II .Grammar and Vocabulary
I was standing in the checkout line behind a woman who looked to be in __21__ 60s. When it was her turn to pay, the cashier greeted her by name and asked her how she was doing.
The woman looked down, ___22___（shake）her head and said:“Not so good.”My husband just lost his job and my son is up to his old tricks again. The truth is, I don’t know how I’m going to get through the holidays.”
Then she gave the cashier food stamps.
My heart ached. I wanted to help but didn’t know how.（23）______I offer to pay for her groceries or ask for her husband’s resume?
As I walked into the parking lot, I saw the women ___（24）（return）her shopping cart. I remembered something in my purse（25）________I thought could help her. It wasn’t a handful of cash or an offer of a job for her husband, but maybe it would make her life better.
My heart pounded as I approached the woman.
“Excuse me,”I said, my voice trembling a bit.“I couldn’t help overhearing what you said to the cashier. It sounds like you’re going through a really hard time right now. I’m so sorry. I’d like to give you something.”
I handed her the small card from my purse.
When the woman read the card’s only two words, she began to cry. And through her tears, she said：“You have no idea（26）_______ this means to me.”
I was a little startled by her reply.（27）________（not do）anything like this before, I didn’t know what kind of reaction I might receive. All left for me (28)_______（say）was：“Oh. Would it be OK to give you a hug?”
（29）________we embraced, I walked back to my car --and began to cry, too.
The words on the card?
A few weeks earlier, a colleague gave me a similar card（30）____ encouragement for a project I was working on. When I read the card, I felt a warm glow spread inside of me. Deeply touched, I came home and ordered my own box of You Matter card and started sharing them.
A. technology B. contemporary C. stretched D. hidden E. recognized
F. discovery G. updated H. extensive I. countless J. estimated K. definition
Most of us learn at primary school that there are seven continents, but the next generation of kids may be adding one more to that list.
According to a recent paper published in the Geological Society of American Journal by a group of researchers,“Zealandia” is a new continent that’s ___31___ beneath the ocean.
Zealandia is ___32___ to be five million sq km. Most of this massive area is covered by water, but its highest mountains already have their own name：New Zealand.
The small country is the only part of Zealandia that isn’t underwater, but the paper’s authors want the huge landmass to be ___33___ worldwide as its own continent.
“The scientific value of classifying Zealandia as a continent is much more than just an extra name on a list,”the researchers wrote in their paper.
Scientists discovered Zealandia all the way back in 1995, then started ___34___ research on the area using underwater and satellite mapping ___35___. After completing their work, they were finally able to write a report suggesting that Zealandia be named a continent.
But who decides on what is a continent and what isn’t? There is, in fact, no official organization that does. Some countries’ schools teach that there are six or even five continents. This changes depending on where in the world school is.
Due to their __36__ as a “continuous expanse of land”,some classify Europe and Asia as the same continent -- known as Eurasia. Schools in Russia and parts of Eastern Europe teach this.
And to make things even more confusing, France and Greece, as well as other countries, classify North America and South America as simply America.
This argument over how land is defined has even ___37___ into outer space. In 2006, the International Astronomical Union（IAU）decided that Pluto was no longer a planet, 76 years after its ___38___ in 1930. Experts argued that it no longer met the requirements needed to be called a planet alongside the eight others in our solar system. It was therefore renamed a “dwarf planet（矮行星）”，meaning that ___39___ books, models and museum exhibits all over the world had to be ___40___.
But will the world take the same notice of Zealandia? The best way to tell is to keep an eye on our textbooks.
Good news for awkward teenagers around the world. As time goes by, you could ___41___ up like a completely different person.
This comes from the longest running personality study ever ___42__ by scientist. According to researchers from the University of Edinburgh in the UK, our personality changes so much from youth to old age that most people’s personalities in older age are barely ___43___ compared to their younger selves.
The researchers analyzed results from a study in 1947, which gathered 1,208 teenagers in Scotland aged 14 and asked their teachers to ___44___ their personalities based on six traits（特征） .
Now, more than six decades later, the University of Edinburgh team has managed to contact 635 of the ___45___ students, and 174 agreed to have their personalities tested once more.
At an average age of 76.7 years old, the group were asked to ___46___ themselves on the same six personality traits, then pick a close friend or family member to do the same.
By ___47___ the then-and-now test results, the researchers found that there is hardly any relationship between traits people had as teenagers and those in their older years.
It was “as if the second tests had been given to ___48___ people,”the study’s researchers wrote in their report, which was published in journal Psychology and Aging.
The results were a surprise because research in the past found personality ___49___ in people tested from childhood to middle-age, and from middle-age to older age.
As the team explained, our personality appears stable over short intervals -- ___50___ so throughout adulthood. ___51___, the longer the interval between two tests of personality, the ___52___ the relationship between the two tends to be.
It’s clear that more studies are needed to find out what’s going on here. But it could be the first ___53___ that it’s not just our cells that are being ___54___ throughout life – the way we think, feel and behave might no be as ___55___ as we once thought.
41. A. hold B. wake C. end D. cheer
42. A. carried out B. applied to C. participated in D. made up
43. A. incredible B. accessible C. changeable D. recognizable
44. A. assemble B. assess C. assume D. access
45. A. alternative B. individual C. original D. separate
46. A. score B. rate C. comment D. remark
47. A. comparing B. reviewing C. presenting D. observing
48. A. young B. similar C. amateur D. different
49. A. combination B. stability C. transformation D. flexibility
50. A. increasingly B. strangely C. subsequently D. obviously
51. A. Therefore B. Moreover C. However D. Otherwise
52. A. stronger B. closer C. further D. weaker
53. A. option B. sign C. symptom D. cause
54. A. replaced B. exposed C. divided D. cultivated
55. A. stuck in mud B. buried in sand C. lost in thought D. set in stone
One way people are responding to food safety concerns is by growing their own food. However, not everyone lives on property with enough space for a private plot. One solution is community gardens, which have become popular worldwide, numbering 18,000 in North America alone. In addition to providing low-cost, delicious food, these public spaces offer cities a range of other benefits.
Community gardens are located in a town or city and tended by local residents. Often, the land is on a vacant lot owned by the city. The site is divided into manageable plots, which may be tended by individuals or by the garden’s members collectively. Since the land is usually publicly owned, the cost for gardeners to lease it is minimal. In fact, New York City, which is home to more than 750 community gardens tended by more than 20,000 members, charges people just $1 a year to lease a plot. Other costs involve soil, tools, seeds, fencing , and so on. However, because they’re shared by many people, individual gardeners pay very little.
A community garden can quickly pay off, in terms of delicious fruits and vegetables, in addition to beautiful flowers. Excess produce can be sold for a profit at farmers markets. But a garden’s benefit don’t stop there. They also beautify cities, foster strong relationships among residents, and lower an area’s crime rate. Award-winning spaces like London’s Culpeper Community Garden even attract tourists. Beautiful and affordable, community gardens are often described as oases in crowded cities.
56. Community gardens are designed for those who ___.
A. are concerned about food safety
B. live in a house with a private plot
C. can’t afford to buy organic food
D. don’t have their own property
57. New York City _____.
A. is owned by 20,000 individual gardeners
B. charges residents a lot to lease tools and fencing
C. contains more than 750 community gardens
D. is tended by professional gardeners and local residents
58. What’s the benefit of community gardens?
A. People can enjoy safe and delicious vegetables and animal meat.
B. Residents are more familiar and related with each other.
C. The neighborhood is becoming safer but of lower taste.
D. People can make some profits from the visiting tourists.
59. The underlined word“oases”is closest in meaning to ____.
A. cultural and art centers B. popular platforms for exchanges
C. peaceful and safe lands D. commercial and prosperous places
Essential information you need to know before booking your African Safari in Southern Africa – These tips will enhance the experience that you have
Things to Consider Before Booking an African Safari
1) Book in Advance
African Safaris are now hugely popular and good safari camps often get booked out more than a year in advance, especially during the high season from July through to October. Show more…
2) Choosing which game park
Different parks have different topography and weather patterns – this greatly affects animal movements at different times of the year. If you want to target certain species of animals, then some parks are better than others for certain species. Show more…
3）Choosing which lodge or safari camp
A typical safari camp has between 10 and 20 beds, it is an intimate safari experience and very personalized. However, there are also hotels in some places, either inside or just outside a national park, which can sleep anything up to 300 people. Show more…
The quality, experience and knowledge of the game at any Safari camp is almost the most important factor to consider. Good guides can transform your experience from ordinary to exceptional. Show more…
5）What’s the Best Time of Year to go on Safari
Understandably as the seasons change so does the safari experience. It is highly advisable to find out the best time of year for the safari area that you are intending to visit. Prices will change dramatically between the high and the low season, so good deals are to be had in the low season but it is important to know the difference, as your experience will be vastly different. Show more…
Going on safari is not cheap whichever way you do it , but the price range can be enormous. Unfortunately, safaris in most cases are a case of “you pay for what you get”,Show more…
7）Fly-in safari or not
Using small charter planes is sometimes an absolute necessity for camps in remote areas, where road transfers are just not practical or viable. These flights can increase the overall cost of the safari substantially but generally they are woth it and allow you the flexibility to visit a variety of safari camps in different locations. Show more…
8）Use an Agent
As you can see from all the information and options detailed above, there is great deal to understand and unless you go on safari several times a year it is impossible to know all this stuff. Show more…
CONTACT US NOW TO HELP PLAN YOUR SAFARI
We are qualified travel agents who know this area intimately!
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60. Which is a determining factor in choosing a Safari camp?
A. Means of transport. B. Accommodation.
C. Weather patterns. D. Game guides.
61. John is planning to have an African Safari in August 2018. He should book it in ______.
A. July 2018 B. January 2018
C. July 2017 D. October 2017
62. Which of the following is FALSE about African Safari?
A. You can have a good price but same experience if you travel in low season.
B. If you visit different camps in remote areas, flights may be unavoidable.
C. The more money you pay, the better experience you’ll get.
D. Not all the parks have the same species of animals.
A busy brain can mean a hungry body. We often seek food after focused mental activity, like preparing for an exam. Researchers think that heavy bouts of thinking drain energy from the brain, whose capacity to store fuel is very limited.
So the brain, sensing that it may soon require more calories（卡路里）to keep going, apparently stimulates bodily hunger, and even though there has been little in the way of physical movement bodily hunger, and even though there has been little in the way of physical movement or calorie consumption, we eat. This process may partly account for the weight gain so commonly seen in college students.
Scientists at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and another institution recently experimented with exercise to counter such immoderately post - - study food consumption.
Gary Hunter, an exercise physiologist at U.A.B., oversaw the study. Hunter notes that tough activity both increases the amount of blood sugar and lactate（乳酸盐）—circulating in the blood and increases blood flow to the head. Because the brain uses sugar and lactate as fuel, researchers wondered if the increased flow of fuel-rich blood during exercise could feed an exhausted brain and reduce the urge to overeat.
Thirty - - eight healthy college students were invited to U.A.B.’s exercise lab to report what their favorite pizza was. At a later date, the volunteers returned and spent 20 minutes dealing with selections from college and graduate - - school entrance exams. Next, half the students sat quietly for 15 minutes, before being given pizza. The rest of the volunteers spent those 15 minutes doing intervals on a treadmill: two minutes of hard running followed by about one minute of walking, repeated five times. Hunter says, that should stimulate the release of sugar and lactate into the bloodstream. These students were then allowed to gorge on pizza, too. But by and large, they did not overeat. In fact, the non-exercisers, however, consumed about 100 calories more.
The study has limitations, of course. We only looked at lunch. Hunter says；the researchers do not know if the runners consumed extra calories at dinner. They also cannot tell whether other types of exercise would have the same effect as running, although Hunter says they suspect that if an activity causes someone to break into a sweat, it should also increase blood sugar and lactate, feeding the brain and weakening hunger’s call.
63. According to the passage, ______ may cause many college students to overeat and gain weight.
A. a lot of energy-consuming mental activities
B. numerous physical movements or calorie burning
C. failure to resist the temptation of delicious food
D. bodily hunger caused by physical growth
64. The underlined word“counter”is closest in meaning to _____.
A. stimulate B. maximize C. balance D. prevent
65. What can be inferred from the passage?
A. Running is more beneficial than walking.
B. Sweating in exercise can make people hungrier.
C. The amount of blood sugar and lactate can affect people’s appetite.
D. When the brain feels exhausted, people tend to do exercise for relaxation.
66. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A. Mental activities can make people feel hungry.
B. Physical exercise can make people refreshed and stay hungry.
C. Sugar and lactate can help energize and restore people’s brain.
D. It’s uncertain what types of exercise can effectively feed the brain.
Directions : Complete the following passage by using the sentences given below . each sentence can be used only once. Note that there are two more sentences than you need.
A. When something comes from within you ,you always try your best to analyze it in a scientific way .
B. Psychologists call this private speech ----language that is spoken loud but directed at yourself
C. So words to the self , spoken silently or loud , are so much more than just chatter
D. We keep the private speech we use as children inside ------but we never truly put away the out=loud version .
E. According to he well-known saying , talking to yourself is the first sign of madness.
F. Self-talk is efficient because when we are vocal about our thoughts , it makes a larger impact on our brain.
Self-talk helps us all
Talking to yourself may seem a little shameful . If you’ve ever been overheard criticizing yourself for a foolish mistake or practicing a speech , you’ll know the social problems it can cause.________67__________
But there’s no need for embarrassment . Talking to ourselves , whether out loud or silently in our heads, is valuable . Far from being a sign of insanity , self-talk allows us to plan what we are going to do , manage our activities and control our emotions.
For example , take a trip to any preschool and watch a small girl playing with her toys . You are very likely to hear her talking to herself : offering herself directions and talking about her problems. ________________68_______________We do a lot of it when we are young.
As children ,according to the Russian Psychologist Lev Vygotsky , we use private speech to control our actions in the same way that we use public speech to control the behavior of others. As we grow older , we keep this system inside.
Psychological experiments have shown that this so-called inner speech can improve our performance in tasks like telling what other people are thinking . Our words give us an interesting view of our actions . One recent study suggested that self-talk is most effective when we talk to ourselves in the second person : as “you” rather than “I”_____________69___________________If you want proof , turn to a sports channel . You’re sure to see an athlete shouting at himself or herself .
Talking to ourselves seems to be a very good way of solving problems and working through ideas. Hearing different points of view means our thoughts can end up in different place , just like a regular dialogue , and might turn out to be one of the keys to human creativity.
Both kinds of self-talk -----silent and out loud ----seem to bring many different benefits to our thinking ._____________70_______-
Directions ; Read the following passage . Summarize in more than 60 words the main idea of the passage and how it is illustrated . Use your own words as far as possible.
For thousands of years , people have sailed across the oceans to trade , explore and transport goods . However , not every ship arrives at its port of destination . Weather ,war , navigation mistakes and bad luck have caused many ships to sink to the bottom of the ocean. These shipwrecks , which are estimated to number more than three million , have long fascinated us . In addition to being historically important , they sometimes contain great riches.
Historical research is a key motivator for shipwreck hunters . Ships carrying documents and artifact can teach us about ancient civilizations and important events . For instance , in 1997 the Pandora , which sank in 791, was discovered off the coast of Australia . The findings from the ship helped us understand the events surrounding the famous mutiny (暴动) on another ship ----- the Bounty . Another important discovery off the US coast in 1996 is widely believed to be the Queen Ann’s Revenge , the flagship of the private Blackbeard.
Profit is another motive for shipwreck exploration ,as companies use advanced sonar , robots and retrieval equipment to find treasure ships . One such firm is Odyssey Marine Exploration . The company has found hundreds of ships , including , in 2007 , a Spanish sailing ship containing 500,000 silver coins. The ship , which sank 200 years ago in the Atlantic Ocean , carried a treasure estimated to be worth $500 million . Soon after the discovery , a long legal battle over ownership rights took place between the company and the Spanish government . Cases like these are part of an ongoing debate about protecting historically important ships from treasure hunters.
Directions ; Translate the following sentences into English ,using the words given in the brackets.
1， 新颁布的禁烟令得到了广大市民的支持。（ban ）
2, 出乎我的意料， 年轻人对中国古诗词显示出了极大的热情。（passion）
4,一考定终身的日子已经一去不复返了， 但不可否认的是考试越多，学生压力越大。（denying ）
Directions : Writing an English composition in 120-150 words according to the instructions given below in Chinese.
21 ， her 22 , shook 23, Should 24, returning 25, that 26, what , 27 Not having done 28, to say , 29 After 30. As
31-40 DJEHA KCFIG
41-55 CADBC BADBA CDBAD
Historical importance and profit are the two main driving forces for shipwreck explorations . Key information about ancient civilizations and important events can be obtained from the wreckage . Besides , huge treasures can also be found by using advanced equipment . However , the finding of the treasure sometimes sparks legal debate over ownership .
1， The newly-issued ban on smoking has been supported by most citizens.
2, Beyond my expectation , young people showed tremendous passion for ancient Chinese poetry .
3, Not only do shared bicycles solve the last-mile problem but also they help improve air quality.
4. Gone are the day when one examination could determine students’ fate , but there is no denying that the more examinations they have , the more stressful they will feel.文 章来