Benjamin West,the father of American painting,showed his talent for art when he was only six years of age.But he did not know about brushes before a visitor told him he needed one.In those days,a brush was made from camel’s hair.There were no camels nearby.Benjamin decided that cat hair would work instead.He cut some fur from the family cat to make a brush.
The brush did not last long.Soon Benjamin needed more fur.Before long,the cat began to look ragged(蓬乱).His father said that the cat must be sick.Benjamin was forced to admit what he had been doing.
The cat’s lot was about to improve.That year,one of Benjamin’s cousins,Mr.Pennington,came to visit.He was impressed with Benjamin’s drawings.When he went home,he sent Benjamin a box of paint and some brushes.He also sent six engravings(版画) by an artist.These were the first pictures and first real paint and brushes Benjamin had ever seen.
In 1747,when Benjamin was nine years old,Mr.Pennington returned for another visit.He was amazed at what Benjamin had done with his gift.He asked Benjamin’s parents if he might take the boy back to Philadelphia for a visit.
In the city,Mr.Pennington gave Benjamin materials for creating oil paintings.The boy began a landscape(风景) painting.William Williams,a well-known painter,came to see him work.Williams was impressed with Benjamin and gave him two classic books on painting to take home.The books were long and dull.Benjamin could read only a little,having been a poor student.But he later said,“Those two books were my companions by day,and under my pillow at night.”While it is likely that he unders tood very little of the books,they were his introduction to classical paintings.The nine-year-old boy decided then that he would be an artist.
1.What is the text mainly about?
A.Benjamin’s visit to Philadelphia.
B.Williams’ influence on Benjamin.
C.The beginning of Benjamin’s life as an artist.
D.The friendship between Benjamin and Pennington.
2.What does the underlined sentence in paragraph 3 suggest?
A.The cat would be closely watched.
B.The cat would get some medical care.
C.Benjamin would leave his home shortly.
D.Benjamin would have real brushes soon.
3.What did Pennington do to help Benjamin develop his talent?
A.He took him to see painting exhibitions.
B.He provided him with painting materials.
C.He sent him to a school in Philadelphia.
D.He taught him how to make engravings.
4.Williams’ two books helped Benjamin to .
A.master the use of paints
B.appreciate landscape paintings
C.get to know other painters
D.make up his mind to be a painter
It’s surprising how much simple movement of the body can affect the way we think.Using expansive gestures with open arms makes us feel more powerful,crossing your arms makes you more determined and lying down can bring more insights(领悟).
So if moving the body can have these effects,what about the clothes we wear?We’re all well aware of how dressing up in different ways can make us feel more attractive,sporty or professional,depending on the clothes we wear,but can the clothes actually change cognitive(认知的) performance or is it just a feeling?
Adam and Galinsky tested the effect of simply wearing a white lab coat on people’s powers of attention.The idea is that white coats are associated with scientists,who are in turn thought to have close attention to detail.
What they found was that people wearing white coats performed better than those who weren’t.Indeed,they made only half as many errors as those wearing their own clothes on the Stroop Test(one way of measuring attention).The researchers call the effect “enclothed cognition,” suggesting that all manner of different clothes probably affect our cognition in many different ways.
This opens the way for all sorts of clothes-based experiments.Is the writer who wears a fedora more creative?Is the psychologist wearing little round glasses and smoking a cigar more insightful?Does a chef’s hat make the restaurant food taste better?
From now on I will only be editing articles for PsyBlog while wearing a white coat to help keep the typing error count low.Hopefully you will be doing your part by reading PsyBlog in a cap and gown(学位服).
5.What is the main idea of the text?
A.Body movements change the way people think.
B.How people dress has an influence on their feelings.
C.What people wear can affect their cognitive performance.
D.People doing different jobs should wear differ ent clothes.
6.Adam and Galinsky’s experiment tested the effect of clothes on their wearers’ .
7.How does the author sound in the last paragraph?
D o yo u feel lucky?You probab ly don’t.You may think you’ve got where you are today through willpower and hard work.We tend to overlook luck’s role,and this seems to get worse the richer we get;surveys show that the wealthiest are least likely to owe their fortunes to good fortune.Many such people oppose taxation(税收) and government spending:why should others get a handout(救济品) if they don’t need one?More often than not,they vote against the very policies that helped them get lucky to begin with.In a recent Atlantic essay,Robert Frank,an economist who has studied attitudes to chance,quoted(引用) EB White:“Luck is not something you can mention in the presence of self-made men.”
However,if we see this just as a problem of the super-rich people,we may let the rest of us off too easily.Anyone living in a highly developed economy in 2016 is already the one who benefits from luck—for example,not living in the modern-day Central African Republic,where few people can live a long life.In fact,we are lucky to have been born human.You might have been a battery hen,or a mayfly with only one day to live.
Our blindnes s to such truths isn’t only because we’re self-absorbed but also we attach more significance to things that are easier to call to mind.It’s not hard to recall c ountless times when you put in the effort to succeed:struggling through university finals,preparing fo r job interviews,tolerating a long-distance travel to work.On the other hand,it’s rather difficult to realize you’re privileged—like not being born in a war zone,or before antibiotics(抗生素),and so forth.
8.What does the underlined sentence in paragraph 1 mean?
A.Self-made men don’t like to be talked about.
B.Successful people owe their achievements to luck.
C.Successful people tend to overlook the role of luck.
D.Self-made m en are more likely to show off their fortune.
9.According to the author,you are fortunate if you are not .
A.struggling through university finals
B.preparing for interviews
C.tolerating a long distance travel
D.living in a war zone
10.Which of the following might be the best title for the text?
A.Luck Is a Blessing
B.We Are Lucky
C.How to Be Lucky
D.Who Is Lucky
3.B 细节理解题。根据第三段中的“...he sent Benjamin a box of paint and some brushes.”以及最后一段中的“In the city,Mr.Pennington gave Benjamin materials for creating oil paintings.”可知,表兄给本杰明提供了画刷等绘画材料来帮助他学习绘画,故选B项。
4.D 细节理解题。根据最后一段中的“...they were his introduction to classical paintings.The nine-year-old boy decided then that he would be an artist.”可知,这两本书对他的影响更多的是在精神方面,而不是知识方面,这两本书坚定了他的梦想,引导着这个九岁的男孩走上了绘画的道路。故选D项。
5.C 主旨大意题。 根据第二段“...but can the clothes actually change cognitive(认知的) performance or is it just a feeling?”及下文所做的实验可知,本文主要讲述着装对人的认知的影响。
6.C 细节理解题。 根据第三段“Adam and Galinsky tested the effect of simply wearing a white lab coat on people’s powers of attention.”及第四段“Indeed,...on the Stroop Test (one way of measuring attention).”可知,Adam 和Galinsky的实验是测试着装对人们注意力的影响。
7.B 推理判断题。 文章讲述的是着装影响人的认知表现,最后一段作者说自己以后要穿白大褂上班编辑文章,以减少打字错误。他希望读者也能穿上学位服阅读PsyBlog的文章。由此可推断出作者是用一种幽默的语气调侃着装认知理论。
8.C 推理判断题。根据第一段 中“You may think you’ve got where you are today through willpower and hard work.We tend to overlook luck’s role,and this seems to get worse the richer we get;surveys show that the wealthiest are least likely to owe their fortunes to good fortune.”可知,很多成功人士会把自己的成功归功于毅力和付出,而往往忽视运气的成分。故选C项。