2016-2018年高考英语全攻略--完形填空(带解析)

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2016-2018年高考英语全攻略--完形填空(带解析)

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高考英语之完形填空全攻略
通过认真研读2016-2018年全国新课标卷的完形填空部分,笔者发现命题者主要考查两个方面,即词语辨析(形容词辨析、名词辨析、动词或动词短语辨析、副词辨析、连词辨析、代词辨析、介词短语辨析)和词义辨析,在下面的篇幅中,笔者会针对这2个考点逐一进行深入分析,帮助广大考生更好地理解和掌握此类题型。
(一) 词语辨析
解题策略一:
词语辨析题较多考查的是考生对题干的理解以及对词语辨析的把握。对所给选项中词语较为简单的题,对于题干的理解至关重要,对所给选项中词语较为复杂的题,不仅仅要理解题干,还要对选项中的词义有较好的把握,这就要求考生具有一定的词汇量,所以要求考生熟记最新普通高等学校招生全国统一考试大纲所列出的所有词汇。
(2018全国卷一)
 “The absolute most important  D  that you learn when you
play chess is how to make good decisions.
56. A. fact   B. step   C. manner  D. skill
(2017全国卷二)
  I learned that Freddy did several jobs after his   A    from high school and remained the same caring person I met forty years before .
52. A. graduation B. retirement  C. separation D. resignation
解题策略二:
有些词语辨析题要求考生在理解题目意思的基础上,还必须知道词汇的用法和搭配,这就对考生的词汇学习提出了较高的要求。因此,仅仅词语背诵是不够的,还要记忆词汇的用法、搭配和辨析等,放在短语或句子中记忆效果会更好。同义词、同类词放在一起记忆是学习词汇的一种好方法。
(2018全国卷二)
          I took off my T-shirt and   C   into the water. I saw there were two instructors on board and a man lying across the middle.
49. A. stared B. sank  C. dived D. fell
解题策略三:
英语中的词汇大多数都不只有一个词义,因此,在学习和记忆词汇的时候,要尽可能多地记忆词汇的不同含义,尤其是考纲要求的名词、动词、形容词和副词。
(2016全国卷一)
         Larry works with Transport Drivers. Inc. One morning in 2009, Larry was  __C___ along 165 north after delivering to one of his customers.
         41. A. walking   B. touring    C.traveling    D.rushing

解题策略四:
在一些题干中,命题者会设置题眼,这些作为题眼的词或是答案的反义词、或是答案的同义词、或是答案的相关词,因此,在做此类词汇辨析题的时候,要善于瞻前顾后,找到代表题眼的关键词,然后从所给的四个选项中,找到跟题眼照应的选项,答案就迎刃而解了。
(2018全国卷三)
    Lindsey’s husband was totally    C    by the unexpected visit. "I don’t think we would have randomly invited him over but we appreciate it and the gifts."
            54. A.discouraged  B. relaxed   C.astonished  D. defeated
(二)词义辨析
  词义辨析考查的面广, 考生在学习时首先应掌握其基本意思,再结合特定的语境进行比较。英语中的同义词,易混词及相似句型之间的区别,有的属英汉语意差别,有的属不同搭配表达意义不同,有的属搭配不同表达意义相同,有的属语气轻重有别,有的则属搭配范围和习惯不同等等。广大考生要想更好地解答此类试题,应在平时的英语学习中多注意积累形态和语义极为相似的单词和词组,以便更好地解答此类试题。
 
(2016全国卷一)
  Suddenly, he saw a car with its bright lights on. As he got closer, he
found  B   vehicle upside down on the road.
     44. A. each        B. another        C. that       D. his

小试身手:
One day, while we were visiting my parents on a farm in late summer, Dad mentioned he'd always wanted a Crimson King Maple Tree for the yard. Mom agreed that the trees were __1__.
Like many other parents, mine were hard to __2__ for, so I figured this was a great opportunity to get them something they'd __3__. I also thought two would be even better. I checked the __4__ at work and decided it was a bit more than I could __5__ — but all of my siblings (兄弟) agreed to give some money to buy the trees.
In northern Ohio, you don't plant maple trees at Christmas, so we decided to __6__ Mom and Dad with a special Christmas in October before the ground __7__. We asked my aunt if she'd help us with the “__8__”, and she called my parents __9__ to say she was coming for a Sunday visit. Then my sisters and sisters­in­law went into __10__, planning a big holiday turkey dinner.
On the __11__ Sunday, we all met at my house and __12__ the trees into a truck. I __13__ as Santa Claus. When we arrived at my parents' house, Dad was __14__ something was wrong first. He and Mom were amazed when we told them __15__ we were there.
When Christmas __16__, of course, we couldn't go to our parents' house empty­handed, so Mom and Dad got __17__ presents that year. Almost half a century later, I __18__ drive by the old farm and smile when I see those big, handsome __19__ and remember giving a special __20__ to special people at Christmas in October.

1.A. distinctive      B. fragrant
C. expensive            D. pretty
2.A.shop  B.represent
C.answer  D.care
3.A.deserve  B.appreciate
C.advertise  D.imagine
4.A.result  B.number
C.price  D.express
5.A.afford  B.expect
C.fancy  D.handle
6.A.frighten  B.assist
C.surprise  D.reward
7.A.warmed  B.froze
C.softened  D.darkened
8.A.trick  B.purchase
C.choice  D.decoration
9.A.in advance  B.in time
C.by accident  D.on purpose
10.A.service  B.action
C.effect  D.production
 11.A.regular  B.separate
C.given  D.chosen
12.A.sorted  B.loaded
C.transported  D.transplanted
13.A.dressed up  B.passed off
C.looked on  D.started out
14.A.delighted  B.annoyed
C.disappointed  D.convinced
15.A.when  B.how
C.why  D.whether
16.A.came around  B.dropped out
C.turned up  D.drew in
17.A.generous  B.additional
C.double  D.special
18.A.even  B.just
C.once  D.still
19.A.farms  B.trees
C.trucks  D.yards
20.A.congratulation  B.gift
C.donation  D.greeting

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


小试身手答案详解:
本文为记叙文,涉及家庭关系话题。作者讲述了自己和亲人们一起用特别的方式给其父母带来惊喜的经历。
1.A. distinctive      B. fragrant
C. expensive            D. pretty
解析:D 上文提及父亲想要在庭院种植一棵枫树,下文提及“those big, handsome”,故此处应是母亲也欣然同意,认为枫树很漂亮(pretty)。distinctive“与众不同的”;fragrant“芳香的”。
2.A.shop  B.represent
C.answer  D.care
解析:A 根据上文的“Like many other parents, mine were hard to”,下文的“so I figured this was a great opportunity to get them something”以及接下来介绍的作者兄弟姊妹几人为父母买礼物的内容可知,此处指作者觉得给父母买东西是很难的,故选shop“购物”。
3.A.deserve  B.appreciate
C.advertise  D.imagine
解析:B 根据上文的“Dad mentioned he'd always wanted a Crimson King Maple Tree for the yard...”及下文介绍的为父母买礼物的内容可知,此处指作者认为这是一个给父母买他们欣赏的东西的好机会。deserve“值得,应得”;appreciate“感激,欣赏”;advertise“为……做广告”;imagine“想象”。


4.  A.result  B.number
C.price  D.express
解析:C 根据下文的“but all of my siblings (兄弟姊妹) agreed to give some money to buy the trees”可知,作者在上班时查看了一下枫树的价格(price),认为它的价格比自己能支付得起(afford)的还要高一点。
5.A.afford  B.expect
C.fancy  D.handle
解析:A 参见上题解析。
6.A.frighten  B.assist
C.surprise  D.reward
解析:C 从下文作者联合其姑姑来帮忙实施这个计划以及计划具体实施的内容可知,作者他们想给父母一个惊喜(surprise)。assist“帮助,协助”。
7.A.warmed  B.froze
C.softened  D.darkened
解析:B 根据上下文语境及句中的“In northern Ohio, you don't plant maple trees at Christmas”“a special Christmas in October before the ground”可知,作者他们决定在土地上冻之前让父母度过一个特别的圣诞节。freeze“结冰”符合语境。soften“变软,软化”。
8.A.trick  B.purchase
C.choice  D.decoration
解析:A 根据上下文语境可知,作者询问姑姑是否可以帮忙实施这个“骗局(trick)”。

9.A.in advance  B.in time
C.by accident  D.on purpose
解析:A 根据上下文语境可知,作者的姑姑提前(in advance)给作者的父母打电话说她会在周日来拜访。in time“及时”;by accident“意外地”;on purpose“故意地”。
10.A.service  B.action
C.effect  D.production
解析:B 根据下文的“planning a big holiday turkey dinner”可知,随后,作者的姊妹和嫂子(或弟媳)行动起来。go into action“行动起来”符合语境。go into service“投入使用”;go into effect“生效”;go into production“投入生产”。
11.A.regular  B.separate
C.given  D.chosen
解析:D 根据语境可知,作者和亲人们在选定(chosen)那个周日聚到自己家里。regular“惯常的,有规律的”。
12.A.sorted  B.loaded
C.transported  D.transplanted
解析:B 根据下文的“the trees into a truck”可知,作者他们把树装上(loaded)卡车。transport“运输,运送”;transplant“移植”。
13.A.dressed up  B.passed off
C.looked on  D.started out
解析:A 根据下文的“as Santa Claus”可知,作者把自己装扮(dressed up)成圣诞老人。pass s b./s t h. off as“把……冒充为……”;look on s b./s t h. as“把……当作……”;start out as“以……开始,起初是……”。
14.A.delighted  B.annoyed
C.disappointed  D.convinced
解析:D 根据上下文语境及句中的“something was wrong first”可知,作者的父亲一开始坚信哪里出了问题。convinced“使确信,使坚信”符合语境。
15.A.when  B.how
C.why  D.whether
解析:C 根据语境可知,当我们告诉他们我们为什么(why)会在那里的时候,父母感到很吃惊。
16.A.came around  B.dropped out
C.turned up  D.drew in
解析:A 根据下文的内容可知,当又到圣诞节时,作者他们去探望父母。come around“再次出现,再度发生”;drop out“退出”;turn up“出现”;draw in“(白天变得)渐短”。
17.A.generous  B.additional
C.double  D.special
解析:C 根据上文的“In northern Ohio, you don't plant maple trees at Christmas, so we decided to... with a special Christmas in October”可知,作者他们在十月份的时候已经为父母送上了一份特别的圣诞节礼物,而在真正的圣诞节到来的时候,他们又不能空手去拜访自己的父母,故作者的父母那年是收到了双份的(double)圣诞节礼物。additional“额外的”。
18.A.even  B.just
C.once  D.still
解析:D 根据上下文语境可知,时隔几乎半个世纪之后,当作者看到那些高大、漂亮的枫树(trees)时依然(still)会面带微笑地驶过那个农场。
19.A.farms  B.trees
C.trucks  D.yards
解析:B 参见上题解析。
20.A.congratulation  B.gift
C.donation  D.greeting
解析:B 作者看着那些枫树时,会想起自己多年前在特别的圣诞节送给父母特别的礼物(gift)。上文中的“presents that year”亦是关键提示。donation“捐赠物”;greeting“问候”。
 


 

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课件 w ww.5 y kj.Co m
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