2018版高考英语专题限时集训完形填空——说明文

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2018版高考英语专题限时集训完形填空——说明文

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课件 w ww.5 y kj.Co m 专题限时集训(二十) 完形填空——说明文
(对应学生用书第129页)
A 【导学号:52384073】
(2016•湖北八校联考)Most people are poor listeners.Even when we think we are listening carefully,we usually   1   only half of what we hear,and we remember even  less.Improving your listening skills can be   2   in every  part of your life.
The most important   3   of poor listening is giving in  to distractions (分心的事物) and letting our thoughts   4  .Sometimes,however,we listen too   5  .We try to  remember every word a speaker says,and we lose the   6    message by concentrating on details.In other situations,we  may jump to conclusions and   7   a speaker without hearing out the message.Finally,we often judge people by their   8   or speaking manner   9   listening to what they say.
You can   10   these poor listening habits by taking  several steps.First,take listening   11   and commit yourself to becoming a better listener.Second,work at being a(n)   12   listener.Give your undivided attention to the speaker  in a genuine effort to   13   her or his ideas.Third,  14    distractions.Make a conscious effort to keep your mind on  what the speaker is saying.Fourth,try not to be   15   by appearance or delivery.  16   preconceived (事先形成的) judgments based on a person's looks or manner of speech.Fifth,suspend (延缓) judgment   17   you have heard the speaker's entire message.Sixth,  18   your listening by paying attention to main points,to evidence,and to the speaker's  techniques.Finally,develop  your  note­taking skills.When done   19  ,note taking is an excellent way to improve your concentration and to keep track of a speaker's   20  .It almost forces you to become a more attentive and creative listener.
【语篇解读】 本文是说明文。文章介绍了如何才能成为一名好的倾听者。
1.A.grasp        B.realize
C.believe D.choose
A [根据上文的“poor listeners”及下文的“remember even less”可知,即便认真去听,我们通常也只能“领会(grasp)”所听到的一半内容。]
2.A.difficult B.helpful
C.possible   D.practical
B [下文介绍的是提高听力技能的方法,所以此处指提高听力技能对生活的方方面面都有“帮助(helpful)”。]
3.A.role  B.factor
C.function  D.cause
D [容易受干扰是听力差的最重要的“原因(cause)”。]
4.A.pass   B.wander
C.stop  D.stay
B [根据上文的“giving in to distractions(分心的事情)”可知,此处指思绪“乱飞(wander)”。]
5.A.long   B.clearly
C.hard   D.passively
C [根据下文的“We try to remember every word”可知,有时,我们听不好是因为听得“过于认真(hard)”了。]
6.A.main  B.new
C.useful D.hidden
A [根据下文的“concentrating on details”可知,此处指没抓住“主要(main)”信息。]
7.A.prejudge B.ignore
C.doubt  D.leave
A [根据下文的“without hearing out the message”可知,没听完对方说什么,就“妄下结论(prejudge)”。]
8.A.words   B.speed
C.behavior  D.appearance
D [根据speaking manner可知,人们经常通过“外表(appearance)”或说话方式,“而不是(instead of)”对方所讲的内容来评价一个人。下一段的“looks or manner of speech”也是提示。]
9.A.due to   B.along with
C.instead of     D.except for
C [参见上题解析。]
10.A.pick up B.give up
C.take up   D.put up
B [下文提到的方法都是帮助大家“改掉(give up)”不良听力习惯的。]
11.A.seriously B.naturally
C.personally   D.wrongly
A [根据下文的“commit yourself”可知,听别人说话时应该“认真(seriously)”。take sth. seriously“严肃认真地对待某事”。]
12.A.clever  B.active
C.free   D.powerful
B [根据下文中的“undivided attention”和“genuine effort”可知,我们应该做一个“积极的(active)”倾听者,努力去“听懂(understand)”对方要表达的意思。]
13.A.test B.support
C.understand  D.discuss
C [参见上题解析。]
14.A.consider B.share
C.watch   D.resist
D [根据下文的“keep your mind on what the speaker is saying”可知,倾听时需要“抵制(resist)”干扰。]
15.A.affected  B.puzzled
C.replaced D.persuaded
A [根据上一段及下文中的“judgments based on a person's looks or manner of speech”可知,此处是说不要被外表等因素“影响(affected)”,把那些事先形成的判断都“抛到一边(Set aside)”。]
16.A.Set aside  B.Set down
C.Set off   D.Set out
A [参见上题解析。]
17.A.though  B.when
C.until   D.since
C [要“一直等到(until)”对方说完再下结论。]
18.A.check  B.focus
C.organize D.monitor
B [根据下文的“main points”可知,此处指要“集中(focus)”精力去听。]
19.A.eagerly    B.secretly
C.slowly  D.properly
D [只有记笔记的方法“得当(properly)”,它才能在听力中发挥积极的作用。]
20.A.questions B.plans
C.ideas  D.changes
C [记笔记当然是为了记录说话者的“观点(ideas)”。]
B
Sometimes we talk about a very simple term—like the word “take”.But“take” is not as simple as it   21  .In fact,the Oxford English Dictionary calls it one of the “elemental words of the English language”.
Many expressions using the   22   “take” first appeared in American English   23   ago and have not changed at all.For example,the   24   Etymology Online says the saying “take it or leave it” was first used in the late 19th century.But you can   25   this phrase commonly used in many   26   situations.
The phrase  “to take it out on someone or something” means “to   27   anger at someone or something”.It is  a   28   of misplaced anger.Another website says this expression was first   29   in 1840.
Let's say your friend who lost his job.He is   30   and shouts at you for something unrelated.You can say to him,“Look,I   31   you're upset.But don't take it out on me.I didn't   32   you!”
Taking it out on someone is very different from having give­and­take with someone.Give­and­take is the process that   33   sides go through to reach a(n)   34  .It's a compromise.Both sides   35   something they want but also take something they want.Give­and­take can   36   mean the act of exchanging ideas or comments.
If you are simply taken by someone,you either show complete respect for or are   37   in love with the person.  38  ,“She is really taken by the new man in the office.He is all she talks about!”
So,do you see what we   39  ?The word “take” has so many   40  .You can take our word for it.That means you can trust us.
【语篇解读】 本文是一篇说明文,主要介绍了单词“take”所涉及的一些短语的用法。
21.A.appears B.sounds
C.speaks D.feels
B [根据上文提到的“Sometimes we talk about a very simple term”可知,有时候我们谈论一个非常简单的术语,但是“take”这个词并不像它听起来那么简单。故选B项。]
22.A.situation B.period
C.word  D.sentence
C [许多的词组都使用了“take”这个英语单词。故选C项。]
23.A.months  B.weeks
C.hours D.years
D [根据下文的“the saying ‘take it or leave it’was first used in the late 19th century”可知,使用“take”的词组首次出现在美国英语中是在数年前。故选D项。]
24.A.website  B.organization
C.department            D.business
A [根据空后的“Etymology Online”以及下文的“Another website says”可知,这是一个网站。故选A项。]
25.A.present  B.find
C.call  D.consider
B [但是你能发现这个短语普遍被使用在许多不同情境中。present“呈献”;find“发现”;call“称呼”;consider“认为”。故选B项。]
26.A.interesting B.strange
C.different D.amazing
C [参见上题解析。]
27.A.share B.stop
C.make D.express
D [根据下文的“misplaced anger”可知,此处表示该短语意思是“向某人或某物表达怒气”。故选D项。]
28.A.sign  B.level
C.symbol D.response
A [根据下文的“He is   30   and shouts at you for something unrelated”可知,你的朋友因不相关的事情冲你发火,这是一种不适宜的怒火的标志(sign)。故选A项。level“水平”,symbol“象征”,response“回答”,均与语境不符。]
29.A.kept    B.used
C.formed    D.developed
B [因为上文中提到了含有take的许多短语第一次被使用的时间,由此可推断此处表示短语“to take it out on someone or something”第一次被使用的时间。故选B项。]
30.A.surprised B.curious
C.angry   D.shy
C [根据上文的“Let's say your friend who lost his job”和空后的“shouts at you for something unrelated”可知,此处表示“他生气并且因为不相关的事情向你大吼”。所以选C项。]
31.A.mind  B.follow
C.get   D.know
D [根据下文的“But don't take it out on me”可知,此处表示“我知道你心烦。但是你别冲我发火”。故选D项。]
32.A.fire B.ignore
C.hurt  D.cheat
A [因为上文提到朋友失去了工作,所以此处应表示“不要向我发火,我没有解雇你”。故选A项。]
33.A.opposing   B.kind
C.operating D.distant
A [根据下文的“It's a compromise”可知,互相忍让是一种妥协。由此可推断,互相忍让的双方是对立的。故选A项。]
34.A.conclusion           B.agreement
C.point   D.decision
B [互相忍让是对立的双方所经历的一个达成协议的过程。下文中的“It's a compromise”是提示。故选B项。]
35.A.take up B.give off
C.give up D.take off
C [根据上文的“give­and­take”以及下文的“but also take something they want”可知,此处应表示“双方放弃他们想要的一些东西也获取了他们想要的一些东西”。give up意为“放弃”,故选C项。take up“从事,占据”;give off“发出(光、热、声音等)”;take off“起飞,匆匆脱下”。]
36.A.yet   B.still
C.ever   D.also
D [此处表达的是“give­and­take”的另一层意思,与上文形成并列关系,故选D项。]
37.A.initially  B.recently
C.totally D.finally
C [根据空前的“you either show complete respect for or”可知,你或者表达对某人的完全尊重或者完全爱上某人。故选C项。]
38.A.For sure             B.In addition
C.In fact D.For example
D [此处是举例说明短语“taken by someone”的意思。故选D项。]
39.A.plan  B.mean
C.buy    D.study
B [根据下文的“That means you can trust us”可知,此处表示“你明白我们的意思了吗”。故选B项。]
40.A.uses B.stories
C.ways   D.deeds
A [从上文的内容可知,单词“take”被用于许多的短语中,因此此处表示“单词take有许多的用法”。故选A项。]
C
Trees play a vital part in keeping the balance of the ecosystem.Cutting too many trees for urban use and  other  purposes  does  great  harm  to  the environmental   41  .It is needless to say that deforestation (砍伐树林) has   42   effects on the environment.
One of the major disadvantages of deforestation is that it   43   the water cycle.Trees are   44   for drawing water from the soil and releasing moisture (水分) into the atmosphere.Deforestation disturbs the water cycle and makes the environment   45  .Climate change is a (n)   46   of cutting down too many trees.
Burning of forests   47   a large amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases,which are known for trapping atmospheric heat,  48   increasing the average temperature of the earth surface.The rise in the average temperature of our planet is bound to   49   sea level.Global warming has already begun causing the   50   of the ice at the poles,thus adding to the rise in sea level.
Animals   51   trees or other plants.By cutting down trees,we   52   animals of their sources of food and cause the destruction of animal life.It can lead to the   53   of a variety of animal species.Global warming that is largely caused by deforestation   54   endangers plants and animals.
It is believed that the use of fossil   55  —oil and gas—causes global warming.But research has revealed that deforestation is one of its major   56  .It is the main reason behind the   57   of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere,  58   to the greenhouse effect.So,we need to show greater   59   for deforestation.We need to take measures to   60   deforestation  so  that  we  can  hope  for  a  better environment.
【语篇解读】 本文是说明文。砍伐树林会对环境、生态、气候等造成很大破坏。因此我们应该采取措施保护树林。
41.A.balance B.pollution
C.damage  D.science
A [根据上文中的“keeping the balance of the ecosystem”可知,大量砍伐树木会对环境的平衡造成极大的破坏。]
42.A.positive  B.extra
C.various   D.magical
C [联系下文中的“One of the major disadvantages of deforestation”可知,砍伐树林对环境造成了各种各样的(various)破坏。]
43.A.completes B.repeats
C.benefits D.destroys
D [结合空前的“the major disadvantages”可知,砍伐树林会破坏水循环。故选D。]
44.A.famous               B.responsible
C.ready    D.possible
B [从下文内容可知,树木负责从土壤中汲取水分,并向空气中释放。故选B。]
45.A.drier B.warmer
C.colder D.cooler
A [根据上文内容可知,砍伐树林破坏了水循环,环境会变得更加干燥。]
46.A.outcome             B.example
C.movement   D.reward
A [联系空后的“of cutting down too many trees”可知,气候的变化是砍伐太多的树木的结果(outcome)。]
47.A.gets rid of           B.results in
C.makes use of         D.takes over
B [从空后的“a large amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases”可知,焚烧森林导致了大量的二氧化碳和其他温室气体的产生。result in“导致,造成”。]
48.A.hardly               B.meanwhile
C.thus D.instead
C [空后的“increasing the average temperature of the earth surface”是空前的结果,故选C。thus“因此,因而”。]
49.A.lower  B.keep
C.reach D.raise
D [根据下文中的“adding to the rise in sea level”可知,地球平均温度的升高会导致海平面的上升。]
50.A.melting B.recycling
C.freezing D.burning
A [全球变暖引起两极冰雪的融化(melting),导致海平面上升。]
51.A.cut down B.live on
C.climb up D.turn over
B [结合下文中的“By cutting down trees,we   52   animals of their sources of food and cause the destruction of animal life”可知,动物以树木或其他植物为生。]
52.A.rob    B.remind
C.inform  D.accuse
A [从空后的“of their sources of food”可知,人类砍伐树木使动物丧失了食物来源。rob...of...“使……丧失……,剥夺”。]
53.A.protection B.extinction
C.satisfaction D.civilization
B [食物资源的丧失会导致很多动物物种的灭绝。]
54.A.never   B.barely
C.further D.hardly
C [依据上文的描述可知,很大程度上因为砍伐树林而造成的全球变暖会进一步危害动植物。]
55.A.plants  B.animals
C.fuels D.stones
C [联系空后的“oil and gas—causes global warming”可知,此处指矿物燃料的使用。]
56.A.purposes  B.interests
C.effects  D.causes
D [无论是矿物燃料的使用还是砍伐树林,它们都是全球变暖的原因。]
57. A.fall B.difference
C.balance D.rise
D [砍伐树林是温室气体增加的主要原因,也是温室效应产生的原因。]
58.A.referring             B.leading
C.exposing            D.appealing
B [从空后的“to the greenhouse effect”可知,温室气体导致了温室效应。lead to“导致”,符合语境。]
59.A.potential            B.concern
C.confidence  D.spirit
B [结合空前的“we need to show greater”和空后的deforestation可知,我们应该对砍伐树林给予更大的关注(concern)。]
60.A.advocate            B.ignore
C.discover D.prevent
D [联系空后的deforestation可知,我们要采取措施阻止砍伐树林。] 文 章
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