中考英语专题讲练(共25套含解析)

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中考英语专题讲练(共25套含解析)

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被动语态
 
一、被动语态
语态是动词的一种形式,表示主语和谓语动词之间的具体关系,分为主动语态和被动语态两种。主动语态表示主语是谓语动词所表示的动作的执行者。被动语态表示主语是谓语动词所表示的动作的承受者。
被动语态是动词的一种特殊形式,一般来说,只有需要动作对象的及物动词才有被动语态。汉语往往用“被、受、给”等被动词来表示被动意义 。其结构是由“助动词be+及物动词的过去分词done”构成的。be本身无词义,但有时态、人称和数的变化,其变化与时态中的变化一致。
各种时态的被动语态结构表(以动词do为例):
时态 被动语态 例句
一般现在时 am/is/are+ done The classroom is cleaned by us.
教室被我们打扫。
一般过去时 was/were+ done The kite was made by him yesterday.
昨天,风筝被他制作。
现在进行时 am/is/are+ being+ done Flowers are being watered by her.
花儿现在正在被她浇。
现在完成时 have/has +been+ done The work has been finished by Jim.
工作已经被做完。
一般将来时 will/shall/be going to + be done Trees will be planted by them tomorrow.
明天,树将被他们种。
过去进行时 was/were + being+ done A letter was being written by her at this time yesterday.
昨天的这个时候一封信正在被写。
过去完成时 had+ been +done The work had been finished by Jim.
工作早已经被他完成了。
含有情态动词 can/may/must +be +done He can be found by me.
他不能被发现。

二、被动语态的用法
1. 不知道或没有必要指出谁是动作的执行者时。例:
The bridge was built last year. 这座桥是去年建造的。
He was elected chairman. 他被选为主席。
2. 当更加强调动作的承受者时。此时动作的执行者由by引导置于谓语动词之后,不需要时可以省略。例:
The room hasn’t been cleaned yet. 房间还没有打扫。
The tiger was killed by him. 老虎被他杀死了。
3. 当动作的执行者不是人时,多用被动语态。例:
The window was blown by wind. 窗户被风吹开了。
The whole village has been washed away by the flood. 整个村庄都被洪水冲走了。
 
一、考点:被动语态的句子结构和用法。

二、重难点:谓语动词的主动形式表示被动意义:
1. 英语中有很多动词如break,catch,clean,drive,lock,open,sell,read,write,wash等,当它们被用作不及物动词来描述主语特征时,常用其主动形式表达被动意义,主语通常是物。
例:This kind of cloth washes well.
      这种布料很好洗。
2. 表示“发生、进行”的不及物动词和短语,如:happen, last, take place, break out, come out, come true, run out, give out, turn out 等,以主动形式表示被动意义。  
例:How do the newspapers come out?
这些报纸是如何引出来的呢?  
3. 系动词没有被动形式,但感官系动词feel, sound, taste, look, smell在主系表结构中常以主动形式表示被动意义。   
例:Your reason sounds reasonable. 
       你的理由听起来很合理。

三、易错点:
1. 在使役动词have, make, get以及感官动词see, watch, notice, hear等后面不定式作宾语补语时,在主动结构中不定式to要省略,但变为被动结构时,要加上介词to。
例:The great news made her feel happy. 可改为
    She was made to feel happy by the great news.
Someone saw a stranger walk into the building. 可改为
A stranger was seen to walk into the building.
2. 有些相当于及物动词的动词词组,如“动词+介词”,“动词+副词”等,也可以用于被动结构,但要把它们看作一个整体,不能分开。其中的介词或副词也不能省略。
例:The meeting is to be put off till Friday. 
    这场会议将会推迟到周五。
 3. “动词+宾语+宾补 ”结构变为被动语态时,将宾语变为被动结构中的主语,其余不动。
例:Someone caught the boy smoking a cigarette. 可改为
The boy was caught smoking a cigarette. 
    4. 有些动词可以有两个宾语,在用于被动结构时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主语,另一宾语仍然保留在谓语后面。通常变为主语的是间接宾语。  
例:His mother gave him a present for his birthday. 可改为
He was given a present by his mother for his birthday.

 
题模一:主动语态变为被动语态

例1.1.1  主动语态变为被动语态:
I have bought a ten-speed bicycle.
____________________________________________

例1.1.2  主动语态变为被动语态:
The old man is watering flowers in the garden.
____________________________________________

例1.1.3  主动语态变为被动语态:
The boy always plays the computer games at night.
____________________________________________
题模二:基本用法

例1.2.1  The boy _________ to get supper ready after school.
A.  were told B.  is telling
C.  was told D.  tells

例1.2.2  This dictionary mustn’t_________ from the library.
A.  take away B.  taken away
C.  are taken away D.  be taken away

 

随练1.1  将下列句子变成被动语态。
1. They threw away the old book yesterday
____________________________________________
2. He had written a letter to his mother.
____________________________________________
3. People have seen the bear in this village.
____________________________________________
4. The workers are repairing the bridge.
___________________________________________
5. You shouldn’t bring dictionary to the English exam.
___________________________________________

随练1.2  This kind of books sells well. They_________ already.
A.  sold out
B.  have sold out
C.  are sold out
D.  have been sold out

随练1.3  ---Your coat looks nice. Is it _________ wool?
---Yes. It is_________ Australia.
A.  made of, make by
B.  made of, made in
C.  made for, made in
D.  made from, made by

随练1.4  The pizza _________ by my mother. Would you like to have some?
A.  makes B.  was making
C.  made D.  was made

随练1.5  The classroom must _________ every day.
A.  be kept clean
B.  be kept cleaning
C.  keep cleaned
D.  keeps clean

随练1.6  A.talk on Chinese history_________ in the school hall next week.
A.  is given B.  has been given
C.  will be given D.  gives

随练1.7  Our house_________ now.
A.  is paint
B.  is being painted
C.  is got painted
D.  has got to paint

 

 

作业1  将下列句子变成被动语态。
1. Have you posted the letters yet?
___________________________________________
2. I must do all the exercise in time.
___________________________________________
3. We are discussing the project at the meeting.
___________________________________________
4. Every year our office holds a flower show in the park in April.
___________________________________________
5. He had finished the work by the end of last term.
___________________________________________

作业2  Mary_________ show me her new dictionary yesterday.
A.  was asked to B.  has asked to
C.  is asked D.  asks to

作业3  The People’s Republic of China _________ on October 1, 1949.
A.   found B.   was founded
C.   is founded D.   was found

作业4  This English song _________ by the girls after class.
A.   often sings B.   often sang
C.   is often sang D.   is often sung

作业5  Waste paper shouldn’t _________ here.
A.   throw B.   be thrown
C.   to be thrown D.   to throw

作业6  A new house _________ at the corner of the road now.
A.   is being built B.   is building
C.   been built D.   be build

作业7  His new book_________ next month.
A.  is being published
B.   is publishing
C.   will be published
D.   has been published
答案解析

 

 
题模一:主动语态变为被动语态
例1.1.1
【答案】  A.ten-speed bicycle has been bought by me.
【解析】  考查被动语态。现在完成时被动语态的结构是has/have been done。
例1.1.2
【答案】  The flowers are being watered in the garden by the old man.
【解析】  考查被动语态。现在进行时被动语态的结构是is/are/am+ being done。
例1.1.3
【答案】  The computer games are played by the boy at night.
【解析】  考查被动语态。一般现在时被动语态的结构是am/is/are + done。
题模二:基本用法
例1.2.1
【答案】C
【解析】  考查被动语态。再由句意可知是男孩被告知去做某事,was +done。故选C。
例1.2.2
【答案】D
【解析】  考查被动语态。再由句意可知是字典禁止从图书馆被带走。含有情态动词的被动语态mustn’t +be+ done。故选D。

 
随练1.1
【答案】  1. The old book was thrown by them yesterday.
2. A.letter had been written to his father by him.
3. The bear has been seen by the people on this village.
4. The bridge is being repaired by the workers.
5. The dictionary shouldn’t be brought to the English exam.
【解析】  1. 考查被动语态。一般过去时的被动语态was/were+ done。
2. 考查被动语态。过去完成时的被动语态had been+ done。
3. 考查被动语态。现在完成时的被动语态has/have been+ done。
4. 考查被动语态。现在进时的被动语态is/am/are +being +done。
5. 考查被动语态。含有情态动词的被动语态shouldn’t+ be done。
随练1.2
【答案】D
【解析】  考查被动语态。already是现在完成时的时间状语,并且books与sell out是被动关系。再由句意“这种书卖的很好。他们已经被卖光了。”可知,故选D。
随练1.3
【答案】B
【解析】  考查被动语态。be made of 由…制成,be made in在…国家被做。再由句意“—你的外套看起来很漂亮,它是由毛制成的吗?—是的,它被产于澳大利亚。”可知,故选B。
随练1.4
【答案】D
【解析】  考查被动语态。pizza与make是被动关系。再由句意“披萨被妈妈做(过去的时间),您想要吃一些吗?可知,故选D。
随练1.5
【答案】A
【解析】  考查被动语态。含有情态动词的被动语态must be done。再由句意“教室每天必须保持清洁。”可知,故选A。
随练1.6
【答案】C
【解析】  考查被动语态。next week 是一般将来时的时间状语。Chinese history与give是被动关系。故选C。
随练1.7
【答案】B
【解析】  考查被动语态。now是现在进行时的时间状语。house与paint是被动关系。故选B。

 
作业1
【答案】  1. Have the letter been posted yet?
2. All the exercises must be done in time.
3. The project is being discussed by them at the meeting.
4. Every year a flower show is held by our office in the park in April.
5. The work had been finished by the end of last term.
【解析】  1. 考查被动语态。现在完成时的被动语态has/have been+ done。
2. 考查被动语态。带有情态动词的被动语态must be+ done。
3. 考查被动语态。现在进行时的被动语态is/am/are being+ done。
4. 考查被动语态。一般现在时的被动语态is/am/are+ done。
5. 考查被动语态。过去完成时的被动语态had been+ done。
作业2
【答案】A
【解析】  考查被动语态。yesterday 是一般过去时的时间状语。由句意可知,主语“玛丽”与ask之间是被动关系,was asked to do sth. 故选A。
作业3
【答案】B
【解析】  考查被动语态。on October 1, 1949是一般过去时的时间状语。The People’s Republic of China 与found (建立)是被动关系。was+ done。故选B。
作业4
【答案】D
【解析】  考查被动语态。often是一般现在是的时间状语。song与sing 是被动关系。sing的过去分词是sung。is often+ done。故选D。
作业5
【答案】B
【解析】  考查被动语态。含有情态动词的被动语态shouldn’t be +done。Waste paper与throw是被动关系。故选B。
作业6
【答案】A
【解析】  考查被动语态。now是现在进行时的时间状语。new house与build是被动关系。build的过去分词是built。is being+ done。故选A。
作业7
【答案】C
【解析】  考查被动语态。next month是一般将来时的时间状语。book与public是被动关系。wiil be+ done。故选C。

 

宾语从句
 
一、定义
宾语从句是英语复合句中非常重要的从句之一,也是初中阶段要求重点掌握的从句。宾语从句属于名词性从句,是用一个句子做另一个句子的宾语。宾语从句一般做介词或及物动词的宾语,如:
We all expect that they will win.
我们所有人都盼着他们能赢。(动宾)
We are talking about whether we should keep the money.
我们正在讨论是否应该收下这笔钱。(介宾)

二、宾语从句的连接词
宾语从句的引导词很多样,基本涵盖了从句中涉及的所有引导词,可分为从属连词,连接代词和连接副词,用法如下表:
连接词 连接词的作用 例句
that 本身无意义,只起连接作用,在口语中可省略。 He said that it was a good present.
他说这是一份好礼物。
what, which,
who, whose,
whom
等连接代词 在从句中作一定成分,可作主语,宾语,定语等 I don’t know what you are talking about.
我不知道你在说什么。
He wanted to know whose box it was.
他想知道这个箱子是谁的。
when, where,
why, how
等连接副词 在从句中作状语,如时间状语,地点状语,原因状语等。 Could you tell me where you are from?
你能告诉我你来自哪吗?
People never know how he did that.
人们从来也不知道他是如何做到的。
if/whether 宾语从句中意思都是“是否”,不作成分,但不能省略。 He asked me if it would rain tomorrow.
他问我明天是否会下雨。

二、宾语从句的时态
1. 若主句是现在时的某种时态(一般现在时,现在进行时,现在完成时),宾语从句不受限制,可以根据实际情况随意穿越,如:
I remember he gave me a book yesterday.
我记得他昨天给了我一本书。
He has told me that he will leave for Shanghai next week.
他已经告诉我下周他就要动身去上海了。

2. 若主句是过去时的某种时态(包括一般过去时,过去进行时),那么宾语从句一般要用过去的某种时态(包括一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时,过去完成时),如:
I only knew he was studying in a western country.
我只知道他当时在西方的一个国家读书。
My teacher told me that Mrs. Rosemary had been back to Australia already.
我的老师告诉我,Rosemary夫人已经回澳大利亚了。
The reporter asked if the government would take necessary measures to deal with smog.
记者问政府是否会采取必要的措施处理雾霾。

3. 若从句是一个客观真理,那么从句用一般现在时,不根据主句的时态而变化,如:
The teacher told us that light travels faster than sound last week.
上周老师告诉我们说光比声音传播快。

三、宾语从句的语序
宾语从句的语序要用陈述语序,尤其疑问词作连接词的句子要格外注意,因为读起来与正常疑问句不同,容易出错,陈述语序即主语+谓语的顺序,如:
Is it a good idea? Do you think so?
=Do you think (that) it is a good idea?

四、宾语从句的否定转移
主句的谓语动词是think, believe, suppose, consider等,并且主句的主语是第一人称时,从句的否定词一般要转移到主句上来,其反义疑问句一般与宾语从句一致.
I don’t think he will come to my party. (√)
I think he won’t come to my party. (×)
我认为他不会来我的舞会.
I don’t believe that man is killed by Jim, is he?
我认为那个人不是Jim所杀的,是不是?

五、宾语从句的简化
1. 当宾语从句的主语和主句的主语相同,且主句谓语动词为hope, wish, decide, agree, choose等词时,从句可简化为不定式结构,如:
My friend hopes that he can receive a birthday present.
=My friend hopes to receive a birthday present.
我的朋友希望收到一份生日礼物。
2. 当宾语从句主语和主句的主语相同,且主句的谓语动词是know, remember, forget, learn等,从句有疑问词引导时,从句可简化为“疑问词+不定式”结构,如:
She doesn’t know what she should say next.
=She doesn’t know what to say next.
她不知道该说些什么。
 
一、重难点:
宾语从句时初中阶段重点考点,考试最后一题单选题往往涉及,考查重点主要是从宾语从句的语序和时态入手,判断时态,还原陈述语序也就是做这种题的关键。

二、易错点:
1. if, whether在宾语从句中的区别
在宾语从句中if和whether都是“是否”的意思,但在一下情况下,只能用whether
1). if和whether在作“是否”解时,介词后一般不用if,如:
They are talking about whether she will come tonight.
他们正在讨论今晚她会不会来。
2). whether后可以加or not,但是if不可以,如:
They don’t know whether she will come or not.
他们不知道她会不会来。
3). 在不定式前只能用whether,如:
I can’t decide whether to stay. 我不能决定是否留下。
4). 避免歧异时,我们常用whether而不用if,如:
They are wondering if she can come. (×)
They are wondering whether she can come. (√)
注:if只有在宾从中才作“是否”理解,在常见的条件状语从句中翻译为“如果”,如:
If I pass the exam, I will get a present from my mom.
如果通过考试,我将从妈妈那里得到个礼物。

2. 宾语从句中不可省略的that
that引导宾语从句没有意思,大多时候可以省略,但若多个宾语从句并列时,第一个that可省略,其余连词后的that必须要在,以表示与前一句宾语从句并列,否则会出现歧义,如:
He admits (that) there are some problems in this software and that it will take a while to solve them.
他承认软件有问题,同时承认解决问题需要一些时间。

 
题模一:关系词选择

例1.1.1  ---It’s said that the new highway has been completed.
---Yes, but we don’t know _________ it’s to be opened to traffic soon.
A.  which B.  when
C.  whether D.  since

例1.1.2  ---It’s so late. Why not write the report tomorrow?
---But I don’t know _________ I can do it if not now.
A.  why B.  when C.  how D.  where

例1.1.3  选择恰当关系词填空
1. Do you know _________ else is going to be on duty today? (who, whom)
2. Jim told me _________ he didn’t go fishing yesterday afternoon. (how, why)
题模二:宾语从句的语序和时态

例1.2.1  句型转换
1. “These flowers are from Guangdong.” He said.
He said _________ these flowers _________ from Guangdong.
2. Was the watch made in Shanghai? I don’t know.
I don’t know _________ the watch _________ made in Shanghai.

例1.2.2 
– Can you tell me _________ to London?
– Sure. Next month.
A.   when you will travel
B.   when will you travel
C.   when you travelled
D.   when did you travel

例1.2.3 
—What did the teacher say to you just now?
—She asked ______.
A.  where did I learn Japanese
B.  where I learned Japanese
C.  where do I learn Japanese
D.  where I learn Japanese

 

随练1.1  选择恰当关系词填空
1. She said _________ it wouldn’t matter much.(that, if)
2. He always thinks _________ he can do better.(how, who)
3. We are talking about _________ we’ll go back tomorrow. (whether, if)
4. I was really surprised at _________ I saw. (where, what)
5. I don’t know _________ so many people are looking at him. (how, why)
6. Do you know _________ you are studying for? (why, what)
7. I really don’t know _________ he bridge will be finished.(how long, how soon)

随练1.2  Could you say it again? I can’t understand _________ you are talking about.
A.  how B.  when C.  what D.  which

随练1.3  We’ll plant trees tomorrow, and I don’t know _________ Tom will come and join us.
A.  if B.  what C.  which D.  where

随练1.4  What did Mike say? He said _________.
A.  if you are free the next week
B.  what color was it
C.  the weather is fine
D.  summer comes after spring

随练1.5  Tom asked my friend _________.
A.  where was he from
B.  that the earth is bigger than the moon
C.  when did he come back
D.  not to be so angry

随练1.6  She told me the sun _________ in the east.
A.  rise B.  rose
C.  rises D.  had risen

 

 

作业1  I don’t know _________ they have passed the exam.
A.  what B.  if C.  when D.  where

作业2  ---What did the teacher say just now?
---He said that the earth _________ round the sun.
A.  go B.  goes
C.  going D.  will go

作业3  句型转换
1. Light travels faster than sound. My teacher told me.
My teacher told me _________ light _________ faster than sound.
2. There will be a meeting in five days. Jack didn’t know.
Jack didn’t know _________ there _________ _________ a meeting in five days.
4. Can they speak French? I want to know.
I want to know _________ _________ _________ _________.
5. Have you finished your homework yet? Mr. Zhao asked Ma Gang.
Mr. Zhao asked Ma Gang _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ homework yet.

作业4  I was told to meet Mr. Green at the airport. But I don’t know _________ he will arrive.
A.  where B.  why C.  how D.  when

作业5  Let me tell you _________.
A.  how much is the car
B.  how much does the car cost
C.  how much did I pay for the car
D.  how much I spent on the car

作业6  Peter knew _________.
A.  whether he has finished reading the book
B.  why the boy had so many questions
C.  there were 12 months in a year
D.  when they will leave for Paris
答案解析

 

 
题模一:关系词选择
例1.1.1
【答案】C
【解析】  考查宾语从句关系词选择。根据句意,我们并不知道是否会很快通车,根据soon排除B选项,whether更符合语境,故选C。
例1.1.2
【答案】B
【解析】  考查宾语从句关系词选择。根据句意“—太晚了,为什么不明天写这份报告呢?—但是我不知道如果现在会写还能什么时候写。”在讨论写报告的时间,故选B。
例1.1.3
【答案】  1. who
2. why
【解析】  1. 考查宾语从句关系词。根据句意:你知道今天还有谁会值日吗?所以应该用表示“谁”的关系词,又宾语从句中缺少主语,所以用who。
2. 考查宾语从句关系词。根据句意:吉姆告诉我他昨天下午为什么没有去钓鱼。how表示方式,明显不符语境,所以选why。
题模二:宾语从句的语序和时态
例1.2.1
【答案】  1. that; were
2. whether; was
【解析】  完成句子
1. 考查宾语从句关系词和时态。首先从句为陈述一个事实,所以用that;又主句为过去时,所以从句也要用过去时的一种形式。
2. 考查宾语从句关系词和从句时态。根据原句,改成的句子应该为“我不知道这块表是否是上海制造”,所以关系词用whether;又主语是一般现在时,从句随意穿越,被制造已经发生了,所以用过去时。
例1.2.2
【答案】A
【解析】  考查宾语从句。根据答语Next month可知是将来时,排除C、D项;从句用陈述语序,排除B项,故选A。
例1.2.3
【答案】B
【解析】  考查宾语从句的陈述语序以及时态。

 
随练1.1
【答案】  1. that
2. how
3. whether
4. what
5. why
6. what
7. how soon
【解析】  1. 考查宾语从句关系词选择。关系词选择主要看从句的成分和意思,从句时一句完整的话,且不有不确定性,所以填that。
2. 考查宾语从句关系词选择。从句是完整句子,再根据句意:他总在思考他如何能够做得更好。所以填how。
3. 考查宾语从句关系词区分。宾语从句中whether和if都是是否的意思,但在介词后只能用whether,所以填whether。
4. 考查宾语从句关系词选择。从句中缺少宾语,即看到的内容,故填what。
5. 考查宾语从句关系词选择。根据句意:我不知道为什么那么多人看着他。所以填why。
6. 考查宾语从句关系词选择。根据句意,你知道你学习是为了什么吗?从句缺少for的宾语,即为什么而学,故填what,另外why=what for。
7. 考查宾语从句关系词选择。根据句意:我真的不知道这座桥多久会竣工。how long就是问多长时间,特指时间段,how soon则表示多久之后,所以填how soon。
随练1.2
【答案】C
【解析】  考查宾语从句关系词选择。首先看从句,缺少about的宾语,排除AB;又从句没有问一个范围中哪一个,而是问谈论的内容,故选C。
随练1.3
【答案】A
【解析】  考查宾语从句关系词选择。从句完整,排除BD;又从句为不确定的一件事,故选A。
随练1.4
【答案】D
【解析】  考查宾语从句时态和语序。宾语从句用陈述语序,排除B;又主句用的said,从句也应该用一般过去时,排除AC;又D选项是自然现象,不受从句时态规则限制,故选D。
随练1.5
【答案】D
【解析】  考查宾语从句时态和语序。宾语从句用陈述语序,排除AC;又主句用的ask,若跟从句应该是个不确定因素,所以B选项that引导不合理,故选D。
随练1.6
【答案】C
【解析】  考查宾语从句时态。主句是过去时,从句本应也要对应相应时态,但从句是自然现象,用一般现在时,故选C。

 
作业1
【答案】B
【解析】  考查宾语从句关系词选择。从句不缺成分,排除A;再根据句意,应该是不知道是否通过考试合理,故选B。
作业2
【答案】B
【解析】  考查宾语从句时态。从句式客观事实或真理,永远用一般现在时,故选B。
作业3
【答案】  1. that; travels
2. whether; would be
3. whether they can speak French
4. whether he had finished his
【解析】  1. 考查宾语从句关系词选择和时态。从句为陈述事实,所以用that;又从句为自然现象,用一般现在时,三单加s。
2. 考查宾语从句关系词和时态。主句为didn’t know,那么从句一定是一个不确定的内容,又根据提示,从句完整,所以用whether;又从句时态要和主句保持一致,用过去将来时。
3. 考查宾语从句关系词和时态语序。主句为want to know,那么从句一定是一个不确定的内容,又根据提示,从句完整,所以用whether;又主句一般现在时,从句时态随意使用,这句问的是现状,用一般现在时既可;最后,要用陈述语序。
4. 考查宾语从句关系词和时态语序。根据句意,应该是问是否完成了作业,所以用whether;又主句为过去时,那么从句对应过去完成时;语序用陈述语序。
作业4
【答案】D
【解析】  考查宾语从句关系词选择。根据句意可知,见面的地点已经确定在飞机场,但不知道什么时候到,所以说时间最合理,故选D。
作业5
【答案】D
【解析】  考查宾语从句语序和时态。宾语从句要用陈述语序,直接排除ABC;主句一般现在时,从句时态不受限制,故选D。
作业6
【答案】B
【解析】  考查宾语从句时态和语序。主句过去时,从句用过去某种时态,排除AD;C选项为客观事实,要用一般现在时,故选B。

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