【真题】2018年北京市高考英语试题(附答案和解释)

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【真题】2018年北京市高考英语试题(附答案和解释)

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2018年高考英语真题卷(北京卷)
一、单项填空
1.(2018•北京)—Hi, I'm Peter. Are you new here? I haven't seen you around?—Hello, Peter. I'm Bob. I just _________ on Monday.           
A. start                           B. have started                           C. started                           D. had started
2.(2018•北京)_________ we don't stop climate change, many animals and plants in the world will be gone.           
A.Although
B.While
C.If
D.Until
3.(2018•北京)_________ along the old Silk Road is an interesting and rewarding experience.           
A. Travel                         B. Traveling                         C. Having traveled                         D. Traveled
4.(2018•北京)Susan had quit her well-paid job and _________ as a volunteer in the neighborhood when I visited her last year.           
A. is working                     B. was working                     C. has worked                     D. had worked
5.(2018•北京)She and her family bicycle to work, _________ helps them keep fit.           
A. which                                      B. who                                      C. as                                      D. that
6.(2018•北京)During the Mid-Autumn Festival, family members often gather together _________ a meal, admire the moon and enjoy moon cakes.           
A. share                            B. to share                            C. having shared                            D. shared
7.(2018•北京)China's high-speed railways _________ from 9,000 to 25,000 kilometers in the past few years.           
A. are growing                      B. have grown                      C. will grow                      D. had grown
8.(2018•北京)In any unsafe situation, simply _________ the button and a highly-trained agent will get you the help you need.           
A.press
B.to press
C.pressing
D.pressed
9.(2018•北京)A rescue worker risked his life saving two tourists who _________ in the mountains for two days.           
A. are trapping            B. have been trapped            C. were trapping            D. had been trapped
10.(2018•北京)Ordinary soap, _________ correctly, can deal with bacteria effectively.           
A. used                                    B. to use                                    C. using                                    D. use
11.(2018•北京)Without his support, we wouldn't be _________ we are now.           
A. how                                    B. when                                    C. where                                    D. why
12.(2018•北京)In today's information age, the loss of data _________ cause serious problems for a company.           
A.need
B.should
C.can
D.must
13.(2018•北京)They might have found a better hotel if they _________ a few more kilometers.           
A. drove                        B. would drive                        C. were to drive                        D. had driven
14.(2018•北京)—Good morning, Mr. Lee's office.—Good morning. I'd like to make an appointment _________ next Wednesday afternoon.           
A. for                                          B. on                                          C. in                                          D. at
15.(2018•北京)This is _________ my father has taught me—to always face difficulties and hope for the best.           
A. how                                    B. which                                    C. that                                    D. what
二、完形填空
16.(2018•北京)完形填空The Homeless Hero
    For many, finding an unattended wallet filled with £400 in cash would be a source(来源)of temptation(诱惑). But the         1        would no doubt be greater if you were living on the streets with little food and money. All of this makes the actions of the homeless Tom Smith         2        more remarkable.
    After spotting a         3        on the front seat inside a parked car with its window down, he stood guard in the rain for about two hours waiting for the         4        to return.
    After hours in the cold and wet, he         5         inside and pulled the wallet out hoping to find some ID so he could contact(联系)the driver, only to         6        it contained £400 in notes, with another £50 in spare change beside it.
    He then took the wallet to a nearby police station after         7        a note behind to let the owner know it was safe. When the car's owner John Anderson and his colleague Carol Lawrence returned to the car—which was itself worth £35, 000—in Glasgow city centre, they were         8        to find two policemen standing next to it. The policemen told them what Mr. Smith did and that the wallet was         9       .
    The pair were later able to thank Mr. Smith for his         10       .
    Mr. Anderson said:"I couldn't believe that the guy never took a penny. To think he is sleeping on the streets tonight         11        he could have stolen the money and paid for a place to stay in. This guy has nothing and         12        he didn't take the wallet for himself;he thought about others         13       . It's unbelievable. It just proves there are         14        guys out there."
    Mr. Smith's act         15        much of the public's attention. He also won praise from social media users after Mr. Anderson         16        about the act of kindness on Facebook.
    Now Mr. Anderson has set up an online campaign to         17        money for Mr. Smith and other homeless people in the area, which by yesterday had received £8,000. "I think the faith that everyone has shown         18        him has touched him. People have been approaching him in the street; he's had job         19        and all sorts," Mr. Anderson commented.
    For Mr. Smith, this is a possible life-changing         20       . The story once again tells us that one good turn deserves another.           
1. A. hope B. aim C. urge D. effort
2. A. still B. even C. ever D. once
3. A. wallet B. bag C. box D. parcel
4. A. partner B. colleague C. owner D. policeman
5. A. turned B. hid C. stepped D. reached
6. A. discover B. collect C. check D. believe
7. A. taking B. leaving C. reading D. writing
8. A. satisfied B. excited C. amused D. shocked
9. A. safe B. missing C. found D. seen
10. A. service B. support C. kindness D. encouragement
11. A. when B. if C. where D. because
12. A. rather B. yet C. already D. just
13. A. too B. though C. again D. instead
14. A. honest B. polite C. rich D. generous
15. A. gave B. paid C. cast D. drew
16. A. learned B. posted C. cared D. heard
17. A. borrow B. raise C. save D. earn
18. A. of B. at C. for D. in
19. A. details B. changes C. offers D. applications
20. A. lesson B. adventure C. chance D. challenge
三、阅读理解
17.(2018•北京)阅读理解A
My First Marathon(马拉松)
    A month before my first marathon, one of my ankles was injured and this meant not running for two weeks, leaving me only two weeks to train. Yet, I was determined to go ahead.
    I remember back to my 7th year in school. In my first P.E. class, the teacher required us to run laps and then hit a softball. I didn't do either well. He later informed me that I was "not athletic".
    The idea that I was "not athletic" stuck with me for years. When I started running in my 30s, I realized running was a battle against myself, not about competition or whether or not I was athletic. It was all about the battle against my own body and mind. A test of wills!
    The night before my marathon, I dreamt that I couldn't even find the finish line. I woke up sweating and nervous, but ready to prove something to myself.
    Shortly after crossing the start line, my shoe laces(鞋带) became untied. So I stopped to readjust. Not the start I wanted!
    At mile 3, I passed a sign: "GO FOR IT, RUNNERS!"
    By mile 17, I became out of breath and the once injured ankle hurt badly. Despite the pain, I stayed the course walking a bit and then running again.
    By mile 21, I was starving!
    As I approached mile 23, I could see my wife waving a sign. She is my biggest fan. She never minded the alarm clock sounding at 4 a.m. or questioned my expenses on running.
    I was one of the final runners to finish. But I finished! And I got a medal. In fact, I got the same medal as the one that the guy who came in first place had.
    Determined to be myself, move forward, free of shame and worldly labels(世俗标签), I can now call myself a "marathon winner".   
(1)A month before the marathon, the author ____________.           
A. was well trained                B. felt scared                C. made up his mind to run                D. lost hope
(2)Why did the author mention the P.E. class in his 7th year?           
A. To acknowledge the support of his teacher.           B. To amuse the readers with a funny story.
C. To show he was not talented in sports.               D. To share a precious memory.
(3)How was the author's first marathon?           
A. He made it.           B. He quit halfway.           C. He got the first prize.           D. He walked to the end.
(4)What does the story mainly tell us?           
A. A man owes his success to his family support.           B. A winner is one with a great effort of will.
C. Failure is the mother of success.                        D. One is never too old to learn.
18.(2018•北京)阅读理解B
Find Your Adventure at the Space and Aviation(航空) Center
    If you're looking for a unique adventure, the Space and Aviation Center (SAC) is the place to be. The Center offers programs designed to challenge and inspire with hands-on tasks and lots of fun.
    More than 750,000 have graduated from SAC, with many seeking employment in engineering, aviation, education, medicine and a wide variety of other professions. They come to camp, wanting to know what it is like to be an astronaut or a pilot, and they leave with real-world applications for what they're studying in the classroom.
    For the trainees, the programs also offer a great way to earn merit badges(荣誉徽章). At Space Camp, trainees can earn their Space Exploration badge as they build and fire model rockets, learn about space tasks and try simulated(模拟) flying to space with the crew from all over the world. The Aviation Challenge program gives trainees the chance to earn their Aviation badge. They learn the principles of flight and test their operating skills in the cockpit(驾驶舱) of a variety of flight simulators. Trainees also get a good start on their Wilderness Survival badge as they learn about water- and land-survival through designed tasks and their search and rescue of "downed" pilot.
    With all the programs, teamwork is key as trainees learn the importance of leadership and being part of a bigger task.
    All this fun is available for ages 9 to 18. Families can enjoy the experience together, too, with Family Camp programs for families with children as young as 7.
    Stay an hour or stay a week — there is something here for everyone!
    For more details, please visit us online at www.oursac.com.   
(1)Why do people come to SAC?           
A. To experience adventures.                                 B. To look for jobs in aviation.
C. To get a degree in engineering.                          D. To learn more about medicine.
(2)To earn a Space Exploration badge, a trainee needs to           .           
A. fly to space                                                         B. get an Aviation badge first
C. study the principles of flight                                D. build and fire model rockets
(3)What is the most important for trainees?           
A. Leadership.                    B. Team spirit.                    C. Task planning.                    D. Survival skills.
19.(2018•北京)阅读理解C
Plastic-Eating Worms
 
    Humans produce more than 300 million tons of plastic every year. Almost half of that winds up in landfills(垃圾填埋场), and up to 12 million tons pollute the oceans. So far there is no effective way to get rid of it, but a new study suggests an answer may lie in the stomachs of some hungry worms.
    Researchers in Spain and England recently found that the worms of the greater wax moth can break down polyethylene, which accounts for 40% of plastics. The team left 100 wax worms on a commercial polyethylene shopping bag for 12 hours, and the worms consumed and broke down about 92 milligrams, or almost 3% of it. To confirm that the worms' chewing alone was not responsible for the polyethylene breakdown, the researchers made some worms into paste(糊状物) and applied it to plastic films. 14 hours later the films had lost 13% of their mass — apparently broken down by enzymes (酶) from the worms' stomachs. Their findings were published in Current Biology in 2017.
    Federica Bertocchini, co-author of the study, says the worms' ability to break down their everyday food — beeswax — also allows them to break down plastic. "Wax is a complex mixture, but the basic bond in polyethylene, the carbon-carbon bond, is there as well, "she explains, "The wax worm evolved a method or system to break this bond. "
    Jennifer DeBruyn, a microbiologist at the University of Tennessee, who was not involved in the study, says it is not surprising that such worms can break down polyethylene. But compared with previous studies, she finds the speed of breaking down in this one exciting. The next step, DeBruyn says, will be to identify the cause of the breakdown. Is it an enzyme produced by the worm itself or by its gut microbes(肠道微生物)?
    Bertocchini agrees and hopes her team's findings might one day help employ the enzyme to break down plastics in landfills. But she expects using the chemical in some kind of industrial process — not simply "millions of worms thrown on top of the plastic."   
(1)What can we learn about the worms in the study?           
A. They take plastics as their everyday food.           B. They are newly evolved creatures.
C. They can consume plastics.                               D. They wind up in landfills.
(2)According to Jennifer DeBruyn, the next step of the study is to            .           
A. identify other means of the breakdown               B. find out the source of the enzyme
C. confirm the research findings                             D. increase the breakdown speed
(3)It can be inferred from the last paragraph that the chemical might            .           
A. help to raise worms                                             B. help make plastic bags
C. be used to clean the oceans                              D. be produced in factories in future
(4)What is the main purpose of the passage?           
A. To explain a study method on worms.                 B. To introduce the diet of a special worm.
C. To present a way to break down plastics.           D. To propose new means to keep eco-balance.
20.(2018•北京)阅读理解D
Preparing Cities for Robot Cars
    The possibility of self-driving robot cars has often seemed like a futurist's dream, years away from materializing in the real world. Well, the future is apparently now. The California Department of Motor Vehicles began giving permits in April for companies to test truly self-driving cars on public roads. The state also cleared the way for companies to sell or rent out self-driving cars, and for companies to operate driverless taxi services. California, it should be noted, isn't leading the way here. Companies have been testing their vehicles in cities across the country. It's hard to predict when driverless cars will be everywhere on our roads. But however long it takes, the technology has the potential to change our transportation systems and our cities, for better or for worse, depending on how the transformation is regulated.
    While much of the debate so far has been focused on the safety of driverless cars(and rightfully so), policymakers also should be talking about how self-driving vehicles can help reduce traffic jams, cut emissions(排放) and offer more convenient, affordable mobility options. The arrival of driverless vehicles is a chance to make sure that those vehicles are environmentally friendly and more shared.
    Do we want to copy — or even worsen — the traffic of today with driverless cars? Imagine a future where most adults own individual self-driving vehicles. They tolerate long, slow journeys to and from work on packed highways because they can work, entertain themselves or sleep on the ride, which encourages urban spread. They take their driverless car to an appointment and set the empty vehicle to circle the building to avoid paying for parking. Instead of walking a few blocks to pick up a child or the dry cleaning, they send the self-driving minibus. The convenience even leads fewer people to take public transport — an unwelcome side effect researchers have already found in ride-hailing(叫车) services.
    A study from the University of California at Davis suggested that replacing petrol-powered private cars worldwide with electric, self-driving and shared systems could reduce carbon emissions from transportation 80% and cut the cost of transportation infrastructure(基础设施) and operations 40% by 2050. Fewer emissions and cheaper travel sound pretty appealing. The first commercially available driverless cars will almost certainly be fielded by ride-hailing services, considering the cost of self-driving technology as well as liability and maintenance issues(责任与维护问题). But driverless car ownership could increase as the prices drop and more people become comfortable with the technology.
    Policymakers should start thinking now about how to make sure the appearance of driverless vehicles doesn't extend the worst aspects of the car-controlled transportation system we have today. The coming technological advancement presents a chance for cities and states to develop transportation systems designed to move more people, and more affordably. The car of the future is coming. We just have to plan for it.   
(1)According to the author, attention should be paid to how driverless cars can __________.           
A. help deal with transportation-related problems           B. provide better services to customers
C. cause damage to our environment                     D. make some people lose jobs
(2)As for driverless cars, what is the author's major concern?           
A. Safety.                       B. Side effects.                       C. Affordability.                       D. Management.
(3)What does the underlined word "fielded" in Paragraph 4 probably mean?           
A. Employed.                           B. Replaced.                           C. Shared.                           D. Reduced.
(4)What is the author's attitude to the future of self-driving cars?           
A. Doubtful.                        B. Positive.                        C. Disapproving.                        D. Sympathetic.
四、任务型阅读
21.(2018•北京)任务型阅读Why Do We Get Angry?
    Anger seems simple when we are feeling it, but the causes of anger are various. Knowing these causes can make us examine our behavior, and correct bad habits. The main reasons we get angry are triggering(触发)events, personality traits(特征), and our assessment of situations. ________
    Triggering events for anger are so many that to describe them all would take hundreds of pages. However, here are some examples: being cut off in traffic, a deadline approaching, experiencing physical pain, and much more.________ The reason why someone is triggered by something and others are not is often due to one's personal history and psychological traits.
    Each person, no matter who they are, has psychological imbalances. People who have personality traits that connect with competitiveness and low upset tolerance are much more likely to get angry. ________ Also, sometimes pre-anger does not have to do with a lasting condition, but rather a temporary state before a triggering event has occurred.
    ________Sometimes even routine occurrences become sources of pre-anger, or anger itself. Sometimes ignorance and negative (消极的) outlooks on situations can create anger.
    ________However, anger can easily turn violent, and it is best to know the reasons for anger to appear in order to prevent its presence. With these main reasons in mind, we can evaluate our level of anger throughout the day and prevent cases of outbursts by comprehending the reasons for our feelings.
A. Our attitude and viewpoint on situations can create anger within us as well.
B. But some types of situations can help us to get rid of the occurrence of anger.
C. Anger is rarely looked upon as a beneficial character trait, and is usually advised to reduce it.
D. Anger is a particularly strong feeling and maybe people think that they have reasons to feel angry.
E. Having these personality traits implies the pre-anger state, where anger is in the background of your mind.
F. Understanding these reasons will control our own anger if we are willing to evaluate ourselves with a critical eye.
G. Not everyone acts the same in response to events, and that is why what triggers one person may or may not trigger another.   
五、书面表达
22.(2018•北京)假设你是红星中学高三学生李华,你的英国朋友Jim在给你的邮件中提到他对中国文化感兴趣,计划明年来北京上大学。他向你咨询相关信息。请给他回邮件,内容包括:
1)表示欢迎;
2)推荐他上哪所大学;
3)建议他做哪些准备工作。
注意:1)词数不少于50;
2)开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数。
Dear Jim,
________
Yours,
Li Hua   
23.(2018•北京)假设你是红星中学高三学生李华,请根据以下四幅图的先后顺序,写一篇英文周记,记述你们上周接待外国学生,带领他们体验中国茶文化的全过程。
注意:词数不少于60。
 
 

答案解析部分
一、单项填空 
1.【答案】C 
【解析】【分析】句意:——嗨,我是皮特。你是新来的吗?我之前没见过你。——嗨,皮特。我是鲍勃。我周一刚来。通过理解句意,根据语境判断句中的时间状语on Monday是一个过去的时间,所以此处用一般过去时,故答案为C。
【点评】考查动词的时态,理解语境,弄清时间状语即可确定答案。
2.【答案】C 
【解析】【分析】句意:如果我们不阻止气候变化,世界上的许多动植物会消失。although虽然;while虽然;然而;if如果;until直到。根据句意可知此处表示假设,所以用if引导条件状语从句,故答案为C。
【点评】考查引导状语从句的连词辨析。通读句子,弄清前后句之间的逻辑关系,将连词代入句中,符合逻辑的即为正确答案。
3.【答案】B 
【解析】【分析】句意:沿着古丝绸之路旅行是一个有趣且很值得的经历。此处是句子的主语,所以动动名词travelling。动词原形、过去式和分词都不能作主语,故答案为B。
【点评】考查非谓语动词,注意能在句中作主语的只有动名词或不定式,动词的其他形式不能充当主语。
4.【答案】B 
【解析】【分析】句意:Susan已经辞去那份报酬丰厚的工作,去年我去看她的时候她正在社区当志愿者。句中的when I visited her last year确定了过去的某一时间点,所以此处表示当时动作正在进行,所以用过去进行时。故答案为B。
【点评】考查动词的时态,注意寻找时间线索,根据语境中的暗示确定答案。
5.【答案】A 
【解析】【分析】句意:她和家人骑车去上班,这帮助他们保持健康。这是一个非限制性定语从句,空格处指代前面整个句子,所以用which引导非限制性定语从句,而且which在从句中作主语。who指人;that不引导定语从句;as通常翻译成“正如;就像”,所以此处可以排除,故答案为A。
【点评】考查引导定语从句的关系词,掌握定语从句的基本定义和关系词的基本用法即可判断正确答案。
6.【答案】B 
【解析】【分析】句意:在中秋节期间,家庭成员经常聚在一起共享大餐、赏月、吃月饼。此处表示目的,所以用动词不定式,故答案为B。
【点评】考查动词不定式在句中表示目的的用法。
7.【答案】B 
【解析】【分析】句意:中国的高铁在过去的今年中从9000千米增加到25000千米。in the past/last+时间,是现在完成时的标志,故答案为B。
【点评】考查现在完成时,牢记现在完成时的标志词:since;for+时间段;already;ever;never;so far;in the past/last+时间。
8.【答案】A 
【解析】【分析】句意:在任何不安全的环境中,只按一下按钮,一个训练有素的工作人员就会带给你所需要的帮助。句型:祈使句+and/or+表将来的陈述句。所以此处是祈使句部分,所以用动词原形,故答案为A。
【点评】考查并列句的固定句型,牢记基本结构即可。
9.【答案】D 
【解析】【分析】句意:一个救援者冒着生命危险拯救了两个在山里被困了两天的游客。通过risked确定本句是过去的时态;for+时间段是完成时的标志,所以此处用过去完成时;而trap是及物动词,意思是“使受限制;困住”,此处应该用被动结构,故答案为D。
【点评】考查动词的时态和语态。注意通过时态的前后一致确定大致的时态,然后根据相关的时间状语和语境判断具体的时态和语态。
10.【答案】A 
【解析】【分析】句意:普通肥皂,正确使用的话,可以有效地杀灭细菌。此处是句子的状语,所以用非谓语动词,其逻辑主语是soap,soap与use之间是被动关系,故答案为A。
【点评】考查分词作状语的用法。分词作状语时其逻辑主语是句子的主语,根据动词与逻辑主语之间的关系判断其形式。
11.【答案】C 
【解析】【分析】句意:没有他的支持,我们不能到达现在的地步。此处是表语从句,how怎样;如何;when何时;where……的地方;何地;why为什么;根据句意可知指现在的处境,故答案为C。
【点评】考查名词性从句的引导词,理解句意,根据语境判断,注意句子的逻辑。
12.【答案】C 
【解析】【分析】句意:在当今的信息时代,数据的丢失对于一家公司来说有时候会造成严重的问题。need需要;should应该;can可能;能够;must必须;一定。本句是对现在情况进行可能的推测,can用于肯定句中表示:“有时候会”;而must意思是“一定会”,根据常识可知丢失数据可能会造成严重的问题,也可能不会造成严重问题,所以用can在逻辑上更严谨,故答案为C。
【点评】考查情态动词表示推测的用法。can用于肯定句表示“有时候会”这一用法比较生僻,需要特别注意。
13.【答案】D 
【解析】【分析】句意:要是他们开车多走几公里的话,他们也许会找到一家更好的旅馆。本句是虚拟语气,表示与过去事实相反的假设,主句用“might have+过去分词”,从句要用过去完成时,故答案为D。
【点评】考查虚拟语气在if条件句中的用法,牢记if条件句中虚拟语气的基本格式即可做出判断。
14.【答案】A 
【解析】【分析】句意:---早上好,这是李先生的办公室。---早上好,我想约下周三下午。短语:make an appointment for为……预约。故答案为A。
【点评】考查介词辨析,熟记固定搭配。
15.【答案】D 
【解析】【分析】句意:这是我爸爸所教给我的——要直面困难心怀希望。这是表语从句,根据teach sb sth可知从句中缺少直接宾语,所以用what引导。how怎样;which哪一个;that无意义也补充当从句的成分,故答案为D。
【点评】考查表语从句中的引导词的用法,掌握名词性从句连词的基本使用规则:连接词that不作成分;连接代词如what在从句中作主语或宾语;连接副词像when、where、how在从句中作状语。
二、完形填空 
16.【答案】(1)C;(2)B;(3)A;(4)C;(5)D;(6)A;(7)B;(8)D;(9)A;(10)C;(11)A;(12)B;(13)D;(14)A;(15)D;(16)B;(17)B;(18)D;(19)C;(20)C; 
【解析】【分析】这是一篇记叙文,讲述了流浪汉拾金不昧的故事。某雨天,流浪汉看到一辆未关车窗的车内放有钱包,怕钱包被盗,在雨中等待车主两小时。苦等无果,便拿着钱包去警局寻失主。车主获知事件经过,将经历分享到脸谱网上,为该地区流浪汉筹钱,最后流浪汉得到了许多工作机会。
(1)  C句意: 对很多人而言,找到一个装满400英镑现金且无人看管的钱包都会是种诱惑。而这种欲望对于无家可归、既没食物又没钱的人而言,无疑会更加强烈。A、hope希望; B、aim目标; C、urge强烈的欲望;D、effort努力。有空格前的the可知此处前文提到的temptation(诱惑),所以此处选择其近义词urge(强烈的欲望),故答案为C。
(2)  B 句意:这一切使得无家可归的Tom Smith的举动更为不同寻常,引人注目。A、still 仍然;  B、even甚至;C、ever曾经;D、once曾经;此处修饰比较级,表示强调,故答案为B。
(3)  A 句意:在发现了在一个没有关窗子的停着的汽车的前排座位上的钱包后,他站在雨中差不多两个小时守护着钱包等着主人归来。A、wallet 钱包;B、bag包;C、box盒子;D、parcel包裹。根据第一句提到的an unattended wallet filled with £400 in cash可知是钱包,故答案为A。
(4)  C句意:他站在雨中差不多两个小时守护着钱包等着主人归来。 A、partner搭档;B、colleague同事;C、owner主人;D、policeman警察;守护着钱包,当然是等它的“owner”,故答案为C。
(5)  D 句意:在寒冷的雨中几个小时后,他把手伸进车里拿出钱包,希望能找到身份证,这样他就可以联系司机了。A、turned转身;B、hid躲藏;C、stepped迈步;D、reached伸手。钱包在车的前排座位上,想要拿到当然需要“伸手”,故答案为D。
(6)  A 句意:却发现里面有400英镑的钞票,旁边还有50英镑的零钱。A、discover发现;B、collect收集;C、check检查;核对;D、believe相信。打开钱包,“发现”里面有钱,故答案为A。
(7)  B 句意:然后,他在留下一张便条告诉车主钱包安全,便带着钱包去了附近的警察局。A、taking带走;B、leaving留下;C、reading读;D、writing写。短语:leave a note/message留便条,故答案为B。
(8)  D 句意:当车主和同事回到位于格拉斯哥市中心价值35000英镑的汽车停放的位置时,他们惊讶地发现有两个警察站在车的旁边。A、satisfied满意的;B、excited兴奋的;C、amused好笑的;D、shocked震惊的。没有违法却招来了警察,所以感到“震惊”,故答案为D。
(9)   A句意:警察告诉他们史密斯先生的所作所为,还有他的钱包是安全的。A、safe安全的;B、missing丢失的;C、found被发现的;D、seen被看见的。故答案为A。
(10) C 句意:后来这两个人能够感谢史密斯先生的善意之举。A、service服务;B、support支持;C、kindness善行;D、encouragement鼓励;此处指前面提到帮助保护钱包的行为,故答案为C。
(11) A句意:既然到他本可以偷了钱并且花钱让自己找一个地方住一晚,但是他今晚还是住在大街上。A、when 考虑到;既然;B、if   如果;C、where哪里;D、because因为;此处是对史密斯拾金不昧的行为的评价,根据句意,故答案为A。
(12) B句意:这个男的身无分文,然而他还是没有自己拿走钱包。A、rather相当;B、yet然而;C、already已经;D、just只是;表示转折,故答案为B。
(13) D句意:他(没有自己拿走钱包)而是想到了别人。A、too也;B、though不过;然而;C、again又;D、instead代替;而不是。根据句意,故答案为D。
(14) A句意:这是难以置信的,只是证明了有诚实的人。A、honest诚实的;B、polite有礼貌的;C、rich富有的;D、generous慷慨的。这是对史密斯先生的行为的总结,故答案为A。
(15) D 句意:史密斯先生的行为吸引了公众大量关注。A、gave给;B、paid支付;C、cast投掷;D、drew吸引。短语:draw one's attention吸引人的注意,故答案为D。
(16) B句意:在安德森先生把这一善意之举发布在脸谱网上之后,他也赢得了社交媒体用户的赞誉。A、learned了解到;B、posted张贴;C、cared关心;D、heard听见。此处指在网上发布帖子,故答案为B。
(17) B句意:现在安德森先生在网上发起了一个活动,为史密斯先生和这一地区其他无家可归的人募捐。A、borrow借;B、raise募集;C、save节省;D、earn挣;赚。根据下文可知是“募捐”,故答案为B。
(18) D句意:我想每个人对他表现出的信任已经感动了他。show/have faith in对……信任;故答案为D。
(19) C句意:在街上人们主动接近他,给他提供工作等各种帮助。A、details细节;B、changes变化;C、offers提供;D、applications申请;根据上文提到的人们的募捐,所以此处指人们“主动提供帮助”,故答案为C。
(20) C句意:对于史密斯先生而言,这是一个改变人生的机会。A、lesson教训;B、adventure探险;C、chance机会;D、challenge挑战。根据句意,故答案为C。
【点评】这是一篇记叙文,考查词汇在篇章中的运用能力,答题时首先要读懂全文,弄清文章要表达的思想,注意文中前后段落之间的关系。答题中,一定要认真分析,注意选项与上下文的关系,与前后单词的关系。对于一 时没有太大的把握的题可以放到最后再来完成,因为有时答案可以从下文内容体现出来。答完后再通读一篇文章,看看所选选项能不能是语句通顺,语意连贯。
三、阅读理解 
17.【答案】(1)C
(2)C
(3)A
(4)B 
【解析】【分析】这是一篇记叙文,作者在参加马拉松前一个月受了伤,训练时间不足,且在初一时就被体育老师说没有运动天赋,但是30多岁的他依然坚持跑完马拉松,突破自我,挑战不可能。
⑴细节理解。根据题干中的a month before the marathon可知答案在第一段,由最后一句Yet, I was determined to go ahead可知作者决定参加比赛,故答案为C。
⑵细节理解。将题干中的P.E. class in his 7th year定位在第二段,作者自己在7年纪的时候做得不是很好,后来被老师认为不是一个擅长运动的人,并且第三段提到老师的not athletic一直影响着他,故答案为C。
⑶细节理解。从文章倒数第二段 I was one of the final runners to finish. But I finished! And I got a medal可知作者坚持到最后,终于做到了,故答案为A。
⑷主旨大意。这是一篇记叙文,在最后一段点题:Determined to be myself, move forward, free of shame and worldly labels(世俗标签), I can now call myself a "marathon winner"可知,作者是一个意志坚定,通过不懈努力,最终获得了成功的胜利者,故答案为B。
【点评】本文属于励志的故事类阅读,阅读时要通读文章,弄清文章的主旨大意。答题时注意问题中的关键词在文章中的准确定位,根据关键词定位并查找信息,切忌凭感觉做题。
18.【答案】(1)A
(2)D
(3)B 
【解析】【分析】这是一篇广告,介绍一个寻求冒险的乐园—— Space and Aviation Center (SAC)。
⑴细节理解。根据第一句 If you're looking for a unique adventure, the Space and Aviation Center (SAC) is the place to be可在SAC的目的是为了体验冒险的经历,故答案为A。
⑵细节理解。题干中的Space Exploration badge和trainee 定位在第三段第二句At Space Camp, trainees can earn their Space Exploration badge as they build and fire model rockets,故答案为D。
⑶细节理解。根据第四段With all the programs, teamwork is key as trainees learn the importance of leadership and being part of a bigger task可知,对于受训者来说,团队精神与协作是最为重要的,故答案为B。
【点评】本文属于应用文阅读,此类文章重在考查对细节信息的查找和分析,答题时注意根据问题中的关键词在文章中定位,然后分析关键词所在句子的信息,与选项进行比对,答案就显而易见了。
19.【答案】(1)C
(2)B
(3)D
(4)C 
【解析】【分析】这是一篇说明文,介绍吃塑料的虫子的工作原理及应用设想。
⑴细节理解。将题干中的worms in the study定位在第二段第二句,the worms consumed and broke down about 92 milligrams可知这些虫子吃塑料,故答案为C。
⑵细节理解。将题干中的关键词Jennifer DeBruyn定位在第四段,找到the next step出现在倒数第二句The next step, DeBruyn says, will be to identify the cause of the breakdown,可知,下一步将是确定这种分解的原因,即找到酶的来源,故答案为B。
⑶推理判断。确定题干中chemical最后一段的最后一句 But she expects using the chemical in some kind of industrial process — not simply "millions of worms thrown on top of the plastic.,可知,她期望把化学物质用于某种工业生产中,而不是仅仅把虫子扔到塑料上,故答案为D。
⑷主旨大意。通过文章标题Plastic-Eating Worms以及首尾段落的理解,可知全文在介绍虫子与塑料的降解之间的关系,所以C项:介绍一种分解塑料的方法,即“吃塑料的虫子”是本文的中心,故答案为C。
【点评】本文属于科普类说明文,阅读时在文章首段确定文章的中心句,然后快速浏览文章内容。阅读问题,找到问题中的关键词。在文章中定位问题中的关键词,答案就在关键词附近。
20.【答案】(1)A
(2)D
(3)A
(4)B 
【解析】【分析】这一篇科普类议论文,主要谈论在城市里推广无人驾驶汽车会面临哪些问题以及该作何准备。
⑴细节理解。题干中的attention should be paid to可被定位到第二段第一句much of the debate so far has been focused on the safety of driverless cars中,可知人们关注的是无人汽车的安全问题,另外在下文中提到的减少交通拥堵、减少尾气排放以及提供更加便捷的经济的选择都是“与交通相关的问题”,故答案为A。
⑵细节理解。根据第一段But however long it takes, the technology has the potential to change our transportation systems and our cities, for better or for worse, depending on how the transformation is regulated可知,技术对于交通系统和城市的改变是更好还是更差取决于这种转换如何被管理。regulate管理,是manage的同义词,故答案为D。
⑶词义猜测。employ使用;replace代替;share分享;reduce减少。本词所在句子的后一句的but说明前后是转折关系,通过理解后一句来倒推前一句的意思。“随着价格的降低,无人驾驶汽车的个人占有率会越来越高。”所以可以推断前一句的意思是“第一批商用的无人驾驶汽车将会首先被叫车服务公司所使用。”所以答案为A。
⑷观点态度。doubtful怀疑的;positive积极的;disapproving不赞成的;sympathetic同情的。文章最后一句话The car of the future is coming. We just have to plan for it(未来的汽车即将到来,我们得为之做好计划)说明未来无人驾驶汽车是不可阻挡的趋势,所以作者是积极的态度,故答案为B。
【点评】本文属于科技类议论文,阅读时首先要弄清楚作者要证明什么观点,然后用什么样的论据进行怎样的分析,最后得出了什么样的结论,理清了线索,理解文章就不是问题。看题时注意确定关键词,然后在文章中定位,找到与选项一致的内容,就可以轻松的确定答案。
四、任务型阅读 
21.【答案】F;G;E;A;D 
【解析】【分析】这是一篇关于心理健康的说明文,介绍了让人生气的三个原因:1、外界诱因事件;2、自身性格;3、对环境的评价。
⑴F 此空位于段尾,所以重在理解前文。由The main reasons we get angry are triggering(触发)events可知此处列举产生愤怒的原因,与F中的Understanding these reasons 向呼应,故答案为F。
⑵G 后一句说明的是一些人容易受到触发事件影响而他人不会受到影响的原因与个人历史以及心理特征有关,选项G中的what triggers one person may or may not trigger another与someone is triggered by something and others are not is often due to one's personal history and psychological traits相对应,故答案为G。
⑶E 前一句说明了某性格特征的人更容易生气,E中的Having these personality traits与空格前一句中的personality traits一致,故答案为E。
⑷A 这是段首句,通常为本段的主题句。通过理解段意”某些平常事件会产生愤怒的情绪,有时候无知以及对于事件的负面看法也会导致愤怒的出现,“,所以此处应是”个人对于事件的评估也会导致愤怒情绪的产生“,故答案为A。
⑸D 根据后一句的However可知本句话与后一句构成转折关系。anger can easily turn violent意思是愤怒能很容易变得暴力,所以D选项中的maybe people think that they have reasons to feel angry与之互为转折,故答案为D。
【点评】这是一篇说明文,重在考查上下文之间的逻辑关系,答题时首先浏览文章主旨,并理解各个选项所表达的含义。然后再读短文,选出最能使上下文语义通顺的选项,注意段落大意,空格前后的关键词等信息,完成后要通读一篇,看语义是否通顺,是否符合逻辑,必要的话做适当修改。
五、书面表达 
22.【答案】Dear Jim,
    I'm so glad to hear your future education plan in Beijing in your last letter. First I would like to express my warmest welcome to you and I am sure you will have the most unforgettable experience during your college in Beijing.
    Learning your keen interest in Chinese culture, I suggest you apply for Peking University, one of the best universities in China. Its Chinese Literature major is perfect for you where you can be completely soaked in Chinese profound history and rich culture. As for preparation, some reading in advance in needed like The Story of the Stone while some online courses of spoken Chinese can be helpful for you to adapt into the Chinese language environment.
    I sincerely hope your dream will come true and it's my pleasure to show you around in Beijing when that day comes. If you have further questions, please feel free to let me know.
Yours,
Li Hua 
【解析】【分析】本题是按要求写一封回信,介绍北京的大学情况。写作时除了要包含最基本的内容要点:表示欢迎、推荐大学和建议做准备之外,还应该考虑题干中的与文化相结合的上大学的准备,比如语言和读书等。写作时注意英语的思维习惯,以一般现在时为主,尽可能实用多样的语法结构,语言要简练,尽量地道。
【点评】本题考查的层次很多,一味背模版远远不够,建议平时多训练思维逻辑,掌握应用文写作的结构层次,重要的是语言要活学活用,才能达到写作目的,完成应用文解决的实际情况的写作任务。语言方面,要选取简洁实用的词汇,慎用难词。
23.【答案】   Last week, we took the foreign students in our school to experience the authentic tea culture, which turned out be to extremely rewarding.
    On arriving at the tea house, the foreign students were impressed by the unique tea pots and tea cups. I gave them a vivid and informative introduction of tea culture, including its profound history, its rich variety, and the exquisite craftsmanship of making tea with their interest greatly sparked, I then began to teach them how to make tea.
    In order to deliver a clear presentation, I slowly explained the traditional procedure of making tea in detail. Absorbed in every move of mine, the foreign students were once again amazed by this unique culture and they couldn't help taking pictures from time to time.
    Next came the moment when I asked them to have a try themselves. Washing the tea pots, adding tea leaves, and pouring water into the cups, they followed my instructions and were really immersed in charming tea culture. The tea house witnessed a really enjoyable time for all of us.
    At the end of the activity, holding the tea bags in our hands, we took a picture to memorize the unforgettable day. It suddenly hit me that traditional culture like tea culture was of great charm and huge value. And I swelled with pride to spread our own culture to people all over the world. 
【解析】【分析】今年主要以“体验中国茶文化”为主题,贴合了实际生活。首先看懂图画,弄清要点:1.参观茶室;2.示范沏茶过程;3.体验沏茶、品茶;4.合影留念。写作时注意实用主旨句,在保证要点齐全的前提下适当增加句子的长度和难度,借助非谓语、定语从句、倒装等语法形式来给文章增色,同时注意文章的连贯效果,注意使用一般过去时。
【点评】本题图画一目了然,清楚易懂。借助体验中国茶文化,以英语语言为载体,把中国传统茶文化的精髓写出来,讲出去,让更多的人了解中国传统茶文化。考查对所学知识的综合运用,熟练使用相关短语、单词和句型,注意词性的搭配,时态的把握,人称的使用等细节问题。

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