the fourth row of a traditional classroom, speech intelligibility is just 50 percent — meaning that they only hear half of what their teacher says.
A 20 decibel increase in aircraft noise is enough to delay a student’s reading level by up to 8 months. A study published in the American Journal of Epidemiology in 2006 looked at 2000 students between the ages of 9 and 10 in schools in The Netherlands, Spain and the U.K. — many in schools near airports. They found that aircraft noise was associated with impaired reading comprehension.
50% of teachers have experienced damage to their voice from talking over classroom noise. A study of teachers published in the Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research in 2004, noted another side-effect of noise pollution in classrooms — 50% of teachers have suffered irreversible damage to their voices. Why? Because as the environment gets noisier, we speak more loudly.
The average noise level in some hospital wards not only impedes healing — but could legally require hearing protection. The WHO recommends noise levels in hospital wards to stay around 35 decibels. But a study in the US found the average noise level in hospital wards is actually closer to 95 decibels — just 10 decibels beyond the noise level at which U.S. federal law requires ear protection for prolonged exposure. Sleep is crucial for patient recovery, and yet with the constant beeps, tones and shuffling, the body feels that it is under threat. Not to mention that staff errors increase the greater the level of distracting noise.
3% of cardiac arrest cases in Germany have been explicitly linked to traffic noise. Treasure found this alarming fact in a 2009 press release from the Environmental Protection UK.
Noise pollution may possibly even contribute to crime. When the city of Lancaster, California, installed a sound system featuring birdsong along a half-mile stretch of a main road, there was a 15 percent reduction in reported crime, according to an article in The Wall Street Journal. Similarly, when the London Underground started playing classical music at a crime-heavy station, robberies fell by 33% while assaults on staff dropped 25%, says The Independent.
32. According to paragraph 1, what’s the misssion of Julian Treasure ?
A. To make everyone better understand the sound around them and its effects on human beings
B. To publicize the benefits from the sound around us
C. Not mentioned
D. To encourage people to get involved in more sound
33. What does the underlined word “ staggering ’’ probably mean ?
34. Among the nine ways that sound affects us, which one is related to heart disease ?
A. The first way
B. The third way
C. The eighth way
D. The ninth way
35. What’s the passege mainly about ?
A. The advice on how to deal with noise pollution
B. The ways to protect our environment
C. The opinions on how to reduce noise pollution
D. 9 ways that sound affects our health, wellbeing and productivity
21. A事实细节题 本文第一段描述了被称作独角兽的一种犀牛，通过
22. C 事实细节题 定位到文章第二段第二句话，得知此题选C。
23. D 主旨大意题，通过认真阅读文章，得知此题选D。
24. C 推断题 通过认真阅读本文第一段的内容，得知此题选C。
25. A 事实细节题 通过认真阅读第二段的内容，得知此题选A。
26. D 事实细节题 通过定位到文章第三段“These foods will assist you in reducing your cholesterol, regulating your blood sugars and reducing risk for diabetes while also assisting you in maintaining your weight.”得知此题选D。
27. D 猜测词义题 定位到原句“Here's how to incorporate whole foods into your daily routine:”，通过上下文语境，得知此题选D。
28. D 推断题 定位到文章第一段“In general, biometrics is a
collection of measures of human physiology and behavior.”，得知
29. B事实细节题 定位到文章第二段“Biometrics tend to be more
convenient than other methods of identity authentication.”，得知此
30. C 事实细节题 定位到文章第三段“But by their very nature,
biometric systems collect more information than just the users'
fingerprints, retinal patterns or other biometric data. At a basic
level, most systems will record when and where a person is at the
time of a scan.”，得知此题选C。
31. D 主旨大意题 通过对全文认真分析和理解，得知此题选D。
32. A 事实细节题 通过定位到文章第一段“Treasure is on a
mission to make policymakers, engineers, architects and,
well, everyone think more about what they hear around them —
because the way things sound have a tangible, measurable effect on
how we feel, how we heal, how we work and how we live.”，得知此题
33. B 猜测词义题 定位到“The total they came up with is
staggering, onsidering they’re looking at just one continent.”，结合
34. C 事实细节题 定位到文章倒数第二段“3% of cardiac arrest
cases in Germany have been explicitly linked to traffic noise.
Treasure found this alarming fact in a 2009 press release from the Environmental Protection UK.”，其中的caridac arrest为心脏停搏，为本题词眼。
35. D 主旨大意题，通过认真阅读此篇文章，得知此题选D。