1.（2018•北京）—Hi, I'm Peter. Are you new here? I haven't seen you around?—Hello, Peter. I'm Bob. I just _________ on Monday.
A. start B. have started C. started D. had started
2.（2018•北京）_________ we don't stop climate change, many animals and plants in the world will be gone.
3.（2018•北京）_________ along the old Silk Road is an interesting and rewarding experience.
A. Travel B. Traveling C. Having traveled D. Traveled
4.（2018•北京）Susan had quit her well-paid job and _________ as a volunteer in the neighborhood when I visited her last year.
A. is working B. was working C. has worked D. had worked
5.（2018•北京）She and her family bicycle to work, _________ helps them keep fit.
A. which B. who C. as D. that
6.（2018•北京）During the Mid-Autumn Festival, family members often gather together _________ a meal, admire the moon and enjoy moon cakes.
A. share B. to share C. having shared D. shared
7.（2018•北京）China's high-speed railways _________ from 9,000 to 25,000 kilometers in the past few years.
A. are growing B. have grown C. will grow D. had grown
8.（2018•北京）In any unsafe situation, simply _________ the button and a highly-trained agent will get you the help you need.
9.（2018•北京）A rescue worker risked his life saving two tourists who _________ in the mountains for two days.
A. are trapping B. have been trapped C. were trapping D. had been trapped
10.（2018•北京）Ordinary soap, _________ correctly, can deal with bacteria effectively.
A. used B. to use C. using D. use
11.（2018•北京）Without his support, we wouldn't be _________ we are now.
A. how B. when C. where D. why
12.（2018•北京）In today's information age, the loss of data _________ cause serious problems for a company.
13.（2018•北京）They might have found a better hotel if they _________ a few more kilometers.
A. drove B. would drive C. were to drive D. had driven
14.（2018•北京）—Good morning, Mr. Lee's office.—Good morning. I'd like to make an appointment _________ next Wednesday afternoon.
A. for B. on C. in D. at
15.（2018•北京）This is _________ my father has taught me—to always face difficulties and hope for the best.
A. how B. which C. that D. what
16.（2018•北京）完形填空The Homeless Hero
For many, finding an unattended wallet filled with £400 in cash would be a source（来源）of temptation（诱惑）. But the 1 would no doubt be greater if you were living on the streets with little food and money. All of this makes the actions of the homeless Tom Smith 2 more remarkable.
After spotting a 3 on the front seat inside a parked car with its window down, he stood guard in the rain for about two hours waiting for the 4 to return.
After hours in the cold and wet, he 5 inside and pulled the wallet out hoping to find some ID so he could contact（联系）the driver, only to 6 it contained £400 in notes, with another £50 in spare change beside it.
He then took the wallet to a nearby police station after 7 a note behind to let the owner know it was safe. When the car's owner John Anderson and his colleague Carol Lawrence returned to the car—which was itself worth £35, 000—in Glasgow city centre, they were 8 to find two policemen standing next to it. The policemen told them what Mr. Smith did and that the wallet was 9 .
The pair were later able to thank Mr. Smith for his 10 .
Mr. Anderson said：＂I couldn't believe that the guy never took a penny. To think he is sleeping on the streets tonight 11 he could have stolen the money and paid for a place to stay in. This guy has nothing and 12 he didn't take the wallet for himself；he thought about others 13 . It's unbelievable. It just proves there are 14 guys out there.＂
Mr. Smith's act 15 much of the public's attention. He also won praise from social media users after Mr. Anderson 16 about the act of kindness on Facebook.
Now Mr. Anderson has set up an online campaign to 17 money for Mr. Smith and other homeless people in the area, which by yesterday had received ￡8,000. ＂I think the faith that everyone has shown 18 him has touched him. People have been approaching him in the street; he's had job 19 and all sorts,＂ Mr. Anderson commented.
For Mr. Smith, this is a possible life-changing 20 . The story once again tells us that one good turn deserves another.
1. A. hope B. aim C. urge D. effort
2. A. still B. even C. ever D. once
3. A. wallet B. bag C. box D. parcel
4. A. partner B. colleague C. owner D. policeman
5. A. turned B. hid C. stepped D. reached
6. A. discover B. collect C. check D. believe
7. A. taking B. leaving C. reading D. writing
8. A. satisfied B. excited C. amused D. shocked
9. A. safe B. missing C. found D. seen
10. A. service B. support C. kindness D. encouragement
11. A. when B. if C. where D. because
12. A. rather B. yet C. already D. just
13. A. too B. though C. again D. instead
14. A. honest B. polite C. rich D. generous
15. A. gave B. paid C. cast D. drew
16. A. learned B. posted C. cared D. heard
17. A. borrow B. raise C. save D. earn
18. A. of B. at C. for D. in
19. A. details B. changes C. offers D. applications
20. A. lesson B. adventure C. chance D. challenge
My First Marathon（马拉松）
A month before my first marathon, one of my ankles was injured and this meant not running for two weeks, leaving me only two weeks to train. Yet, I was determined to go ahead.
I remember back to my 7th year in school. In my first P.E. class, the teacher required us to run laps and then hit a softball. I didn't do either well. He later informed me that I was ＂not athletic＂.
The idea that I was ＂not athletic＂ stuck with me for years. When I started running in my 30s, I realized running was a battle against myself, not about competition or whether or not I was athletic. It was all about the battle against my own body and mind. A test of wills!
The night before my marathon, I dreamt that I couldn't even find the finish line. I woke up sweating and nervous, but ready to prove something to myself.
Shortly after crossing the start line, my shoe laces(鞋带) became untied. So I stopped to readjust. Not the start I wanted!
At mile 3, I passed a sign: ＂GO FOR IT, RUNNERS!＂
By mile 17, I became out of breath and the once injured ankle hurt badly. Despite the pain, I stayed the course walking a bit and then running again.
By mile 21, I was starving!
As I approached mile 23, I could see my wife waving a sign. She is my biggest fan. She never minded the alarm clock sounding at 4 a.m. or questioned my expenses on running.
I was one of the final runners to finish. But I finished! And I got a medal. In fact, I got the same medal as the one that the guy who came in first place had.
Determined to be myself, move forward, free of shame and worldly labels(世俗标签), I can now call myself a ＂marathon winner＂.
（1）A month before the marathon, the author ____________.
A. was well trained B. felt scared C. made up his mind to run D. lost hope
（2）Why did the author mention the P.E. class in his 7th year?
A. To acknowledge the support of his teacher. B. To amuse the readers with a funny story.
C. To show he was not talented in sports. D. To share a precious memory.
（3）How was the author's first marathon?
A. He made it. B. He quit halfway. C. He got the first prize. D. He walked to the end.
（4）What does the story mainly tell us?
A. A man owes his success to his family support. B. A winner is one with a great effort of will.
C. Failure is the mother of success. D. One is never too old to learn.
Find Your Adventure at the Space and Aviation(航空) Center
If you're looking for a unique adventure, the Space and Aviation Center (SAC) is the place to be. The Center offers programs designed to challenge and inspire with hands-on tasks and lots of fun.
More than 750,000 have graduated from SAC, with many seeking employment in engineering, aviation, education, medicine and a wide variety of other professions. They come to camp, wanting to know what it is like to be an astronaut or a pilot, and they leave with real-world applications for what they're studying in the classroom.
For the trainees, the programs also offer a great way to earn merit badges(荣誉徽章). At Space Camp, trainees can earn their Space Exploration badge as they build and fire model rockets, learn about space tasks and try simulated(模拟) flying to space with the crew from all over the world. The Aviation Challenge program gives trainees the chance to earn their Aviation badge. They learn the principles of flight and test their operating skills in the cockpit(驾驶舱) of a variety of flight simulators. Trainees also get a good start on their Wilderness Survival badge as they learn about water- and land-survival through designed tasks and their search and rescue of ＂downed＂ pilot.
With all the programs, teamwork is key as trainees learn the importance of leadership and being part of a bigger task.
All this fun is available for ages 9 to 18. Families can enjoy the experience together, too, with Family Camp programs for families with children as young as 7.
Stay an hour or stay a week — there is something here for everyone!
For more details, please visit us online at www.oursac.com.
（1）Why do people come to SAC?
A. To experience adventures. B. To look for jobs in aviation.
C. To get a degree in engineering. D. To learn more about medicine.
（2）To earn a Space Exploration badge, a trainee needs to .
A. fly to space B. get an Aviation badge first
C. study the principles of flight D. build and fire model rockets
（3）What is the most important for trainees?
A. Leadership. B. Team spirit. C. Task planning. D. Survival skills.
Humans produce more than 300 million tons of plastic every year. Almost half of that winds up in landfills(垃圾填埋场), and up to 12 million tons pollute the oceans. So far there is no effective way to get rid of it, but a new study suggests an answer may lie in the stomachs of some hungry worms.
Researchers in Spain and England recently found that the worms of the greater wax moth can break down polyethylene, which accounts for 40% of plastics. The team left 100 wax worms on a commercial polyethylene shopping bag for 12 hours, and the worms consumed and broke down about 92 milligrams, or almost 3% of it. To confirm that the worms' chewing alone was not responsible for the polyethylene breakdown, the researchers made some worms into paste(糊状物) and applied it to plastic films. 14 hours later the films had lost 13% of their mass — apparently broken down by enzymes (酶) from the worms' stomachs. Their findings were published in Current Biology in 2017.
Federica Bertocchini, co-author of the study, says the worms' ability to break down their everyday food — beeswax — also allows them to break down plastic. ＂Wax is a complex mixture, but the basic bond in polyethylene, the carbon-carbon bond, is there as well, ＂she explains, ＂The wax worm evolved a method or system to break this bond. ＂
Jennifer DeBruyn, a microbiologist at the University of Tennessee, who was not involved in the study, says it is not surprising that such worms can break down polyethylene. But compared with previous studies, she finds the speed of breaking down in this one exciting. The next step, DeBruyn says, will be to identify the cause of the breakdown. Is it an enzyme produced by the worm itself or by its gut microbes(肠道微生物)?
Bertocchini agrees and hopes her team's findings might one day help employ the enzyme to break down plastics in landfills. But she expects using the chemical in some kind of industrial process — not simply ＂millions of worms thrown on top of the plastic.＂
（1）What can we learn about the worms in the study?
A. They take plastics as their everyday food. B. They are newly evolved creatures.
C. They can consume plastics. D. They wind up in landfills.
（2）According to Jennifer DeBruyn, the next step of the study is to .
A. identify other means of the breakdown B. find out the source of the enzyme
C. confirm the research findings D. increase the breakdown speed
（3）It can be inferred from the last paragraph that the chemical might .
A. help to raise worms B. help make plastic bags
C. be used to clean the oceans D. be produced in factories in future
（4）What is the main purpose of the passage?
A. To explain a study method on worms. B. To introduce the diet of a special worm.
C. To present a way to break down plastics. D. To propose new means to keep eco-balance.
Preparing Cities for Robot Cars
The possibility of self-driving robot cars has often seemed like a futurist's dream, years away from materializing in the real world. Well, the future is apparently now. The California Department of Motor Vehicles began giving permits in April for companies to test truly self-driving cars on public roads. The state also cleared the way for companies to sell or rent out self-driving cars, and for companies to operate driverless taxi services. California, it should be noted, isn't leading the way here. Companies have been testing their vehicles in cities across the country. It's hard to predict when driverless cars will be everywhere on our roads. But however long it takes, the technology has the potential to change our transportation systems and our cities, for better or for worse, depending on how the transformation is regulated.
While much of the debate so far has been focused on the safety of driverless cars(and rightfully so), policymakers also should be talking about how self-driving vehicles can help reduce traffic jams, cut emissions(排放) and offer more convenient, affordable mobility options. The arrival of driverless vehicles is a chance to make sure that those vehicles are environmentally friendly and more shared.
Do we want to copy — or even worsen — the traffic of today with driverless cars? Imagine a future where most adults own individual self-driving vehicles. They tolerate long, slow journeys to and from work on packed highways because they can work, entertain themselves or sleep on the ride, which encourages urban spread. They take their driverless car to an appointment and set the empty vehicle to circle the building to avoid paying for parking. Instead of walking a few blocks to pick up a child or the dry cleaning, they send the self-driving minibus. The convenience even leads fewer people to take public transport — an unwelcome side effect researchers have already found in ride-hailing(叫车) services.
A study from the University of California at Davis suggested that replacing petrol-powered private cars worldwide with electric, self-driving and shared systems could reduce carbon emissions from transportation 80% and cut the cost of transportation infrastructure(基础设施) and operations 40% by 2050. Fewer emissions and cheaper travel sound pretty appealing. The first commercially available driverless cars will almost certainly be fielded by ride-hailing services, considering the cost of self-driving technology as well as liability and maintenance issues(责任与维护问题). But driverless car ownership could increase as the prices drop and more people become comfortable with the technology.
Policymakers should start thinking now about how to make sure the appearance of driverless vehicles doesn't extend the worst aspects of the car-controlled transportation system we have today. The coming technological advancement presents a chance for cities and states to develop transportation systems designed to move more people, and more affordably. The car of the future is coming. We just have to plan for it.
（1）According to the author, attention should be paid to how driverless cars can __________.
A. help deal with transportation-related problems B. provide better services to customers
C. cause damage to our environment D. make some people lose jobs
（2）As for driverless cars, what is the author's major concern?
A. Safety. B. Side effects. C. Affordability. D. Management.
（3）What does the underlined word ＂fielded＂ in Paragraph 4 probably mean?
A. Employed. B. Replaced. C. Shared. D. Reduced.
（4）What is the author's attitude to the future of self-driving cars?
A. Doubtful. B. Positive. C. Disapproving. D. Sympathetic.
21.（2018•北京）任务型阅读Why Do We Get Angry?
Anger seems simple when we are feeling it, but the causes of anger are various. Knowing these causes can make us examine our behavior, and correct bad habits. The main reasons we get angry are triggering（触发）events, personality traits（特征）, and our assessment of situations. ________
Triggering events for anger are so many that to describe them all would take hundreds of pages. However, here are some examples: being cut off in traffic, a deadline approaching, experiencing physical pain, and much more.________ The reason why someone is triggered by something and others are not is often due to one's personal history and psychological traits.
Each person, no matter who they are, has psychological imbalances. People who have personality traits that connect with competitiveness and low upset tolerance are much more likely to get angry. ________ Also, sometimes pre-anger does not have to do with a lasting condition, but rather a temporary state before a triggering event has occurred.
________Sometimes even routine occurrences become sources of pre-anger, or anger itself. Sometimes ignorance and negative (消极的) outlooks on situations can create anger.
________However, anger can easily turn violent, and it is best to know the reasons for anger to appear in order to prevent its presence. With these main reasons in mind, we can evaluate our level of anger throughout the day and prevent cases of outbursts by comprehending the reasons for our feelings.
A. Our attitude and viewpoint on situations can create anger within us as well.
B. But some types of situations can help us to get rid of the occurrence of anger.
C. Anger is rarely looked upon as a beneficial character trait, and is usually advised to reduce it.
D. Anger is a particularly strong feeling and maybe people think that they have reasons to feel angry.
E. Having these personality traits implies the pre-anger state, where anger is in the background of your mind.
F. Understanding these reasons will control our own anger if we are willing to evaluate ourselves with a critical eye.
G. Not everyone acts the same in response to events, and that is why what triggers one person may or may not trigger another.
【解析】【分析】句意：Susan已经辞去那份报酬丰厚的工作，去年我去看她的时候她正在社区当志愿者。句中的when I visited her last year确定了过去的某一时间点，所以此处表示当时动作正在进行，所以用过去进行时。故答案为B。
【解析】【分析】句意：中国的高铁在过去的今年中从9000千米增加到25000千米。in the past/last+时间，是现在完成时的标志，故答案为B。
【点评】考查现在完成时，牢记现在完成时的标志词：since；for+时间段；already；ever；never；so far；in the past/last+时间。
【解析】【分析】句意：---早上好，这是李先生的办公室。---早上好，我想约下周三下午。短语：make an appointment for为……预约。故答案为A。
【解析】【分析】句意：这是我爸爸所教给我的——要直面困难心怀希望。这是表语从句，根据teach sb sth可知从句中缺少直接宾语，所以用what引导。how怎样；which哪一个；that无意义也补充当从句的成分，故答案为D。
(1) C句意： 对很多人而言，找到一个装满400英镑现金且无人看管的钱包都会是种诱惑。而这种欲望对于无家可归、既没食物又没钱的人而言，无疑会更加强烈。A、hope希望； B、aim目标； C、urge强烈的欲望；D、effort努力。有空格前的the可知此处前文提到的temptation（诱惑），所以此处选择其近义词urge（强烈的欲望），故答案为C。
(2) B 句意：这一切使得无家可归的Tom Smith的举动更为不同寻常，引人注目。A、still 仍然； B、even甚至；C、ever曾经；D、once曾经；此处修饰比较级，表示强调，故答案为B。
(3) A 句意：在发现了在一个没有关窗子的停着的汽车的前排座位上的钱包后，他站在雨中差不多两个小时守护着钱包等着主人归来。A、wallet 钱包；B、bag包；C、box盒子；D、parcel包裹。根据第一句提到的an unattended wallet filled with £400 in cash可知是钱包，故答案为A。
(4) C句意：他站在雨中差不多两个小时守护着钱包等着主人归来。 A、partner搭档；B、colleague同事；C、owner主人；D、policeman警察；守护着钱包，当然是等它的“owner”，故答案为C。
(5) D 句意：在寒冷的雨中几个小时后，他把手伸进车里拿出钱包，希望能找到身份证，这样他就可以联系司机了。A、turned转身；B、hid躲藏；C、stepped迈步；D、reached伸手。钱包在车的前排座位上，想要拿到当然需要“伸手”，故答案为D。
(6) A 句意：却发现里面有400英镑的钞票，旁边还有50英镑的零钱。A、discover发现；B、collect收集；C、check检查；核对；D、believe相信。打开钱包，“发现”里面有钱，故答案为A。
(7) B 句意：然后，他在留下一张便条告诉车主钱包安全，便带着钱包去了附近的警察局。A、taking带走；B、leaving留下；C、reading读；D、writing写。短语：leave a note/message留便条，故答案为B。
(8) D 句意：当车主和同事回到位于格拉斯哥市中心价值35000英镑的汽车停放的位置时，他们惊讶地发现有两个警察站在车的旁边。A、satisfied满意的；B、excited兴奋的；C、amused好笑的；D、shocked震惊的。没有违法却招来了警察，所以感到“震惊”，故答案为D。
(10) C 句意：后来这两个人能够感谢史密斯先生的善意之举。A、service服务；B、support支持；C、kindness善行；D、encouragement鼓励；此处指前面提到帮助保护钱包的行为，故答案为C。
(11) A句意：既然到他本可以偷了钱并且花钱让自己找一个地方住一晚，但是他今晚还是住在大街上。A、when 考虑到；既然；B、if 如果；C、where哪里；D、because因为；此处是对史密斯拾金不昧的行为的评价，根据句意，故答案为A。
(15) D 句意：史密斯先生的行为吸引了公众大量关注。A、gave给；B、paid支付；C、cast投掷；D、drew吸引。短语：draw one's attention吸引人的注意，故答案为D。
(18) D句意：我想每个人对他表现出的信任已经感动了他。show/have faith in对……信任；故答案为D。
⑴细节理解。根据题干中的a month before the marathon可知答案在第一段，由最后一句Yet, I was determined to go ahead可知作者决定参加比赛，故答案为C。
⑵细节理解。将题干中的P.E. class in his 7th year定位在第二段，作者自己在7年纪的时候做得不是很好，后来被老师认为不是一个擅长运动的人，并且第三段提到老师的not athletic一直影响着他，故答案为C。
⑶细节理解。从文章倒数第二段 I was one of the final runners to finish. But I finished! And I got a medal可知作者坚持到最后，终于做到了，故答案为A。
⑷主旨大意。这是一篇记叙文，在最后一段点题：Determined to be myself, move forward, free of shame and worldly labels(世俗标签), I can now call myself a ＂marathon winner＂可知，作者是一个意志坚定，通过不懈努力，最终获得了成功的胜利者，故答案为B。
【解析】【分析】这是一篇广告，介绍一个寻求冒险的乐园—— Space and Aviation Center (SAC)。
⑴细节理解。根据第一句 If you're looking for a unique adventure, the Space and Aviation Center (SAC) is the place to be可在SAC的目的是为了体验冒险的经历，故答案为A。
⑵细节理解。题干中的Space Exploration badge和trainee 定位在第三段第二句At Space Camp, trainees can earn their Space Exploration badge as they build and fire model rockets，故答案为D。
⑶细节理解。根据第四段With all the programs, teamwork is key as trainees learn the importance of leadership and being part of a bigger task可知，对于受训者来说，团队精神与协作是最为重要的，故答案为B。
⑴细节理解。将题干中的worms in the study定位在第二段第二句，the worms consumed and broke down about 92 milligrams可知这些虫子吃塑料，故答案为C。
⑵细节理解。将题干中的关键词Jennifer DeBruyn定位在第四段，找到the next step出现在倒数第二句The next step, DeBruyn says, will be to identify the cause of the breakdown，可知，下一步将是确定这种分解的原因，即找到酶的来源，故答案为B。
⑶推理判断。确定题干中chemical最后一段的最后一句 But she expects using the chemical in some kind of industrial process — not simply ＂millions of worms thrown on top of the plastic.，可知，她期望把化学物质用于某种工业生产中，而不是仅仅把虫子扔到塑料上，故答案为D。
⑴细节理解。题干中的attention should be paid to可被定位到第二段第一句much of the debate so far has been focused on the safety of driverless cars中，可知人们关注的是无人汽车的安全问题，另外在下文中提到的减少交通拥堵、减少尾气排放以及提供更加便捷的经济的选择都是“与交通相关的问题”，故答案为A。
⑵细节理解。根据第一段But however long it takes, the technology has the potential to change our transportation systems and our cities, for better or for worse, depending on how the transformation is regulated可知，技术对于交通系统和城市的改变是更好还是更差取决于这种转换如何被管理。regulate管理，是manage的同义词，故答案为D。
⑷观点态度。doubtful怀疑的；positive积极的；disapproving不赞成的；sympathetic同情的。文章最后一句话The car of the future is coming. We just have to plan for it（未来的汽车即将到来，我们得为之做好计划）说明未来无人驾驶汽车是不可阻挡的趋势，所以作者是积极的态度，故答案为B。
⑴F 此空位于段尾，所以重在理解前文。由The main reasons we get angry are triggering（触发）events可知此处列举产生愤怒的原因，与F中的Understanding these reasons 向呼应，故答案为F。
⑵G 后一句说明的是一些人容易受到触发事件影响而他人不会受到影响的原因与个人历史以及心理特征有关，选项G中的what triggers one person may or may not trigger another与someone is triggered by something and others are not is often due to one's personal history and psychological traits相对应，故答案为G。
⑶E 前一句说明了某性格特征的人更容易生气，E中的Having these personality traits与空格前一句中的personality traits一致，故答案为E。
⑸D 根据后一句的However可知本句话与后一句构成转折关系。anger can easily turn violent意思是愤怒能很容易变得暴力，所以D选项中的maybe people think that they have reasons to feel angry与之互为转折，故答案为D。
I'm so glad to hear your future education plan in Beijing in your last letter. First I would like to express my warmest welcome to you and I am sure you will have the most unforgettable experience during your college in Beijing.
Learning your keen interest in Chinese culture, I suggest you apply for Peking University, one of the best universities in China. Its Chinese Literature major is perfect for you where you can be completely soaked in Chinese profound history and rich culture. As for preparation, some reading in advance in needed like The Story of the Stone while some online courses of spoken Chinese can be helpful for you to adapt into the Chinese language environment.
I sincerely hope your dream will come true and it's my pleasure to show you around in Beijing when that day comes. If you have further questions, please feel free to let me know.
23.【答案】 Last week, we took the foreign students in our school to experience the authentic tea culture, which turned out be to extremely rewarding.
On arriving at the tea house, the foreign students were impressed by the unique tea pots and tea cups. I gave them a vivid and informative introduction of tea culture, including its profound history, its rich variety, and the exquisite craftsmanship of making tea with their interest greatly sparked, I then began to teach them how to make tea.
In order to deliver a clear presentation, I slowly explained the traditional procedure of making tea in detail. Absorbed in every move of mine, the foreign students were once again amazed by this unique culture and they couldn't help taking pictures from time to time.
Next came the moment when I asked them to have a try themselves. Washing the tea pots, adding tea leaves, and pouring water into the cups, they followed my instructions and were really immersed in charming tea culture. The tea house witnessed a really enjoyable time for all of us.
At the end of the activity, holding the tea bags in our hands, we took a picture to memorize the unforgettable day. It suddenly hit me that traditional culture like tea culture was of great charm and huge value. And I swelled with pride to spread our own culture to people all over the world.