2010高考英语词汇完型单选秘诀

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2010高考英语词汇完型单选秘诀

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2010高考英语词汇完型单选秘诀
achieve 指经过努力而获得动力或达到某种目的
gain 指经过努力而奋斗而,获得某种利益,如处世经验
get 常用词,指以某种方法或手段得到某种东西,这东西可能是他需要或企图获得的,也许不是。
across prep. & adv.穿过,由这边到另一边;横过 cross v. 穿过; 横过
act v.. 做;行动 v.演出;扮演角色 n.行为;动作,举动  action n. 行动 actor n.男演员 actress n. 女演员 act as 充当;担任      act...out 比划着表演
active adj. 积极的;主动的,活跃的
take an active part in 积极参加 be active in 热心于
actual adj.真实的,实际的 actually adv. in fact 实际上;事实上
real, true 与 actual的区别:
real 真的,真正的,指客观上存在,并非想象和虚拟,与“无”相对,反义词为 unreal
true 真实的,强调事实的实际情况相符,与“假”相对,反义词为 false
actual 真的,强调事实上已经发生或存在,而不是理论上可发生或存在
AD 公元;纪元 BC 公元前
ad = advertisement n. 广告
add v.增加;添加;补充说  add...to.. 往…加…
add up to 加起来总共是
address n.住址  n. 演讲 v. 对…发表演讲;称呼
admire v.羡慕  admire 后接名词或动名词;不接that引导的从句
admiration n. 赞美;羡慕 admirer n. 羡慕者;钦佩者(男) admiringly adv. 钦佩地
admit v. 1).许可;允许…进入 2).承认;供认
advance v. & n. 1). 前进;向前 2). 提出 n. 1. 前进
2.进展、进步 advanced adj. 先进的 advantage n. 优势;便利
adventure n. 历险;奇遇    adventurer n. 冒险家
advice n. 忠告;劝告; 意见   advise v. 劝告 persuade v. 说服
aeroplane n. = plane 飞机
affair n.事件;事情 foreign affairs 国事务 love affairs 桃色事件
accident 指不幸的意外事故,如:车祸;摔伤,多指无意或偶然的。
incident 指小插曲,多指政治上具有影响有事件,如叛乱,事变等。 event 大事   affect v.影响
afford v. 1).买得起 2). 负担得起;足以
注意: afford 前常用can, can’t, be able to等;后面常接名词或不定式
afraid adj. 1).害怕;担心,畏惧 2).恐怕,我想
be afraid of sth. 害怕(会做) be afraid to do sth. 不敢(去做)
Africa n. 非洲   African adj. 非洲人的 n. 非洲人
after prep. adv. & conj. 在……之后; after all 毕竟;终究 afternoon n.下午,午后  afterwards adv. 以后,后来 again adv. once more 再一次
again and again 再三地,反复地(= time and again) once again 再一次
against prep.1).反对 2).靠着;绮着 3).以……为背景
age n. 1).年龄;寿命 2). 时代;世纪
3)长时间  at the age of 在……岁的时候月
ago adv.  表示从现在算起的若干时间以前,谓语动词常用一般过去时
before 表从过去某时算起的若干时间以前,谓语动词常用过去完成时
agree v. 1). 同意;赞同 2). match 与……一致
agree with 表示同意某人的意见,想法,分析,解释等,还可表示 “与……一致”;适合(气候,食物等)”,常用 agree with sb.
agree to 表示“同意某项建议,计划,办法等”
agree on 表示 “就……取得一致意见”后常接表示具体协议的文件,计划,行动等。句中主语通常包括当事双方。agreement n. 协议;同意
agriculture n. farming 农业 agricultural adj. 农业的
ahead adv. in front 在前,向前  ahead of 提前
aid  v.& n. help 援助,帮助 first aid 急救
aim v.& . n. 1). intend 旨在;目的在于 2).瞄准(常与 at 连用) n. 1. 瞄准  2. 目标、目的
air  n. 空气;气氛  v. let in air 使……通风 by air 乘飞机(by plane)
in the air 在空中 on the air (用无线电,电视)播送   aircraft n. plane 航空器(单复数同形)airline n.航空公司;航空系统
airliner n. 大型客机   airport n. 航空港
alive adj.活着dead 死去
alive 常作表语,作定语时须放在被修饰的词的后面
living 强调的是“健在”,“尚在人间”这一现在情况;alive 只用来说明生死之间的“界线”
all  pron. adj. & adv.全部,所有(的)
1. 可修饰可数名词,也可修饰不可数名词,而复数视主语而定
2. all 修饰名词时,名词前须加定冠词 the 或形容词性物主代词my, his, her等
3. whole 不能修饰物质名词或专有名词,不说 the whole water,但可以说the whole of the water
all right 好,行 all the time 一直 all the same 仍然 all one’s life 一生
all over the world 全世界 not at all 一点也不
allow  v. 允许
let 指不反对和不阻止,接不带to的不定式作宾补
allow 指听任或默认某人去做某事
permit 表示正式地许可,会比较积极地同意某人去做某事
promise 表示答应许诺,表示主语许诺要去做某事
almost adv. 差不多;几乎
almost 与 nearly 的主要区别:
修饰 no, none, never, any 以及 no, 和 any 的合成词时,一般用 almost
alone adj. & adv.单独;独自; only 仅仅;只有
alone 作形容词,只用作表语,强调客观上的单独,不指心理上的寂寞 lonely 寂寞的,偏僻的
along prep. 沿着…… adv. 向前,往前; 共同
aloud adv. 高声   read aloud 朗读
 loud 响亮地;大声地   loudly 含有“喧闹”的意思
already adv. 已经,常用于肯定句 yet 常用于否定句和疑问句 still 表示仍然,仍旧,可以用于肯定句,否定句或疑问句
also too, as well 也;并且
also 用于肯定句,通常位于 be 动词,助动词或情态动词之后,行为动词之前
too 用于肯定句,比 also 通俗,可放在句中,也可入在句末
either 用于否定句,只放在句末 as well 放在句末
although conj. & though 虽然,尽管
though 更常用,两者可兼用;though 可放在句尾; although 不可放在句尾
altogether adv. 全部一起,总共
always adv. at all times 总是;for ever 永远
 usually 侧重已形成“习惯”的角度;说明动作
amazing adj. surprising 令人惊奇的
America n. 美国;美洲 American adj. 美国的;美洲的 n. 美国人;美洲人
among prep. of 在……之中among 应是三者或三者以上 between 常指两者之间;还可作副词用,表示 “在……其间”
ancestor n. forefather 祖先   ancient adj. 古代的
and conj. as well as 和;又 and so on 等等
anger n.恼火;气愤  angry adj. 愤怒的;生气的
be angry ( mad) with sb. 生某人的气
be angry at ( about ) sth. 为某事生气
animal n.畜牲般的人
announce v. n. 通告,通知
announce 与 declare的区别:
announce 指正式“公布”,“宣布”,侧重预告人们关心或感兴趣的事情,尤指新闻
declare 正式向公众宣布,侧重“当众”发表,多用于宣战、议和、宣判等
another pron. 另一个another 用于三个或以上中的一个 the other 指两个中余下的那一个(注:the other 还可修饰复数名词)
one after another 一个接一个
answer v & n. 回答,答案  answer 及物动词
reply 不及物动词vi.,后接 to,为书面用语 
answer for 对……负有责任,受到惩罚
ant n. 蚂蚁    Antarctica n. & adj.南极洲
anxious adj. 忧虑的;担心的 eager 渴望的
be anxious about 为……不安
be anxious for 1).为……担心 2).很想要某样东西 = be anxious to do
any   pron. & adv. 任何;任何人,一些。一般用于否定句和疑问句,表示“任何数量”,可修饰可数或不可数名词,用于肯定句表示“任何一个”。 anybody; anyone 任何人 anything 任何事
anyhow ( anyway ) 无论如何 anywhere 任何地方 anytime 无论何时
 apologize v. 道歉 apologize to sb. for sth. 因某事向某人道歉 make an apology to sb. for sth. 因某人向某人道歉 a letter of apology 道歉信
appear vi.  出现; seem 似乎 appearance n. 出现 appearances n. 外表  disappear vi.消失
apple n.苹果 the apple of someone's eye 掌上明珠
application n.申请;申请书apply for 申请  apply to 适用于
appreciate v. enjoy 欣喜;be thankful for 感激(后接名词或动名词)
April n. 四月 April Fool 愚人节(4月1日)
area n.区域;范围
argue v. 辩论;争论  argument n. 争论
argue with sb. about ( on, over ) sth. 就某事与某人争论 argue for 主张   argue against 据理反对
arm n. 胳膊;手臂 arm in arm 挽臂 take sth.(sb.) in one's arms 抱 take up arms 拿起武器 armchair n. 扶手椅      army n. 军队
around prep & adv. 到处,四周;大约
round 为 adj. adv. n. & v.around 只有 prep. 或 adv.
arrive vi. 到达(小地点用at), 到达(大地点用in) arrival n. 到达
art n.艺术;艺术品;技巧 artist 艺术家(尤指画家)
as  conj. adv. & prep.和一样;由于;作为 as a matter of fact 事实上 as...as 象……一样  not as...as 不象  as a result 结果 as a rule 通常 as usual 照常 as well 也 as well as 和 serve as 用作 such as 象……那样 the same as 象……那样
ashamed adj. 感到羞愧;内疚; 悔恨
Asia n. 亚洲    Asian adj. 亚洲的 n. 亚洲人
ask v. 问,请求,要求;邀请 ask for sth. 要求得到 ask sb. for sth. 请某人给某物
asleep adj.  fast (sound) asleep 熟睡
assistant n. 助手;助理
astonish vt.使吃惊(astonish 语气比surprise重) astonished at (by) 对……感到吃惊   astonishing adj. 惊人的 astonishment n. 惊讶
at prep.在(小地点);在(某一时间);对(与动作的目标连用) at the beginning of 开始 at last 最后 at least 至少 at most 最多 at first 起初 at table 进餐时 at a distance 在稍远处 at all 全然;完全不;究竟 at large 逍遥法外 at once 立刻
at present 现在 at sea 航行中;茫然 at the bottom of 在……底部 at the end of 在……的结尾 at the foot of 在……脚下
at the same time 同时 at high speed 高速地
athlete n.田径运动员
attack v.& n.1). 进攻 2).用言语或文字攻击 3).伤害
attempt v.& n. try 试图;尝试(比 try 更正式;try 更常用)   attend v. 1).参加 2). pay attention to 注意 3). look after 照料
attend 指参加会议,听报告,典礼,仪式,上学等(attend to服务)
join 指加入某团体,如参军,入团等 join in 指参加比赛的活动
take part in 指参加群众性活动、运动、劳动等(在活动中发挥作用)
attention n. 注意,关心 pay attention to (接名词或动名词)
attitude n. 态度,看法
attract vt.吸引 attractive adj. 妩媚动人的;英俊的
August n. 8月
aunt n.姑;姨,婶,伯母,舅母  auntie = aunt  ,uncle 叔,伯,舅,姑父,姨父
Australia n. 澳大利亚 Australian adj. 澳大利亚的 n. 澳大利亚人
autumn n. 秋天;秋 fall 秋天(美语)
avenue n. 大街(多指林荫大道)
average n. 平均;平均数 on average 按平均数计算
awake adj.醒着的,知道的 v. (awoke; awoken) wake 唤醒     away adv. 离开;不在;在别处 be away from 远离…go/run away 走/跑开 right away 立刻 far away 遥远
B
baby n.  婴儿;幼畜;雏鸟 baby-sitter n. 临时保姆
back n. 背部;背后;后部 At the back of the house there is a kitchen garden.
adv.  回原处,在原处 Now you can go back to your seat, Tom.
v.向后退 Attention, please. This car is backing up.
bad adj.(worse, worst) 坏的;讨厌的;质量低劣的
badly adv. (worse, worst)严重地,非常,很差
bag n.袋子 handbag 手提袋 schoolbag 书包
baggage n. luggage 行李(不可数名词) baggage Am.E luggage Br.E
bake v. cook in an oven 烘;烤 baker n. 面包师 bakery n. 面包店
balance n. & v. 平衡 n. 天平 n. 结余
ball n. 1.球;球状体 2. (正规的)大型舞会
basketball 篮球 football 足球 volleyball 排球 baseball 棒球 handball 手球 balloon n. 气球   bamboo n竹子
ban  vt. & n. forbid esp. by law (尤指法律)禁止
banana n.香蕉    bank n.1.银行 2. land 岸;堤
bar  n. 1. 条状物;棒;杆 2. 酒吧
bare-footed  adj. & adv. 赤脚的; 赤脚地
bargain v. 讨价还价 n. 廉价买到的物品
base n. 1. 基础 2. 根据地 base n. 指有形的基础
basis n. 常指无形的基础 basic adj. 基础的;基本的
basin n.水盆;脸盆 n.盆地   basket n. r筐;篮 basketball 篮球
bath n. 1.洗澡 2. 浴盆; 浴缸;浴池 have(take) a bath 洗澡;冲凉  bathe vi.洗澡 vt. 给…洗澡 n. 海(河,湖)水浴 bathing suit n.游泳衣
battle n. 战斗;战役 vi. 战斗 campaign 指大的战役 battle 指中等战斗或战役 fight 指小的战斗 in battle 在战斗中  battlefield 战场,激烈争执所在
bay n. 海湾
 be v.(am, is, are, was, were, being, been) 是,成为
beach n. 海(湖、河)滩 beach 多指海滨浴场
shore 大自然的海(河、湖)岸 seaside 海边,尤指渡假之处
bean n.豆,豆类 green beans 青豆 peas 碗豆
bean curd 豆腐
bear n.熊 vt. 1. 忍受 2. 出生 (多用被动态)
I was born in London in 1980.  bear … in mind 牢记
beard n.(下巴上)胡须 moustache 嘴唇上的胡子 whisker 腮须
beat v.(beat, beaten) 1. 打2.欧打 3.规律性的拍击;(心)跳动; 4.打败   beat .. to death 打死
beauty n. 1. 美丽 2. 美人;美的事物 beautiful adj. 美丽的 pretty adj. 美丽的, 漂亮的 handsome adj. 英俊的 beautiful 和 pretty 多指女性的美,handsome 多指男子的英俊,亦可指物,意为美、雅、壮观等 What a handsome old building it is!
He earned quite a handsome salary for his work.
because conj. 由于;因为;(接从句)
because of 由于;因为(接名词、代词或短语)
become v.(became; become) come to be 变得;成为
bed n. furniture to sleep on 床  go to bed 上床睡觉(go to sleep = fall asleep入睡) make the bed 整理床铺 bedclothes 床上用品 bedroom 卧室
beer n. 啤酒(一般为不可数名词,但表示“份”,“杯”时为可数名词)
beef n. the meat of farm cattle 牛肉
bee 蜜蜂  beehive 蜂箱
before prep. adv. & conj. 在前面; 在……前
before long 不久后 : long before …很久以前
Work hard and before long you will catch up with your classmates.
The house had been built there long before I was born.
beforehand adv. 预先
beg v. 乞丐;乞求;恳求 beg one's pardon 请原谅 beggar n. 乞丐
begin v. (began, begun, beginning) start 开始 begin with 从……开始 at the beginning of 在……开始时 behind prep. & adv. at the back of 在……之后
behind 多指位置之后, fall behind 落在后面   being n. a living thing 生物;人 a human being 一个人 come into being 产生
believe  v. 相信,认为 belief n. 信仰;信条 ,believe 相信……说的话 believe in 信任(某人) ( =trust )
bell n.钟;铃 ring a bell 打铃
belong v.属于 belong to 属于;是……的成员
below   prep. & adv. 在下面
below 指位置低于某物,但不一定在其正下方,反义词above ,under 指在某物的正下方,反义词 over
belt n. 带;传送带;腰带 bench n. 长凳
bend v.(bent, bent) 使弯曲;弯曲;俯身 (down, over, forward, back)   bent adj. 弯曲的
beside   prep.在……旁边
besides   prep. 除了……以外
besides 指“除……外”(还有; including)
except 指“除……外”(不再有; exluding)
 best adj. adv. & n. 最好 (是 good 或 well 的最高级) do one's best 尽最大努力 all the best 一切顺利
best-seller n. 畅销书 better adj. & adv. (good 或 well 的比较级)更好的(地)
had better (do) 最好(做)( 后接动词原形 )
between prep. & adv. 在(两者之间)
between 用于两者之间; 亦可用于两者以上的之间,但各个为独立的,between 应与 and 连用,不与 or 连用; among 用于三者或三者以上
There is no secret between you and me.
The Danube (多瑙河) runs between many countries.
beyond  prep. & adv. 超出;在……那边;在远处
bicycle n.自行车 = bike
big adj. 大的,大块头的 small 小
big 指体积或面积的大,也指人块头大或大人物
large 常指体积和容积的大,通常不指人
great 伟大,巨大,指长度高度的大;常修饰抽象事物    bill n. 1. 帐单;清单 2. 纸币;钞票 3.  结案;议案   billion num.(美,法)十亿;(英,德)百亿   biology n.生物学   bird n. 鸟  birth n. 出生 birthday 生日 birthplace 出生地 give birth to 分娩 biscuit n. 饼干 bison n. 北美野牛
bit   n. 小块 a bit(of) 有点 bit by bit 一点一点地
not a bit = not at all 一点也不 not a little = very; quite 很,非常
 bite (bit, bitten) v. & n. 咬
bitter adj. 苦的;痛苦的,伤心的 sweet 甜
black adj. & n. 黑色 blackboard 黑板
blame v.责怪 blame sb. for sth. 为某事责怪某人
blame sth. on sb. 把某事归咎于某人 be to blame 某人有过失
blanket n.毯子,厚的覆盖物 carpet 地毯
bleed (bled, bled) vi.流血 blood n. 血 bless v.保佑;祝福 blind adj. be blind in 瞎了 ,be blind to ……对……视而不见
The old horse was blind in the right eye.
One is often blind to one’s own mistakes. So we must help each other.
block n.大块;街区 v. 阻塞;阻挡
blouse n. 女装短上衣;女衬衫
blow v. (blew, blown) n. 打击 blow away 刮走
blue adj. & n. 天蓝色的, adj. 色情的 blue films 色情电影
board n. 木板 on board 在船上(汽车,飞机)上
boat  n.小船 vi. 划船
boat 小船 canoe 独木舟 ship 大船 warship 战舰
body n. 身体; 尸体 body language 体态语 body-building 健身
boil v. 煮沸 boiling water 沸腾的水 boiled water 煮开过的水
bomb n. 炸弹 v. 爆炸 bone n.骨头
book n. 书 v. 订后;订票 bookmark n. 书签
bookstore n. 书店(美) bookshop n. 书店(英)
bore vt. 使……厌倦
born (bear的过去分词) 出生 be born 出生于
borrow v. 1. 借(进);借入 2. 采用 borrow 借入 lend 借出
boss n. 老板;雇主;上司   botany n. 植物学
both .pron.双方 both.. and 两个都 both 两者都
either 两者中任何一个 neither 两者中一个也不
all 两者以上都 none 两者以上一个也不
bottle n. 瓶子
bottom n. 底;底部 at the bottom of 在……底部
top 上部    bowl n. 碗 bowling n. 保龄球
box n. 盆,箱子 v. 拳击;打耳光 boxing n. 拳击
boy n. 男孩;男仆 girl 女孩 boyfriend 男朋友 boy students 男生   an office boy 勤杂工
brain n. n.脑; 智力 (brains)
brake v. & n. 刹车
branch n. 分部; 支流;部门;树枝
brave adj.勇敢的 bravely adv. 勇敢地 bravery n. 勇敢     coward adj. 胆小的
bread n. 面包 bread and butter 涂黄油的面包
break v.(broke, broken) 打碎;打破 break away from 脱离;放弃 break into 闯入(接宾语) break in 闯入(in为副词) break off 打断;折断 break out 突然发生 break the rule 违规 break up 分解 breakfast n. first meal of the day 早餐
breath n.呼吸;气息 hold one's breath 屏住呼吸 out of breath 上气不接下气 breathe vi. 呼吸;呼入 breathe in 呼入 breathe out 呼出
brick n. 砖 tile 瓦      bridge n. 桥 
brief adj.  简短   brief 指简洁 short 指时间、空间和物体的短    bright adj. 聪明的,明亮的
bring v.(brought, brought)带来 bring (back) 带来
take (away) 带走 fetch 去拿(回)
carry 不说明方向( carry away; carry back; carry to..)
bring down 使倒下;击落 bring in 引进 bring on 使前进 bring up 抚养;培养
Britain n.英国,不列颠 British adj. 英国的英国人的
broad adj. 宽的 broad 指幅面的宽广( broad ocean (shoulders; chest..) wide 指一边到另一边的距离 wide eyes (mouth, river..)
broadcast (broadcast, broadcast) v. & n. 广播
 broom n.扫帚 v. 扫
brother n.兄或弟,会友,教友 brother-in –law 姐夫,妹夫
browse v.浏览   brown adj. 棕色;咖啡色
 brush n. 刷子,毛笔 v. 1. 刷 2. 掠过
bucket 水桶,吊桶
bug n.小虫;迷  bug 爬虫或飞虫 worm 蠕虫
build (built, built) vt. 建造;建设 building n. 建筑物 builder n. 建设者
bull n.公牛 bull 公牛;斗牛 cow 母牛;奶牛 ox (en) 公牛 buffalo 水牛 cattle 牛群 beef 牛肉
bullet n 子弹 a bullet-proof car 防弹车
burden n. & v. heavy load 重负,负重 be burdened with 负……重
burn v. & n. 燃烧;烧伤 burn away 烧掉
burn down 烧成平地, burst v.爆炸 burst into 闯入
burst out 突然开始 ,burst into laughter/tears
bury vt.埋藏  bus n.公共汽车 bush n. 灌木
business n.生意; get down to business 言归正传
on business 因公(外出) 
busy adj.忙;没空 be busy doing sth. 忙于做某事
be busy with 忙于某事 free 有空的;自由的
but conj.但是   do nothing(anything) but (do) 后面接不带“to”的动词不定式
butcher n屠夫; 肉商   butter n.黄油;奶油
button n.纽扣;按钮 v. 按钮
buy v.买;购买 buy sb. sth. = buy sth. for sb.               buyer n. 购买者 sell 卖
by   prep. 1. by way of 经;由……;被 2.在旁边
by bus (plane, train , ship, air..) 乘公共汽车(飞机,火车,船) by accident 意外地 = by chance by force 用武力 by heart 牢记 by mistake 弄错 by now 现在 by sea 由海路 by the way 顺便说 by then 到那时 bye-bye=. goodbye 再见
C = 摄氏温度计(的) CAAC中国民航
cabbage n.卷心菜;洋白菜    cafe n. 咖啡馆;餐馆
cage n. 笼;鸟笼 vt.将(某人/物)关入笼中
cake n.蛋糕;糕;饼
call v. & n. 称呼;取名;呼唤;叫喊;叫;喊;(一次)电话;通话
call at (a place),访问(某地) call back, ring back 回电话 call for,去取(某物);去接(某人);要求;号召;约请 call in召来;召集 call on.拜访;访问
calm adj. quiet, not worried; 平静的;镇静的;沉着的 v. 镇定;使镇定    calorie n.卡(热量单位)
camera n.照相机;摄相机 in camera不公开地私下
camp v. & n. 野营;宿营;营 go camping 去野营 a summer camp 夏令营
can v. 能够;可以;可能;会.can not be too careful 怎么小心也不过分 be able to 与can
can 没有将来式和完成式。Be able to 有各种时态。
could 和 was able to/ were able to 都可以表过去的“一般能力”。表过去具体的能力要用was/were able to。不过否定式couldn’t 也可表具体的能力。
n. 罐头;金属容器
Canada n.加拿大 Canadian n加拿大人
cancer n.癌症  candle n.蜡烛  cap n.帽子;(管,瓶等的)盖   capital n.首都;省会;大写字母; h资本;资方
captain n. 陆军上尉;海军上校;船长;(足球队等)队长 car n.小汽车 card n.卡片,名片
cardigan n.开襟绒线衫
care n. & v. 小心;谨慎;注意;关心;介意 take care of, look after 照料;照顾 care for, like, want 喜欢;想要 careful adj.谨慎的;小心的;仔细的 careless adj.粗心的;漫不经心的
carelessly adv. thoughtlessly粗心地
carol n. 颂歌;欢乐之歌 carpet n.地毯;毛毯
carriage n.四轮马车;cart(火车)客车厢
carrot n.胡萝卜
carry v.运送;搬运;携带 carry off, snatch夺走 carry on, go on继续下去 carry out,进行;开展;执行(计划,命令); 实现
cart n.(三轮货车)马车;火车;小推车 v. 用大车拉(某物)
cartoon n.动画片 cartoon-maker
carve v刻,雕刻
case n.盒;袋;套;箱状况,情况 in that case若是那样的话
cash n. 钱;现款;现金 castle n.城堡
cast v.扔;投;掷;抛 castor n.蓖麻 cat n.猫
catch v. caught[ ], caught接住、捉住
be in time for 赶上
become infected with染患 catch fire着火
catch up with (a)赶上某人 (b)赶工
cattle n.牛的总称
cause v.引起;使产生;使发生 n. t原因;起因
cave n山洞 ceiling n.天花板、平顶
celebrate v.庆祝 cent n. 一分钱 centimeter n.公分;厘米   centre n. 中心;中央;中心点 central adj.中央的,中心的
century n.百年 certain adj确定的;无疑的
(b)一定的 (c)未指明的、未说明的;某种
certainly adv. without doubt 无疑地、确定地
chain n.锁链 in chains上着镣铐;在囚禁中
chair n.椅子 chairman n. g主席;议长;会长
chalk n.粉笔 chance n.机会
change v.改变、更换,兑换 n.变化,零钱
change…for 用……换…… change…into把…变成
change one’s mind改变主意
channel n.水渠    chapter n.篇、章
character n. 1.人物;角色(小说、戏剧等);2.字体
charge v.索价、要价 n.费用 in charge of负责管理
chart v.制图 ,n.航海图,图表 chat n. & v.聊天、闲谈
cheap adj. l便宜、贱 cheaply adv. 廉价地
check v.检查、核对 n.检查、核对; check支票;饭馆等的帐单 check out结帐;查明 cheek n.面颊
cheer v.欢呼;喝彩 cheese n.乳酪、干酪
chemical n.化学物; adj.化学的 chemical rain 酸雨
chemist n.药剂师化学家 chemistry n.化学
cheque n. (Br.E)支票  chest n.箱子、盒子
chew v.咀嚼  chicken n.幼鸟、小母鸡;鸡肉
chief adj.主要的; 重要的; n首领
child n. pl. children儿童、孩子 childhood n.:幼年;童年 chime n.乐器、钟等奏出的谐和的乐声
chimney n. 烟筒、烟囱
China n. 中国 Chinese n.中国人,汉语 adj.中国人,汉语的 chocolate n. 巧克力; 巧克力糖
choice n.  选择、挑选 choose v. (chose; chosen)选择;挑选
Christmas n.圣诞节 Church n.教堂 ,教会
cigarette n.香烟、纸烟 cinema n.电影院
circle n圈; 集团
citizen n.市民 city n. 城市 civil adj.公民的、国内的
claim vt.声称、断言   clap v.拍手;鼓掌
class n.班、级、课 classmate n同班同学
clean adj.干净;清洁 v.弄干净;擦干净
clear adj.明亮的;清晰的;清楚
clear away,take away, get rid of 把……清除掉
clear up 清理;整理 become clear(天气)放晴
clerk n.书记员;办事员;职员
clever adj. 聪明;伶俐的
climb v. 爬、攀登 n. 攀登   clock n.时钟
clinic n.诊所 close v.关;闭 cloth n布、布料
clothing n. clothes(总称)衣服   cloud n.云
club n.俱乐部;社团    coal n.煤
coast n海岸、海滨 coastline n.海岸线
coat n.外套、上衣  cock n. 雄鸡、公鸡 coin n.硬币
cold adj.寒冷的 n.寒冷 take / catch cold感冒、伤风
collar n.衣领
collect v. 收集;搜集;聚集 collection n. d收藏品
college n.(综合大学中)学院;高等专科学校
colo(u)r n.颜色;色彩   comb v.梳(头发)
come  come off:脱离,离开 ,come on:跟随 ,come out: 出来,出版、发行 come to: amount to共计;达到 come true:变为现实;实现
comedy n.喜剧 comfort n.舒服、舒适;安慰 v.安慰
comfortable adj.舒服的 . uncomfortable
comment n..评论
common adj.共同的;普通的 in common共同、共用
communicate v.传送;交换;互通 communism n.共产主义的 communist n.共产主义者; adj.共产主义的
companion n.同伴;同事 company n.陪伴; 公司
compare v. r比较 ,compare with 把…和…进行比较
compared…to 与…相比;把…比作…
compete v.比赛;竞赛 competition n.比赛;竞赛 competitor n.比赛者    complete adj.完全的;彻底的;完结的; v.完成;结束
composition n. 作文;作曲 compressed adj. 压缩的
computer. n .计算机
conceited adj. 骄傲自满的 concert n.音乐会;演奏会
condition n.条件; 状况; pl.  环境、情形
conductor n.售票员、列车员; 指挥;导体
conference n.会议讨论
congratulate v. 祝贺 congratulation n. (often pl)贺词    conjecture n推测
connect v.连接;把…联系起来
continent n. 洲;大陆  continue v.继续;连续
contribution n.贡献
control v.控制;支配; n.控制;支配
convenient adj. 便利的;方便的
conversation n.谈话;交谈  cook v.烹调 n. 厨师、炊事员   cool adj. 凉的、凉快的
copy n.(书报等)一本、一份 v. 抄写
coral n. s珊瑚;珊瑚虫 
corner n.角、角落、街道拐角
correct adj. 正确的;对的; v.改正、修正、纠正
cost (cost, cost) v. 值(多少钱);花费
cottage n.村舍、小屋   cotton n.棉花;棉线;棉布
cough n. 咳嗽;咳嗽
count v. r 按顺序数;计数 counter n.柜台
country n.国家;农村、乡野 countryside农村、乡野
couple n. 一双;一对,夫妇
courage n. 勇气;胆略 course n.经过;过程;道路;课程   of course , naturally; certainly 自然;当然
court n. 法庭;法院
cousin n. 堂(表)兄弟;堂(表)姐妹
cover v.覆盖;遮盖;掩盖 n.罩;盖子
crazy adj风狂的    cream n.乳脂;乳油;膏状物
create v 创造;造成;制造
crew n全体船员;机组人员
crisp adj. 脆的;松脆的 n. 油炸土豆
crop n 庄稼;收成
cross v.穿过;越过;渡过 n.十字形;交叉 adj. 脾气不好的;易怒的
crowd n. 人群;群集;拥挤;挤满
cruel adj.残酷的;残忍的;无情的
cry v.叫喊;哭声 cubic,adj.立方形的;立方体的
cupboard碗柜、衣柜  cure v.治疗; n.治愈;全愈
curious adj. 奇妙的;稀奇的
curtain n.(门、窗)帘;幕 cushion n.垫子
custom n.风俗;习俗;习惯 customer n. g顾客;顾主
dad n. (口语)爸爸;爹爹
daily adj. & adv. 日常的; 日常地 n. 日报
dam n.水坝;水闸 damage n.损害;损坏 v. 损坏
dance v. 跳舞 n.舞蹈;舞步
danger n. 危险 in danger 处在危险状态 dangerous adj.: 危险的
damp n. 潮湿; 潮湿的 dare v. & aux. 敢;敢于
dark adj. 黑暗的;深色的;棕色的
darkness n.: 黑暗 dawn n. daybreak 黎明;破晓
date n. 日期 date from: 始于 daughter n. 女儿
day n.白天 ,一天by day :日间;白天里
day after day日复一日 day and night :all day and all night: 日日夜夜 one day(过去或将来)某一天
the day after tomorrow : 后天 the day before yesterday : 前天 the other day : a few days ago: 前几天 day by day : one day to another: 一天天的。
daylight n.白昼 黎明
deaf adj.聋的 deal v. (dealt [ delt ], dealt ) 分配,经营
deal with : 对付;应付; 涉及  a good (great )deal of: =quite a lot of: 大量;相当多
dear adj.亲爱的;可爱的; 昂贵的;高价的
death n. 死 debt n.债务;欠款   in debt :欠债
December n.十二月
decide v.: 决定;下决心 decision n.决定;决心
declare v.声明;断言
deed n.行为;事迹          do a good deed: 做一见好事
deep adj.深的; adv.  深深地   deer n.鹿
defeat n. 击败;失败 v. 击败;使挫败 ( syn. beat, overcome )     defence n. 防御;防备
defend v. 防卫;保卫 ( syn. protect, safeguard ) definite adj. 明确的;肯定的;无疑的
degree n.角或温度的单位:度,学位
delay v. 推迟,耽搁 ( syn. postpone, put off )
delicious adj. 美味的;妙的
delight n.高兴;快乐 ( syn. pleasure )v 使高兴;使快乐 deliver v. 传递;交付 give forth in words 发言:
demand v.: 要求;需求
department n.: 部门;车间 ( syn. store; shop )
department store百货公司
depend v. (with on or upon ) =rely on依赖;依靠
depth n. 深;深度   describe n. 描写;描述
decription n. 描写;描述    desert n.沙漠;荒漠
desert v.抛弃;遗弃 design v.设计;绘制 n.设计 designer n.设计人;制图员
desire n.要求;期望   desk n. 书桌;写字台
destroy v. 破坏;毁坏  detective n.侦探
determine v. 决定;下决心 determination n. 决定
 determined adj. 坚决的  develop v.开发,发展冲洗
development n.开发,发展
devote v.专心,献身 devote to: 献身于,致力于,专心
dial v. 拔(电话号码)  diamond n.钻石,金刚石  diary n.日记 dictation n. 听写 dictionary n. 词典,字典      die v. 死,枯萎
die of: 死于(表示由于内部原因,疾病,情感,饥寒等而死) die from 死于(表示由于外部原因,偶然性死亡) die out: 消失,灭亡
difference n.不同
different adj. not the same: 不同的,差异的
( syn. various ) ( ant. same ) differently adv. 不同地
  difficult adj. not easy: 难的,困难的
( syn.hard ) ( ant. easy )    difficulty n. the state or quality of being difficult: 困难,难事
dig v. ( dug, dug ) use a tool to break up and move earth; 挖, 掘
( syn. pick )
digest v. change, be changed, in the stomach and bowels, so that it can be used in the body: take into the mind; 消化,领会
*dingo n. a kind of dogs in Australia: 澳洲的一种野狗
dinner n. main meal of the day: 正餐
( syn. meal )
            dining room: a room for meals: 餐厅
dip v. put, lower sth. into a liquid: put and take sb. into and out sth.: 浸,蘸;把…放入又放出
direct adj. with nothing or no one in between; in an unbroken line: 直 接的
v. manage; control: 指导,控制
        direct speech 直接引语
( syn. guide ) ( ant. indirect )
            direction n. course taken by a moving person or thing face: 方向,方位
director n. person who directs the actors and actresses; person who controls
a factory or a workshop: (戏剧,电影的)导演,(工厂)厂长,(车间的)主任
        *directory n.. list of names and addresses: 姓名地址录
dirt n. unclean matter: 污物;脏物
           dirty adj. not clean; covered with dirt: 脏的;
v. Make or become dirty: 弄脏
( ant. clean )
disability n. lack of ability: 残废;无能
( ant. ability )
disabled adj. make unable to do sth..: 残废的;残疾的
disadvantage n. unfavourable condition:不利条件;弱点
ant. advantage
disagree v. Take a different view; have different opinions: 不同意;意见不同
( ant. agree )
disagreement n. act of disagreeing:。意见不同;不同意
ant. agreement
disappear v. Go out of sight; be seen no more: 消失
( ant. appear )
disappoint adj. fail to do or be equal to what is hoped for expected 使失望
disappointing adj. causing sth. to be disappointed: 令人失望的;令人扫兴的
disappointment n. being disappointed: 失望;沮丧
disaster n. great or sudden misfortune: 灾难;祸患
discover v. find out: 发现
( syn. invent; find )
discrimination n. discriminating:岐视
discovery n. discovering or be discovered: 发现
discuss v. Examine and argue about: 讨论;议论
discussion n. talk for the purpose of discussing: 讨论
disease n. illness: 病;疾病
syn. illness
dish n. shallow, flat-bottomed vessel: 盘子;碟子food bought to table on a dish: 一道菜
disk n. thin, flat, round plate from which music or songs can be heard: 磁盘
dislike v. not like:不喜欢;厌恶
( syn. hate )( ant. like; love )
disobey v. Pay no attention to orders: 不服从
ant. obey
distance n. measure of space between two points, places: 距离;远处
distant adj. far away in space or time: 远的,遥远的
( syn. far )( ant. close; near )
district n. part of a country:区;地区;区
disturb v. Break the quiet, calm, peace, or order of; put out of the right or usual position: 扰乱;打扰
dive v. go head first into water: 跳水
divide v. separate, splite or break up: 分;划分;分割
      divide up: 分配
      divide….into…把…分为
do (did, done, does) aux.1. used with another verb to form questions or negatives
(1) 放在主语前构成疑问句
(2) 与not连用构成否定句
2. used to give emphasis to the main verb 用于强调
v. 1. carry out action 干;做(事)
2. complete 完成
3. make, produce 制作,产生
4. make tidy 整理,使整洁
5. study 学习,研究
 do a good deed 做件好事
do cleaning/cooking/shopping 扫除/做饭/买东西
do somebody a favor 帮某人一个忙
do the deed 付诸行动,生效
do good to 对......有益
do with 处理,安排
do well in 在......方面做得好
do wrong 做坏事,犯罪
doctor n.
1. medical practitioner 医生
2. academic title 博士
( syn. physician, surgeon)
dog n. the animal 狗
Love me, love my dog 爱屋及乌
Let sleeping dogs lie 莫惹是非
dollar n. the standard unit of money in the us, Australia, Canda, HongKong and other countries, for which the sign is $ (美国,澳地利,加拿大,香港和其它一些国家的货币 单位)元(符号为$)
door n.
1. the large flat object that you open and close at the entrance to a building, room, vehicle etc. 门
2. the space made by an open door 通道 doorstep 石阶       doorway 门口;「喻」入门       doorbell 门铃
double 1. adj. having two parts or lagers 双的
2. adj. twice as much 两倍的
3. v. fold 把......对折
4. n. exact likeness 极相似
doubt n.[u] uncertainty 疑惑
v. be uncertain 怀疑
v. mistrust 不信
( syn. suspect) ( ant. Believe)
down adv.
1. to/in a lower position 向下
2. into a weaker, smaller, or quieter state 减退下去变小......
prep: 1. to wards the ground or a lower point or in a lower position 向下
2. alone 沿着(街道,河流)而下
ant. up
 downtown 在(往)城市的中心区和商业区
downstairs在楼下,到楼下
downward向下
downhill往山脚
dozen n. twelve 一打,十二个
 dozens of : lots of n+ 很多
draw v.(drew, drawn)
1. make line, depict 画,描绘
2. pull, pull after one 拉
3. extract 引出,抽出,取出
n. equal outcome to a match 平局,不分胜负
( syn. drag, pull)
  drawer n. 抽屉
   drawing n. 绘画,图画
dream v.(dreamed, dreamed, dreamt, dreamt)
1. imagine during sleep 梦,做梦
2. fancy 梦想,梦幻
n. 1. [c] a series of thoughts, images, and feeling that you experience when you are sleep 梦
3. [c] wish 愿望
  dream of 向往;渴望;梦想
dress n. 1. a place of clothing worn by a woman or girl that
covers her body from her shoulders to somewhere
on her leg 长裙
2. apparel in general 服装(尤指外衣)
syn. clothes
v. 1. clothe oneself 给自己穿衣
3. clothe someone else 给别人穿衣(不可用衣服作宾语)
( syn. put on ,wear) ( ant. undress)
         dress up (给......)穿上盛装
drill n. 1. exercises 练习,操练
2. instrument for boring 钻头,钻孔器
v. 1. bore 钻(孔),钻通
2. exercises 训练
syn. exerise, practice, training
drink v.(drank, drunk)
1. quench thirst 止渴,饮,喝
2. soak 吸收
3. take alcohol 喝酒
n. amount of liquid 饮料,酒
       drinker 酒徒
adj. drinkable 可以喝的
drive v. (drove, driven)
1. steer a car 驾驶车
2. cause to go 驱,赶
3. force to work 逼迫,迫使
n. 1. journey by car 驾驶,驱车旅行
2. private road way to a house 车道(尤指和室内的汽车道)
( syn. ride)
 drive home 开车回家
drive away 把车开走
drive off 赶走
drive sb. mad 使某人发狂
driver n. [c] 司机,驾驶员
drop
n. 1. fall 降下,落下
2. globule 滴剂
3.small amount of liquid 滴
v. 1. fall 落下,降落
2. allow to fall 使落下,使滴下
3. lower 降低
( syn. fall)
 drop in 顺便走访某人(接地点时用介词at,接人用on)
drown v.
1. die by submersion 淹死,溺死
2. obliterate 淹没,消失
3. bathe 把......沉浸在液体中
like a drowned rat (湿得)象落汤鸡
drug n. 1. medicine 药
            2. habit─forming substance 成瘾性药品
v. render unconscious by drugs 使麻醉
    drug store 药房
    a drug user 吸毒者
drunk adj. (not before noun) unable to control your behaviour, speech etc because you have drunk too much 醉的
   n. someone who is drunk or often gets drunk
( syn. drunken (drier, driest ) 酒鬼)
dry adj. 1. opposite of wet 干燥的
             2. thirsty 口渴的
3. having very little rain or moisture 干旱的
v. [I,T] to make something dry or become dry 使.....干
( ant. wet) ( dryness n. 干燥)
duck n. [c] a very common water bird with short legs
and a wide beak that is used for its meat,
eggs, and soft feathers. 鸭
v. to lower your head or body very quickly, especially
to avoid being seen or hit. 迅速低下头(或弯下身)闪避,躲避
due adj. 1. proper, right 适当的,应有的                    
2. owed 应支付的
              3. to be expected to happen or arrive at a particular time 预期的,约定         give sb. his/her due 给某人以应得的评价      due to : because of 由于
( syn. owing to , because of , thanks to)
dull adj. 1. boring 单调无味的                      
2. not bright or shine 暗淡无光的
              3. not sharp 钝的
 v. to make something such as pain or a feeling become less sharp less clear etc 使迟钝,缓和,减轻
( ant. sharp)
during prep. 1. all through a length of time 在......期间
                    2. at some time in a period of time 在......的时候
( syn.in the course of 在......期间)
dust n. 1. [u] dry powder consisting of extremely small bits of earth or sand 出土,灰烬,粉末
            2. dry powder consisting of extremely small bits of dirt which you find in buildings on furniture, floors etc 灰尘
v. 1. remove dust 去掉......上的灰尘
    2. to shake a fine powder over something 撒(粉末),(把粉末)撒在......上
       dusty adj. 尘土一般的
       duster n. 打扫工,揩布,掸帚
      dustman 清除垃圾的人
( syn. clean ) ( ant. dirty)
duty n. 1. [c, u] something that you have to do because itis morally or legally 责任,本分,义务
            2. [c usually plural, u] something you have to do as part of your job or because of your social position 职务,勤务
           do one's duty 尽自己的责任
           on duty 值日,值班
           off duty 不上班
( syn. obligation, responsibility )
each pron. adj. every single one of two or more things or people considered separately 各个,每个
each and every one: an expression used to emphasize that you are talking about every single person or thing in a group 每个
each other 互相,彼此
eager['i:g ] adj. very keen and excited about something that is going to happen or about something you want to do 渴望的,热切的
be eager to do sth. 渴望干...
be eager for(after) knowledge 渴求知识
be eager about one's progress 争取进步
be eager in one's studies 专心学习
adv. eagerly['i:g li] 热切地,渴望地
n. eagerness 渴望.
ear n.1.[c]one of the organs on either side of your head that you hear with 耳朵
2.[c]the ability to hear sounds 听觉,听能
give ear to 听,倾听,注意
be all ears 全神贯注地倾听着.
early adj. 1.near to the beginning of a day, year, someone's life, etc. 早期的,早时的
2.arriving or happening before the usual or expected time 早的,早到,早发生.
3.near enough to the beginning of a process to prevent something bad from happening 及早的
adv. 1.before the usual, arranged, or expected time 早地
2.near the beginning of a day, week, or other period of time
在初期在早时,在早期
3.near the beginning of an event, story, process, etc.
earn v. 1.[I.T]to receive a particular amount of money for the work that you do 挣得,赚得.
2.[T]to make a profit from business or from putting money in a bank, lending it to a company, etc.赢得
3.[T]to get something that you do serve, because of your qualities or actions 博得,应得
earn money 挣钱
earn one's living 谋生
n. earnings[' :ni z] 所得,收入,报酬
syn. gain
earth n. 1.[sing.]the earth the world that we live in 地球
       2.[U]substance that plants, trees etc grow in.
土,泥
3.[sing.]the hard surface of the world, as opposed to the sea 陆地,地面,地上
earthquake n. 地震
on earth 究竟
syn. world; globe; ground; land; soil
east (abbreviation E) n.
1.[sing. U] the direction from which the sun rises, that is on the right of a person facing north 东,东方
2.adj. in the east or facing the east 东方的,朝东的
3.adv. towards the east 在东方,向东方
in the east of ...在...的东部(境内)
on the east (of) 在...(的)东面(接壤)
to the east of 在...以东(境外)
East Africa 东部非洲
eastern['i:st n] adj. 东方的,东部的
easy adj. 1.not difficult, and not needing much physical or mental effort 容易的,不费力的
2.not feeling worried or anxious安逸的,安心的,平静的
take it easy 别着急,别紧张
easy chair 安乐椅
easy going 懒散的,随和的,放荡的,悠闲的
adv. easily 容易地,不费力地,舒适地
eat v. (ate[et],eaten) [I.T] to put food in your mouth and swallow it 吃
eat up 吃光
eatable 可食用的 n.[通常复]食物,食品
eater n.食者
syn: have, take, dine
edge n. 1. the part of an object that is furthest from its center 边,边缘
2. the thin sharp part of a blade or too( that cuts) 加,利刃,锋,锐利
v. 1.[T] to put something on the edge or border of something 给...加上边
2.[I. always + adv./prep., T. always + adv./prep.] to develop gradually, or to make something do this 使渐进,徐缓地移动
syn. border
education n. 1.[sing., U] the process by which your mind develops through learning at a school, college or university 教育
2.[sing.,U] the knowledge and skills that you gain from being taught 培养,训导
further education 深造,进修
syn. schooling
effect n. [C,U] the way in which an event, action, or person changes someone or something 影响,结果,效果,作用
v.[T] formal to make something happen 产生,招致
have an effect on 对产生影响
bring into (to) effect 实行,实现,实施
take effect (药等)见效,(法规等)生效
syn. result
ant. cause
effort n. 1.[U] the physical or mental energy that is needed to do something 努力,尽力
2.[C,U] an attempt to do something, especially when this involves a lot of hard work or determination 艰难地尝试
make an effort to do sth. 努力做某事
make every effort (to do sth.) 尽一切努力做某事
syn. pain, trouble
ant. ease
egg n. 1.[C] a round object with a hard surface, that contains a baby bird, snake, insect etc and which is made by a female bird, snake or insect 蛋
2.[C,U] an egg, especially one from a chicken, that is used for food 鸡蛋
egg sb ... on [T] to encourage someone to do something especially something that they should not do怂恿,煽动
eight num. 1.the number between seven and nine; the number 8
2. a team of eight people who row a racing boat 八人的划船队
either ['i: ] conj. used to begin a list of two or more possibilities separated by or 或者,要么(一般与or连用)
adj.,pron.1. one or the other of two things or people (两者中的)任何一个
2. one and the other of two things or people, each (两者之中的)每一方
syn. both
adv.[only in negatives] also 也
syn: also
either...or... 或者...或者...;是...还是...;不是...就是...
elder adj. [only before noun] a brother etc who is older than other brothers, etc. 年龄较大的
n. 1. a member of a tribe or other social group who is important and respected because they are old (复数)长者,前辈
2. someone who has an official position of responsibility in some Christian churches (教会的)长老
3. a small wild tree with white flowers and black berries接骨木
syn. older
ant. younger
electric adj. 1. an electric machine, light, etc. works using electricity 电的、用电的
2. an electric situation is one in which people are very excited because something important is going to happen令人震惊的, 惊心动魄的
electrical [i'lektrik l] adj. 电的、电气的
electricity [ilektr'isiti] n.[u] 电、电流
elephant n.[c] a very large grey animal with four legs, two tusks and a trunk that it can use to pick things up 大象
eleven num. 1. the number between ten and twelve
2. a team of eleven players in football or cricket 十一个人的足球队
else adv., adj. who/what/why, etc. else or anything/someone
anywhere etc else. a) besides or in addition to someone,
something etc. 其他,另外 b) apart from or instead of
something, someone,etc. 别的
or else 否则,不然的话
employ [T] 1.to pay someone to work for you 雇用
2.to use a particular method or still in order to do something. 用,使用
n. [u] in sb's employ formal if you are in someone's employ, you work for them 雇用,使用
syn. hire
ant. dismiss
empty adj. 1. having nothing inside container. 空的
2. an empty room, building etc does not have any people in it (房屋,建筑等)没人居住的
3. not being used by anyone 无用的
V.[T] also empty out if you empty a container, you remove everything that is in it. 倒空,使...成为空的
syn. hollow. vacant
ant. full
encourage [T] 1. to say or do something that helps someone have the courage or confidence to do sth. 鼓励
2.to make something more likely to happen or make people uragement n. 鼓励
encourage sb. to do sth. 鼓励某人做某事
syn. excite, inspire
end n.[C] 1. the last part of something such as a period of time activity, book or film. 完成,结束,终止,限度
2. the furthest point of a place or object 尖,梢,尽头
3. a situation in which something is finished or no longer exists 结局,结束
v. [I] to finish or stop 结束,终止,消灭,了结
endless adj. 无止境的,无穷的,没完的
ending [c] (pl. endings) 结局,结尾,最后
in the end 最后,终于
end up 结束,告终
at the end of ...最后, ...尽头
by the end of 在...结束时, 到...末为止
make ends meet 量入为出, 使收支相抵
syn. complete, finish
ant. begin
enemy n.[C] 1. someone who hates you and wants to harm you 仇人
2. someone who opposes you and wants to prevent you doing something 仇敌
3. someone you are fighting in a war 敌人
syn. foe
ant. friend
energy n. [C.,U.] 1. the physical and mental strength that makes you to be active 活动,劲
2. power that is used to provide heat, drive machine, etc. such as oil and coal 能,能量
3. energies. the effort that you use to do things 精力,能力
syn. power, vigour
engineer n. [c] 1. one who is trained to plan and build roads, bridges, machines, etc.工程师
2. someone who controls the engines on a ship or aircraft 操纵员 管理员
v. [T] to arrange something by clever secret planning 设计 策划
engineering n. [U] 工程 工程学
English n. [U] 1. the language of Britain, the US, Australia and some other countries 英语
2. English language and literature as a subject of study 英语言学
3. the English people from England 英国人
adj. from or connected with England or Britain 英国的 英语的 英国人的
England n. 英格兰(泛指)英国
Englishman n.(pl. Englishmen)英国人, 英国男人
in English 用英语
enjoy v. [T] 1. to get pleasure from something
享受...的乐趣, 喜爱
2. to have something good such as success or a particular ability or advantage 享有(利益、权利、声誉等), 享受
enjoyable adj. 愉快的; 快乐的; 有趣的
enjoy oneself 过得愉快
enjoy doing something 喜欢做某事
syn. appreciate
ant. depreciate, loathe [lou ]
enough adv. to the necessary degree 足够地,充分地
pron. adj. as much as many as may be necessary 足够的,充分的
syn. sufficient
ant. insufficient, inadequate
enter v.1. [I.T] to go or come into a place 进去,进入
2. [T] start to take part in 加入,参加
3. [I.T] start working开始从事,开始进入,开始研讨
syn. come into
entire adj. [only before noun] whole; complete; all全部的,整个的
entirely adv. 完全地,彻底地
syn. whole
ant. partial
entrance n. [C] 1. a door, gate, etc. that you go through to enter a place 入口
2. [C., usually sing.] the act of entering a place or room进入
3. [U] permission to become a member of or become involved in a profession, university, society, etc.入场,入会,入学
syn. entry ,entree
ant. exit
envelope n. [C] 1. a thin paper cover in which you put a letter 信封
2. a layer of something that surrounds something else
外壳,封套,封皮
envy v. [T] to wish that you had someone else's possessions, abilities, etc. 妒忌,羡慕
n. [U] the feeling of wanting something that someone else has . 妒忌,羡慕
envy sb.(for) sth. 羡慕某人......
equal adj. 1. the same in size, value, amount, number, etc. as something 均等的,相同的
2. having the same rights, opportunities, etc. as everyone else, whatever your race, religion, or sex. 平等的
3. be equal to : to have the ability to deal with a problem, piece of work etc successfully 胜任的,经得起的
v. equalled, equalling: to be exactly the same in size, number, or amount as something else 等于
n. [C] someone who is as important, intelligent etc as you as you are, or who has the same rights and opportunities as you do 相等者,相同者,同辈

equally 平等地,相同地,公平地,平均地
equality n. 同等,平等,均等
equipment n. 1. [U] all the special tools, machines, clothes, etc. that you need for a particular activity. 设备,器材
2. [singular] the process of equipping someone or something . 配备,装备
escape v. 1. [I. T] to get away from a place when someone is trying to catch you or stop you leaving 逃跑,逃离
2. [I. T] to get away from a dangerous situation that is likely to harm you if you do not leave 逃跑,逃脱,避免
3. [I. T] to succeed in avoiding being involved in an unpleasant, difficult or dangerous situation 避免
n. [C, U] the act of getting away from a place where you do not want to be, or from an unpleasant or dangerous situation. 逃跑,逃离
a narrow escape 九死一生
a fire escape (火警时使用的)太平梯,安全梯,安全出口
syn. flee, run away
ant. capture
especially also specially adv.
[sentence adv.] used to emphasize that something is more with one particular thing than with others 特别,尤其
2. [+adj./adv.] to a particularly high degree or much more than usual 特别地
3. for a particular person, purpose etc. [+for]主要为......
Europe n.1. the large land mass that lies north of the Mediterranean and goes as far east as the Ural Mountains 欧洲
2. the European Union 欧洲联盟
3. BRE the continent of Europe not including Britain 欧洲大陆
European n. 欧洲人
adj. 欧洲的
even adv. 1. used to emphasize something that is unexpected or surprising in what you are saying 甚至,即使
2. even bigger/better/brighter etc used to emphasize that someone or something is bigger better etc than before, or than someone or something else you have just mentioned更加(与形容词或副词比较级连用)
adj. 1. completely flat with all parts at the same height.平坦的,平的
2. an even rate, temperature etc is steady and does not change much 均匀的,平稳的
3. divided equality so that there is the same amount of something in each place, for each person etc. 平均的,公平的
even if/though 即使/尽管
syn. still
evening n. [C, U] the early part of the night between the end of the day and the time you go to bed 傍晚,晚上(从日落至就寝)
inter. (informal): used to greet someone when you meet them in the evening 晚上好
syn. night
ant. morning, day
event n. 1. [C] something that happens, especially something important interesting or unusual 事件,大事
2. [C] an important performance, sports competition, party, etc. which has been arranged for a particular date and time(安排好的)重要节目,运动比赛,晚会等
3. [C] any of the races, competitions arranged as part of a day's sports(运动会等的)比赛项目
current events 时事
ever adv. 1. a word meaning at any time; used mostly in question, negatives, comparisons, or sentences with "if" (用于问句,否定句以及表示条件和比较的从句)在任何时候;曾经
2. a word meaning always; used especially with expressions of time 总是,永远
ever since 自...以来(就一直...)
for ever 永远
every adj. 1. each one of a group of things or people that make a group or set 每一的,每个的
2. used to emphasize that you are talking about the whole of something. 一切的,全部的
syn. each
every bit 每一点,完全,全部
every now and then (或again) 常常,不时地
every other 每隔
every once in a while 偶尔,间或
every two years 每隔两年
everybody /everyone pron. 每人
everyday adj. 每天的,日常的
syn. daily
everything pron. 每件事,事事
everywhere adv. 到处
exact adj. 1. correct and including all the necessary details 确切的,准确的
2. someone who is exact is very carefully and through in what they do 严格的,严厉的
3. an exact science is based on calculating and measuring things rather than on opinions, guessing, etc. 精确无误的,精密的
exactly adv. 确切地,精确地
syn. right
ant. inexact
exam n. 1. [C] a spoken or written test of knowledge, especially an important one 考试,考查
exam= examination: [C] (formal) a spoken or written test of knowledge 考试
2. [C,U] the process of asking questions to get specific information, especially in a court of law 审查,查问
3. [C, U] the process of looking at something carefully in order to see what it is like 细查,检查
syn. test, quiz
fail an examination 考试不及格
pass an examination 考试及格
take an examination 参加考试
carry out a medical examination 进行体格检查
examine v. [I.T] to look at something carefully in order to make a decision, find something, check something etc. 检查,考查,诊察
example n. a thing, person, situation etc that you mention to show what you mean or to show that something is true 实例,范例,模范,榜样
for example 例如
give/set a good example to sb. 为某人树立好榜样
make an example of sb. 惩罚某人以儆他人
Example is better than precept 「谚」 以身作则胜于口头训诲
syn. instance
excellent adj. extremely good or of very high quality
优秀的,卓越的,杰出的,极好的
excellence n. ['eks l ns] 优秀,杰出,卓越
excellency n. ['eks l nsi]
1.[Br.E] 阁下,对大使,总督,主教等的)尊称
2.(常用复)优点,美德 (=excellence)
except 1.conj. except for: apart from 除去、撇开、除非(可用于句首)表示与谈论的对象不属同一类
2.prep. a) used to introduce the only thing or person in a group about which a statement is nottrue 除......之外
b) other than; but
except from: not include something when you are talking about or considering a number or group things 把......除外;不计
except that (接从句)除......外。
excite v.[T] 1. to make someone feel a particular emotion.刺激
2. if something excites comment etc it makes people talk about it 激发,唤起引起
3. [not in progressive or passive] to make someone feel happy interested or hopeful because something good has happened or is going to happen 使兴奋, 使激动
excited adj. 兴奋的,激动的
exciting adj.令人兴奋的,使人激动的
syn. encourage, inspire
excuse v.[T]
excuse me (spoken) 1. used when you want to get someone's attention politely, especially when you want to ask a question (提问问题时的客套)打扰了; 原谅
2. used to say that you are sorry for doing something rude or embarrassing (常用于插话,表示异议等场合) 对不起
3. used to ask someone politely to move so that you can walk past (请示某人让开的客套话) 对不起,打扰.
excuse sb. for doing sth. 原谅某人做过某事
syn. pardon, forgive
n. [c] 1. a reason that you give to explain careless or offensive behavior 理由
2. a false reason that you give to explain why you are doing something or not doing sth. 借口, 辩解
in excuse of 作为......的借口.
syn. reason, explanation
exercise n. 1.[U] physical activities that you do in order to stay healthy and become stronger训练、锻炼
2. [C] a movement or set of movements that you do regularly in order to keep a particular part of your body strong and healthy运动
3. [C](usually pl.) an activity or process that helps you practise a particular skill such as playing a musical instrument or singing 练习
v. 1. [I] to walk, do sports, etc. in order to stay healthy and become stronger 锻炼
2. [T] to make a particular part of your body move in order to make it stronger 锻炼(身体某部位)
exhibition n. 1.[C] a public show where you put things so that people can go to them展览、展览会。
2.[U] the act of showing something such as a painting in a public place表演;显示
on exhibition 展出
syn. show
existv.[I, not in progressive]
1. if someone or something exists that person or thing is real and has not been imagined by someone 存在、实在
2. to happen or present in a particular situation延续、继续存在、存在状态
3. to stay alive especially in a difficult situation when you do not have enough money, food etc. 生存、存活
existence n.[U] 存在、生存、存在物
come into existence 产生、成立
expect v[T] 1. to think that something will happen because it seems likely or has been planed 预期
2. to believe that someone or something is going to arrive 期待
3. to demand that someone does something because it is a duty or seems reasonable 要求、指望
expect to do sth. 料到(预计到......)
expect sb. to do sth.期望某人干某事.
syn. desire
expensive adj. costing a lot of money 昂贵的
expensive mistake: a mistake that puts you in a very bad situation 高昂的代价
expensively adv. 花钱多地、高价地
syn. dear
ant. cheap, inexpensive
experience n. 1. [U] knowledge or skill gained while doing a job 经验
2. [U] the state of knowing or having learnt a lot, about life and the world from events that have happened to you and people you have met 经历、阅历
3. [C] something that happens to you or something you do, especially when this affects or influences you in some way 体验
v.[T] 1. if you experience a problem or situation it happens to you or affects you 体验、经历
2. to feel a particular emotion or physical sensation 感受
experiment n.[C,U]
1. a thorough test using scientific methods to discover how someone or something reacts under certain conditions 实验
2. a process in which a new idea or method to see if it is useful or effective 试验
v.[I] 1. to try various ideas methods etc to see whether they will work or what effect they will have 进行试验
2. to test something using scientific methods to see if it is true or to obtain more information about it进行实验
explain v. [I,T] 1.to make something clear or easy to understand 解释,说明,阐明
2.to give or be a reason for something 为...辩解,说明...的理由
explain sth. to sb. 向某人解释某事
explanation [,ekspl 'nei n] n. 解释,说明,辩解,辩明
explode v. 1. [I.T] to burst, or to make something burstinto small pieces, usually with a loud noise and in a way that causes damage 爆炸, 使爆炸
2.[I] to suddenly become angry or dangerous 爆炸
3.[T] to prove that something that many people think or believe is wrong or not true 破除, 戳穿, 驳倒(理论)
express v. [T] 1.to tell people what you are feeling or thinking by using words (用语言)表达,表示,表白
2.to show your feelings or thoughts using art, music, films etc. (用艺术、音乐、电影等)表达...
3. to let people know what you are feeling or thinking by the look in your face or by your behaviour (用面部表情或行为)表示,显示
adj. [only before noun] an express command, desire or aim is deliberately stated for a particular reason 特殊的,明确的,确切的
n. [C, usually sing.] a train or bus that travels from one place to another very quickly 快车,快运
[U] a post service that delivers letters and packages very quickly 快递
adv. to send or deliver a letter, parcel, etc. quickly using a special post service 乘快车,以快递方式
expression [iks'pre n] n. 表达,词句,表情
exploit v. [T] 1.to treat someone unfairly in order to get money or an advantage for yourself 剥削
2.to use something fully and effectively in order to gain an advantage or profit利用,利用...而自肥
n. [C, usually pl.] brave and exciting action that people admire 功绩,功勋,英勇的行为,辉煌的成就
exploiter n. 剥削者
exploitable [iks,pl it bl] adj.可开发的,可利用的,可剥削的
extra adj. more of something, in addition to the usual or standard amount or number 额外的,外加的
adv. to cost, earn or pay more money than the usual amount 另外收费的
n. [C] something which is added to a basic product or service which improves it and also costs more 额外人手,额外东西,额外费用
extremely adv. to a very great degree极端,极其,非常
eye [ai] n. [C] one of the two parts of the body that people and animals use to see 眼睛
have/keep your eyes on sb./sth. 观察,照看
catch sb's eye 注目
eye-ball n. 眼球
eyed [aid] adj. 有眼的
eyeful ['aifl] 满眼
eyesight n. 视力,目力
face n. the front part of the head from the thin to the hair 脸;面孔;
v. to have the face or front pointing (towards) 面对;面向
face to face in the direct presence(of) 面对面;当面
make a face to make an expression with the face to show rude amusement, disagreement, dislike, pain, etc. 做鬼脸;做苦脸
fact n. something that has actually happened or is happening; something known to be, or accepted as being, true 事实;实际
syn: reality; truth ant: conjecture
as a matter of fact really; actually 事实上
syn: in (actual) fact; in point of fact
in fact really; actually 实际上
syn: as a matter of fact; in point of fact
factory n. a building or group of buildings where goods are made, esp, in great quantities by machines 工厂
syn: works; plant; mill
fail v. to be unsuccessful(in) 失败;不及格
ant: succeed 成功
fair adj. 1. Free from dishonesty or injustice 公平的;合理的;
2. fairly good 相当好(尚好)
3. (of the weather) fine; clear (天气)晴朗的;

4. (having skin or hair that is) light in colour not dark(肤色)

白晰的;(头发)淡色的

syn: proper; blond; pleasant ant: unfair

fairly adv. 1. in a manner that is free from dishonesty; injustice, etc. 公正地;

2. for the most part; rather; quite 相当地

syn: rather, quite

faith n. strong belief; trust 信念;信仰

syn: trust ant: doubt

fall v. (fell fallen) 1. to descend through the air 落下;下降

2. to come down from a standing position, esp. suddenly. 倒下;跌倒

3. Am.E autumn (美)秋天

syn: drop; descend; sink ant: rise

fall asleep to go to sleep 入睡

fall ill to be not well in health 患病

fall in love with 爱上 fall off 跌落;下降

fall over 跌倒;倒下 fall to pieces 崩溃;倒塌

false adj. 1. not true or correct 不正确的

2. not real 假的

syn: wrong; incorrect ant: true; correct

familiar adj. having a thorough knowledge(of) 熟悉

ant: unfamiliar

be familiar with 对……熟悉

family n. any group of people related by blood or marriage, esp. a group of parents and their children 家庭;家族

syn: household

famous adj. very well known 著名的;有名的

syn: remarkable ant: obscure

be famous for 因……而著名

fan n. 1. an instrument meant to make a flow of (cool) air, such as an arrangement of feathers or paper in a half circle waved by hand, or a set of broad blades turned by a motor 扇子

2. a very keen follower or supporter, esp. of a sport or famous person 球迷

far adj. & adv. (farther farthest further furthest) a long way 远的/地

syn: remote ant: near

far away a long way. 遥远的;远离的

far from farther than; instead of 远离;完全不

so far until now 到目前为止

farm n. an area of land, with its buildings, concerned with the growing of crops or the raising of animals 农场;农庄

farmer n. a person who owns or plants the work on a farm

农夫;农场主;牧场主

syn: peasant

farther adv. & adj. (far的比较级) more far 较远;更远

syn: further ant: nearer

fast adj. quick; moving quickly 快的 迅速的

adv. quickly快地;迅速地

syn: quick adv. quickly ant: slow adv. slowly

fasten v. to make or become firmly fixed or joined 扎牢;扣住

syn: fix ant: unfasten.

fat adj. having (too) much fat 肥胖的;

n. the material under the skins of animals and human beings which helps to keep them warm 脂肪

syn: feshy ant: lean

father n. a male parent 父亲

fault n. a mistake or imperfection 缺点;毛病

syn: mistake ant: merit; excellent

favo(u)r n. a kind act 恩慰;好意;帮助

syn: kindness ant: animus

favo(u)rite n. something or someone that is loved above all others 特别喜爱的人(或物)

adj. being a favorite 喜爱的

syn: preferred

fear n. the feeding that one has when danger is near; the feeding that something is likely to happen 害怕;恐惧;担忧

syn: dread; fright ant: fearlessness

feather n. one of the many parts of the covering which grows on a bird’s body, like a thin stick with soft hair-like material on each side 羽毛

February n. the 2nd month of the year 二月

feed v. (fed, fed) to give food to 喂(养);饲(养)

feel v. (felt, felt) to get knowledge of by touching with the fingers感觉;感触

feel like doing to have a wish for; want 觉得想做

ant: want

would like to do 想做 would prefer to do 想做

feeling n. a consciousness of something felt 感情;感觉

syn: sensation

fellow n. someone with whom one shares a (stated) activity or spends time in a (stated) place 同伴;伙伴

syn: companion; mate

fence n. a wall made of wood or wire, dividing two areas of land 栅栏;篱笆

syn: hedge

fetch v. to go and get from another place and bring back 去取;去拿

syn: bring

few adj. not many; not enough 少数(的)

pron. not many; no enough 不多(的)

ant: many

fever n. an illness in which the sufferer suddenly develops a very high temperature 发烧;发热

a few not many 一些;少数几个

field n. a stretch of land on a farm marked off in some way and weed for animals or crops 田地;牧场;场地

fierce adj. angry, violent and cruel 猛烈的

syn: violent; cruel; angry ant: tame; mild

fifteen num. (the number) 15 十五

fifth num. 5th 第五

fifty num. (the number)50 五十

fight v. (fought, fought) to wse violence( against others) 打仗;打架;战斗

n. a battle 战斗

syn: battle; war

figure n. a whole human body, as shown in art or seen in reality

塑像;画像

fill v. to make or become full 满;充满

syn: perrade ant: empty(v.)

fill in to put in 填充;填空

film n. 1. the substance on which one takes photographs or makes cinema pictures 电影胶片

2. movie 电影

syn: movie

final adj. last; coming at the end 最后的

syn: last

find v. (found, found) to discover, esp. by researching 找到;发现

syn: discover

find out to learn or discover (a fact that was hidden) 查明;发现;了解

fine adj. bright and sunny; beautiful and of high quality晴朗的;美好的

  healthy and comfortable(身体)很好的;健康的;舒适的

finger n. one of the movable parts with joints, at the end of each human hand 手指

finish v. to come or bring to an end 结束;做完

syn: complete

fire n. burning with place 火;火炉;火灾

v. to shoot off bullets 开火;射击

syn: blaze(n.)

on fire 着火

fire alarm 火警

fire escape 安全梯

fire fighter 消防人员

fire wood 火柴

firm adj. strong; hard 牢固的;稳固的

n. business company 公司;企业

syn: strong; hard; solid ant: infirm

first adj. & adv. before anything else 第一 before the others 首先

n. the person or thing before all the others 开始;开端

ant: last

at first at the beginning 起先;开始的时候

first of all as the first thing 首先

fish n. a creature which lives in water and use its fins and tail to swim 鱼;鱼肉

v. to try to catch fish 捕鱼;钓鱼

fishing net 鱼网

fist n. the hand with the fingers closed in tightly 拳头

fit v. 1. to be the right size or shape(for)(使)合适;(使)符合

2. to provide and put correctly into place安装

adj. right and suitable 适合的;适当的

syn: suitable ant: unfit

be fit for be suitable 适合

five num. (the number)5 五

fix v. to repair 修理;安装;确定;决定

syn: repair ant: alter

fix up 安顿;修理好

flag n. a square piece of cloth, usu. with a pattern or picture on it,

fastened by one edge to a pole or rope 旗

syn: banner

flash n. 1. a sudden quick bright light 闪光

2. the method or apparatus for taking photographs in the dark

闪光灯

in a flash 一杀那间

flat adj. smooth and level. 平的;扁平的;平坦的;平展的;

n. a set of rooms, esp. on one floor, usu. one of many such sets

in a building or block 一套房间

syn: level(a.) apartment(n.)

flight n. 1. trip by plane 航班;搭机旅行

2. a set of stairs 楼梯的一段

     syn: flying

float v. to stay at the top of liquid or be help up in air without sinking

漂浮;浮动

syn: waft ant: sink

flood v. 淹没;使泛滥 n. the covering with water of a place that is

usu. dry; great overflow of water 洪水

floor n. 1. the surface on which one stands indoor; surface nearest the

ground 地面;地板

2. a level of a building (楼梯的)层

flour n. grain, esp. Wheat, made into powder and used for making

bread, pastry, cakes, etc. 面粉;粉

flow v. to run or spread smoothly like a river; pour 流动;涌出

syn: pour

flower n. the part of a plant, often beautiful and coloured, that

produced seeds or fruit 花

fly v. 1. to move through the air by means of wings or a machine飞翔;乘飞机;

2. to move through the air 飞行

fold v. to turn, bend, or press back one part of something and lay on

the remaining part 折叠;合拢

syn: lap ant: unfold

follow v. to come or go after 跟随;随后

to come next in order (表示时间,次序等)接着

fond adj. loving in a kind, gentle, or tender way 喜爱的;爱好的

syn: doting

be fond of like 喜欢;爱好

food n. something that living creatures or plants take into their bodies to give them strength and help them to develop and to live 食物;食品;养料

fool n. a silly person 傻子;蠢的

syn: idiot ant: wiseman

 

foolish adj. without good sense; stupid; laughable 傻的;愚蠢的

syn: stupid ant: sensible

foot (feet) n. 1. the movable part of the body at the end of the leg, below

the ankle, on which a person or animal stands 脚;足

2. 12 inches or about 0.305 metres 英寸

on foot (by) walking 步行;走路

football n. a ball game between two teams of eleven players, using a round ball which is kicked but not handled 足球运动;足球

syn: soccer

for prep. 1. shows purpose (说明目的或用途)为……

2. instead of 代替;帮助

3. in favor, support 赞成;支持

4. towards (表示方向)往;向

for a while 暂时;一刻 for free 免费 for one thing 首先

forbid v. to command not to do something 禁止;不许

syn: prohibit ant: permit

force v. to use bodily force or strong influence on 强迫;迫使

syn: compel

foreign adj. of a country or nation that is not one’s own 外国的

syn: domestic

forest n. (a large area of land thickly covered with) trees and bushes 森林;丛林

forever adv. = for ever  for all future time 永远;永久

syn: always; ever

forget v. to fail to remember 忘记;忘掉

ant: remember

forgive v. to say or feel that one is no longer angry about and/or wishing to give punishment to (sb.) for (sth.) 原谅;宽恕

syn: pardon

fork n. an instrument for holding food or carrying it to the mouth, having a handle at one end with two or more points at the other叉;餐叉;(路,词等)岔口

form n. shape; appearance 形状;形式;种类

syn: shape

v. 1. to take or make into a shape 形成

2. organize 组织

syn: organize; shape

fortnight n. two weeks 十四的;两个星期

fortunate adj. having or bring good fortune; lucky 幸运的;侥幸的

fortunately adv. by good chance; luckily 幸运地

syn: luckily

fortune n. luck 运气;好运 wealth 财产

syn: luck; wealth

forty num. (the number)40 四十

forward adj. towards the front, the end, or the future 向前;前进;将来;今后

syn: advancing ant: backward

found v. to start building (something large); establish 成立;建立

syn: establish ant: destroy

fountain n. a stream of water that shoots straight up into the air 喷泉

four num. (the number)4 四

fourth num. 4th 第四

fox n. a small doglike European wild animal with reddish fur, which is hunted in Britain and is often said to have a clever and deceiving nature 狐狸

France n. a republic in W. Europe 法兰西;法国

free adj. 1. Able to act as one wants 自由的

2. without payment of any kind 免费的

3. not busy. 空闲的

syn: independent; released ant: bond

set free free 释放;使自由

freedom n. the state of being free 自由

syn: independence ant: bondage

freeze v. (froze, frozen)to harden into or become covered with ice 结冰

French n. the language of France 法语

adj. belonged to France, its people 法国的;法国人的

Frenchman (pl. Frenchmen) n. man of French birth or nationality

法国人

frequent adj. common; found or happening; often 经常的;频繁的

syn: common; usual ant: infrequent

frequently adv. often 经常地;频繁地

syn: often ant: rarely; seldom

fresh adj. not long gathered, caught, produced, etc, and therefore in good condition 新鲜的;无经验的;不熟练的

syn: new ant: stale

Friday n. the 6th day of the week 星期五

Fridge (refrigerator) n. ice box 冰箱

friend n. a person whom one knows well and likes, but who is not related 朋友

syn: confidant ant: enemy

make friends to form a friendship or friendships 交朋友

friendly adj. acting or ready to act as a friend 友好的

syn: kind; amiable ant: unfriendly

friendship n. the condition of sharing a friendly relationship; feeling and behaviour that exists between friends 友谊;友好

syn: friendliness ant: animosity

frighten v. to fill with fear 使惊恐;吓唬

syn: terrify

from prep. 1. starting at 从……起

2. using; out of 由

 3. shows separation, difference or taking away 表距离,差异

from now on in future 从此以后;今后

from then on 从那时开始;从那时起

from…to… 从……到……

front n. the most forward position, part, or surface, furthest form or opposite to the back 前部;前面

in front of towards or outside the front of 在……前面

fruit n. the part of tree or bush that contains seeds, esp. considered as food 水果;果实

fry v. to be cooked in hot fat or oil 油煎;油炒;油炸

fuel n .material that is used for producing heat or power by burning燃料

full adj. 1. filled completely; holding as much or as many as possible

满的;充满的

2. complete完全的

syn: complete ant: empty

be full of be filled with 充满……的

fun n. amusement; enjoyment; pleasure 有趣的事;玩笑;娱乐

syn: amusement; enjoyment; pleasure

make fun of poke fun of; laugh rather unkindly at取笑(某人);开……的玩笑

funny adj. amusing; causing laughter 滑稽可笑的;古怪的

syn: amusing

fur n. a hair-covered skin of certain animals, used for clothing皮;毛皮;皮子

furniture n. all large or quite large movable articles, such as beds, chairs, tables, etc, that are placed in a house, room, or other area(总称)家具

further adj. & adv. (comparative of fur) 更远的(地);较远的(地); 更进一步的(地)

syn: farther

future n. time yet to come 将来;未来

in (the) future = from now on 以后;将来
gain[gein] v. to obtain or achieve something important or valuable 赢得,挣得

n. [C,U] an increase in the amount or level of something 收益,获利

syn. get

ant. lose

game[geim] n. 1. activity or sport 运动

2. part of a match 比赛

3. children's game 游戏

syn. sports

adj.: willing to try something dangerous, new or difficult 雄纠纠的,兴致勃勃的,关于野味的

syn. play, match, amusement

garage['g ra:d ] n. 1. a building for keeping a car in, usually next to a house 汽车库(间)

2. a place where motor vehicles are repaired or maintained 汽车修理厂

garden ['ga:dn] n. especially BrE a piece of land around or next to one’s house where there is usually lawn and area where flowers, plants, or vegetables are grown 花(果、菜)园

gardening 园艺学

syn. yard

gate [geit] n. 1. a frame that one can open and close to get through a fence, wall, a building etc at the entrance to a place 大门

2. the place where one leaves an airport building to get onto a plane. 登机口

gate keeper 看门人

gate-leg-table 折叠式桌子

gate way 门口、入口、方法、手段

syn.door (such a structure for a room)

gather['g ] v. 1. to come together and form a group 聚集

2. to know something or think something is true, because of something that you have heard or seen 得出(印象、想法等);推测

3. to search for things of the same type in several different places and collect them together 搜集,采集

syn. collect, come together, know/think

ant. scatter

gay [gei] adj. 1. bright or attractive 鲜明的,鲜艳的

2. cheerful and excited 快乐的,愉快的

n. gayness[U] 快乐,愉快

general['d en r l] adj.. describing only the main features of something, not the details. 一般的普通的

n. [C] an officer of very high rank in the army or air force 将军

as a general rule 一般说来;

general information 一般知识

general idea 大意

in general 总得来说

generally['d en r li] adv.. 1. in a general way, considering without details or specific cases 一般地

2. by or to most people 广泛地、普遍地

3. usually or most of the time 通常

generally speaking 一般说来

syn. usually widely

generation[,d en 'rei n] n.[C] (pl. generations)

1. all people of about the same age 一代

2. all the members of a family of about the same age

generation gap 代沟

future generations 后代

gentle adj. 1. kind and careful in your character or behavior and not at all violent or unpleasant 温柔的,高雅的,好心的

2. not strong, loud, forceful or extreme 不猛烈的

3. a gentle wind or rain is soft and light 柔和的

4. a gentle hill or slope is not steep or sharp 不陡的

syn. mild / soft

ant. rough, intemperate, hard

gentleman n. a man who always behaves towards other people in a polite and honourable way and who can be trusted to keep his promises, 绅士,先生 (pl. gentlemen)

sym. gentry

geography n. [U] the study of the countries, seas, rivers, towns etc. of the world 地理,地理学

German n. 1. [C] someone who comes from Germany 德国人(pl. Germans)

2. [U] the language of Germany, Austria, and parts of Switzerland 德语

adj.. 德国人的,德语的

Germany n. 德国,德意志

get v. past tense: got[g t] past participle: got,gotten

1. receive/obtain 得到,获得

2. move/go/travel 移动,到达

3. have/own 有,具有

4. become/make sth. become 变得(作连系动词,可跟adj.、过去分词、现在分词、名词或动词等)

5.understand 懂得,明白

ant. Give, leave, lose

get along(with) (prep.)(与人)和睦相处;(事情)进展

get away (adv.) 逃走,离开

get back (adv.) 取回,返回

get down (adv.) 降下,下车

get in (prep.) 乘车(出租车、小汽车,而乘火车、bus、船等用get on)

get off (adv./prep.) 从...下来,下车

get on (adv./prep.) 上车 AMT get off

get on well with sb. …(prep.) 与...相处融洽

syn. get along well with…

get through (prep.) 打通(电话),通过

get together 相聚,聚会,联欢

get up (adv.) 起床

gift n. (c.) (pl. gifts)

1. object: something that you give someone on a special occasions or to thank them 礼物

2. a natural ability 天资

sym. present, talent

girl n. [C] (pl. girls) a female child 女孩

give v. (gave, given)

1.provide/supply 提供,给

2.tell sb. sth./provide information 告诉某人某事/提供信息

3.do sth. 举行,举办

give back (adv.) 归还,送回

give out (adv.) 用完,耗尽,筋疲力尽

give up (adv.) 放弃(可接动名词)

glad adj.. (gladder, gladdest) pleased and happy about something高兴的,乐意的

syn. happy

ant. sad

glance [gla:ns] v. (always +adv./prep.) to quickly look at someone or something once

匆匆一看,一弊

n. a quick look 一瞥

syn. glimpse

glass [gla:s] n. 1. [C] (pl. glasses) a container used for drinking, made of glass; or the drink in it 玻璃杯

2. [U] a transparent solid substance, for example used for making windows and bottles 玻璃

3. [pl.] a set of two pieces of specially cut glass in a frame, which one wears in order to see more clearly. 眼镜

syn. spectacles

globe n. 1. [C] a round object with a map of the earth drawn on it 地球仪

2. the world 地球

glove n. [C]hand wear, especially one which has separate parts for each finger 手套

syn. mitten

go vi (went[went], gone[g n]

1.to move away from the speaker 去,走,前往

2.to be in or pass into a particular state 变成,成为

3.reach 到达

syn. leave, depart

ant. come

go away (adv.) 离开

go back (adv.) 回去

go by (adv.) (时间)过去,经过(地点)

go fishing/shopping/skating/swimming 去钓鱼/买东西/滑冰/游泳

go for a walk 出去散步

go on (adv.) 继续,发生

go on doing sth. 继续做某事(前后是同一件事)

go on with one's work 继续做某事

go out (adv.) (灯、火)熄灭

go over (adv.) 复习、检查

goal n. 1. [C]something that one hopes to achieve in the future 目标

2. the action of making the ball go into the scoring 球门

syn. aim

goat n. [C] an animal a little like a sheep that can climb steep hills and rocks 山羊

god n. 1. [C] a male Being who is believed to control the world or part of it, or represents a particular quality 神

2.someone or something to which one gives too much importance or respect. 上帝

gold n. 1. [C] a valuable soft yellow metal that is an element (=simple substance) and is used for making coins, jewelry etc. 黄金

2. [C, U] the colour of the metal 金黄色

3. adj. 金色的

golden [g uld n] adj.. 1. having a bright, rich, yellow colour, like gold 金黄色的

2. made of gold 金子的,具有金子特点的

syn. gold

good adj. (better ['bet ], best[best]

1. of a high standard 好的

2. of the right kind 高尚品质的

3. healthy 健康的

n. gain or adv. advantage 利益,好处

syn. well, fine

ant. bad, ill, sick

be good at 善于..., 在...方面(学得,做得)好

goodbye interjection n. (c.) used when one is leaving or being left by someone 再见

syn. farewell, bye-bye

goods n.(pl.) things that are produced in order to be sold 货物(只有复数形式,不能用数词及many修饰,作主语时谓语动词用复数形式)

goose n.1. [C] (pl. geese[gi:s]) a bird that is similar to a duck but larger ad makes a hissing or honking 鹅

2. (u.) meat of this bird as food 鹅肉

government n. [C] (pl. governments) the group of people who govern a country or state 政府

grade v. to separate things, or arrange them in order according to their quality or rank. 划分等级

n. standard 1. [C, U] a particular, standard or level of quality that a product, material etc has 等级

2. school year: (c.) a particular year of a school course in the American school system 学年

gradually adv.. in a way that happens or develops slowly over a long period of time 逐渐地

graduate ['gr djueit] n. someone who has completed a university degree course, especially for a first degree 大学毕业生

v. 1. to obtain a degree, especially a first degree, from a college or university 得学位

2. to complete one’s education at high school 毕业

graduation [,gr dju'ei n] 1. [C] the time when one completes a university degree course or one’s education at an American high school 毕业

2. [U] a ceremony at which university degree or diploma is given to students who have completed their courses or school education in American high school or university 毕业典礼,授学位典礼

grain [grein] n. 1. [C] the seeds of crops such as corn, wheat, or rice that are 谷物,谷类

2. [C] a single seed of corn, wheat etc 谷粒

syn. corn

[C] tiny, hard bit e.g. a grain of sand 一粒沙子

grammar n. 1. [C] the rules by which words change their forms and are combined into sentences, or the study or use of these rules 语法(学),文法(学);语法规则

2. [C] a particular description of grammar or a book that describes grammar rules 语法书

grand adj. 1. a grand building, occasion etc is very impressive 雄伟的,宏大的

2. a grand plan or idea aims to achieve something very impressive 重要的,极好的,美妙的

3. people who are grand are rich and important but often too proud 自负的,傲慢的

syn. magnificent, splendid

ant. petty, modest, mean

grand daughter n. [C] the daughter of one’s son or daughter (外)孙女

grandfather n. the father of one’s father or mother (外)祖父

grandmother n. the mother of one’s mother or father (外)祖母

grandson n. [C] the son of one’s son or daughter (外)孙

grass n. 1.[U] a very common plant with thin green leaves that grows in fields and is eaten by animals such as the sheep, the cow and the horse (青)草,草地,牧场

2. (c.) a particular kind of grass 一种草

syn. weed

great adj. 1. very good 美妙的

2. a lot/very much(数量)极大的,(时间)久的

3. large 伟大的,大的

4. important 重大的

syn. big

ant. little

greatly adv. (formal, usually before verb or participle) extremely or very much 大大地, 非常

Greek n. 1. [U] the language of modern or ancient Greece 希腊语

2. [C] native of Greece 希腊人

adj. from or connected with Greece 希腊的,希腊人的,希腊语的

green adj. 1. having the colour of grass or leaves 绿色的

2. very young or not ready to be eaten未熟的,生的

n. [C, U] the colour of grass and leaves 绿色

greet v. 1. to say hello to someone or welcome them 致敬,欢迎

2. [always + adv./prep.] to react to something in a particular way: be greeted with 后面常接副词或介词

syn. salute

greeting 1. [C] words one uses or something one does when one meets someone 问候,欢迎辞

2. (usually plural) a message saying that one hopes someone will be happy, healthy etc.(常用复数)祝贺语

gray/grey adj. having the colour of black mixed with white, like the colour of ash 灰色的,灰暗色的,灰白色的

n. Am.E n. [C,U] the colour of smoke and rain clouds 灰色

ground n. 1. earth surface, open space for games 地面

2. subject 研究的科目,话题
3. area 地区、区域
syn. earth, soil
groundfloor [C] especially Br.E the floor of a building that is at ground level (英国楼房的)底层
group n.[C] 1. several people or things that are all together in the same place 群、批、簇
2. several people or things that are connected with each other in some way (小)组,团体
syn. crowd, gang
grow [gr u] (grew[gru:], grown[gr un] v.
1. person/animal: to become bigger and develop over a period of time 成长,发育,发展

2. plants/crops: to exist and develop somewhere in a natural way 生长

3. to make plants or crops grow by taking care of them 种植,栽

4. link v. to become old etc over a period of time 变得

syn. become

grow up: develop from being a child to being an adult 成熟,成年

guard [ga:d] n. 1. someone whose job is to guard a place, or object in order to protect them from attack or from thieves 哨兵,警卫员

2. someone whose job is to guard prisoners and prevent them from escaping 看守,警戒

3. someone whose job is to be responsible for guarding a place or person for a specific period of time 守卫

bodyguard 贴身警卫/保镖

v. to protect a person, place or valuable object by staying near them and watching them 保护,守卫

guess v. 1.to try to answer a question or make a judgement about something without

having all the necessary facts or careful thoughts 猜

2. guess correctly: to guess something correctly 猜中,猜对

syn. suppose

guest [gest] n.[C]1. someone who is staying in someone else's home because they have been invited 客人,宾客

2. someone who is paying to stay in a hotel guest house 招待所

syn. visitor

guide n. [C] 1. someone who shows visitors the way to a place, especially someone whose job is to show a place to tourists 领路人,导游,向导

2. something that provides information on which judgement can be made指南,指导

    3. a book that provides information on a particular subject or explains how to do sth. 入门书,手册,(旅行游览)指南

syn. conduct, direct, lead, show

ant. follow

gun[g n] n. [C] 1. a weapon from which bullets or shells are fired 枪,炮

2. a tool used to send out a liquid such as paint, grease, or glue, by pressure 喷枪
habit n. something you do regularly 习惯
SYM: custom practice
be in the habit of 有...的习惯
fall/get into the habit of 养成...的习惯
hair n. [u] 1. the mass of things like fine threads that grows on your head. 头发
2. [c] one of the long fine things like thread that grows on people's head and on other parts of their bodies, or similar things that grow on animals.                    毛,茸毛
keep one's hair on 保持冷静
get in (out of) sb's hair 惹恼(停止惹恼)某人
haircut 理发
half 1. n. pron. plural halves[ha:vs] [h vz]) [c] 50% either of the two equal parts into which something is divided or can be divided. 半,一半
2. predeterminer, adj [only before noun] being half of an amount, time, distance, number etc. 一半的
half an hour 半小时
half-hearted 半心半意的,不认真的
half-pay 半薪
hall n. [c] 1. the area just inside the door of a house or other building that leads to other rooms. 门厅
SYM: hallway
2. a passage in a building or house that leads to manyof the rooms. 走廊
SYM: corridor
3. a building or large room for public events such as meetings or dances. 会堂,礼堂,大厅
ham n. 1. [c,u] the upper part of a pig's leg that has been preserved with salt or smoke, or the meat from this. 火腿
※2. informal an actor who performs with too much false emotion 拙劣的表演者
※3. [c] someone who receives and sends radio messages for fun rather than as their job. 无线电收发报业余爱好者
ham-handed 笨手笨脚的
hammer n. [c] 1. a tool with a heavy metal part on a long handle, used for hitting nails into wood. 铁锤
2. a tool like this with a wooden head used to make something flat, make a noise etc. 木槌
v. to hit something with a hammer. 锤打
hammer-headed 有锤状头的,愚笨的
hammer-head 愚笨,锤头
hand n. 1. part of the body 手
2. help/work 帮助
3. skillful 手艺,才能
4. a long thin piece of metal that points at the numbers
on a clock(钟表) 指针
v. to pass something to some one else  传递
by hand 用手,手工
hand in 交进(上)来,交纳
hand out 分发
on the one hand...on the other hand 一方面...另一方面
hand down 把...传下去
hand in hand 并进,联合
hand bag 手提包
handkerchief  n. [c] a piece of cloth or thin soft paper
for drying your nose or eyes. 手帕,手绢
handsome  adj. 1. a man who is handsome is attractive(指男子),
漂亮的,清秀的
SYM: good-looking
2. a woman who is handsome is attractive in a
strong healthy way. 端庄的,温雅的
SYM: beautiful
3. an object, building etc that is handsome is
attractive in an impressive way. 物体建筑,
堂皇的,美观的
AMT: ugly
hang vi, vt 1. (hung; hung)
a. to fix or put something in a position so that
the bottom part is free to move and does not
touch the ground. 悬挂
b. to fix a picture,  photograph etc to a wall, or
to be fixed this way. 挂
2. kill/be killed past tense and past participle:
(hanged) to kill someone by dropping them with a rope
around their neck or to die in this way, especially
as a punishment for a serious crime.  吊死,绞死
hangman 刽子手        hang over 遗留物
happen vi. 1. if an event or situation happens, it exists and
continues for a period of time, especially
without being planned first. (偶然)发生
2. to be caused as the result of an event or action
发生
3. to do or have something by chance 碰巧
happen to do something 碰巧做某事
It happens that .... : By chance, it is true that
sb/sth. happens to be 某人/某物碰巧...
SYM: occur. take  place
happy['h pi] adj. 1. having feelings of pleasure for example because
something good has happened to you.
幸福的,幸运的
2. a happy time, place, occasion etc is one that
makes you feel happy. 愉快的,快乐的
3. satisfied or not worried: [+about]: (感到)愉快
的,乐意的
happy-go-lucky 逍遥自在的,无忧无虚的
SYM: glad, cheerful joyful, merry pleasant
AMT: unhappy, cheer less, sad, unpleasant, sorrowful
n. happiness 幸福,幸运
adv. happily 幸福地,幸运地,愉快地,恰当地
hard[ha:d] adj. 1. firm to touch 硬      AMT: soft
2. difficult to do and understand. 困难的
AMT: easy
adv. 1. using energy/effort 努力地
2. with force 猛烈地
hardly['ha:dli] adv. 1. almost not 几乎不,简直不
2. used to say that something had only just
happened or someone had only just done sth.
刚刚,才
hardly...when...刚...就...
harvest['ha:vist] n. 1. [c,u] the time when crops are gathered from
the fields, or the act of gathering them.
收获,收割
2. [c] the size or quality of the crops that have
been gathered. 收成,产量
SYM: crop
v. to gather crops from the fields 收割,收获
hat[h t] n. [c] a piece of clothing that you wear on your head. 帽子
SYM: cap
my hat (表惊讶)啊!
keep sth. under one's hat 保秘
take off one's hat to 向...(脱帽)致敬
hate[heit] [T not in progressive] 1. to dislike someone very much and
feel angry towards them.  憎恨某人
2. to dislike sth. very much  讨厌某事
n. [u]an angry unpleasant feeling
that someone has when they hate
someone and want to harm them.
怨恨,憎恶
SYM: disgust, dislike, detest
AMT: love like
hateless  不憎恨的
hater n. 怀恨者
have[h v][h v] auxiliary verb past tense had[h d,h d], third person
singular present tense has[h z, h z], negative short
forms haven't[h v nt], hadn't[h dn't]
hasn't['h z nt]
1. used with the past participle of another verb to make the
perfect tense of that verb. 助动词构成完成时态
have been to 去过
have gone to 已经去了
had better (+do, not do sth.) 最好做(不做)某事
2. v [t not usually in passive]
⑴include/contain/own 有
⑵a word meaning to do something used in certain phrases.
have a look/walk...  进行...
⑶eat/drink/smoke  吃,喝
⑷to suffer from a disease, injury or pain 遭受
⑸have/got to do sth. 不得不做某事    SYM: must
⑹have sb. do sth. 让某人做某事
⑺have sth. done 使某物,遭受,让,招致
⑻have sb. doing sth. 让某人一直做某事,使某物...
⑼have sth. on  穿着,戴着
⑽have...on  有事,有约会
⑾have to do with 与...有关
⑿have a gift for 对...有天赋
SYM: own posses
he[hi:]pron[used as subject of a verb] 主格
1. used to talk about a male person or animal that has
already been mentioned or is already known about. 他
2. used to talk about anyone, everyone, or an unknown
person who may be either male or female 某人,任何人
head[hed] n.
1. top of body 头
2. mind 头脑,才智
3. top person 首脑,首长
v. 1. be in charge also head up. [T] to be in change of a
government, organization, or group of people. 率领
2. [I,T] to go or make something go in a particular
direction. (朝某个方向)前进
use one's head 动脑筋
headache 头痛
have a headache(患)头痛
headline(报刊的)大字标题
head master 校长
keep one's head 保持镇静
head teacher 中小学班主任 (Pl. head teachers)
SYM: chief
health[hel ] n. 1. your physical condition and how healthy you are
健康状况
2. the state of being healthy 兴旺,健康
in good(poor) health 身体好(不好)
drink(to) sb's health 举杯祝某人健康
healthy adj. 健康的
SYM: sound, well
AMT: unhealthy, ill, sick
hear[hi ] v. past tense and past participle:
heard[h :d]
[I, T in progressive] to know that a sound is being made,
using your ears 听
hear of 听说(人)
hear about 听说(物)
hear from 收到...来信
hearing 听力          hearing aid 助听器
hearer 听的人,旁听者
SYM: listen
heart[ha:t] n. 1. [c] body organ: the organ in your chest which pumps
blood through your body 心脏
2. [c] emotions /love  感情,爱情
3. from the heart 心肠,内心
4. the middle part of an area  中心
SYM: center, middle
heartily adv. 衷心地,亲切地
heartless adj. 无情的,残忍的
hearty adj. 衷心的,亲切的
learn/know sth.by heart 记住某事
heart and soul 全心全意地
heat[hi:t] n. [u] warmth or hotness 热度,热
v. to make something become warm or hot 把...加热
heat-rash  痱子
heat-spot  雀斑
heat-stroke  中暑
heat wave 热浪
heating a.  加热的,供暖的
heaven[`hev n] n. 1. also Heaven[singular] the place where God is
believed to live and where good people are
believed to go when they die. 天国
AMT: hell
2. [u] informal, a very good situation or place
极乐之地
3. the heavens literary the sky 天空
SYM: sky        AMT: earth
in Heaven  在天国
in heaven  高兴之极
in the heavens  在天上
By Heaven  老天在上(赌咒时用语)
heavenly adj. 天的,天空的
adv. 极,无比地
heavy[`hevi] adj. heavier, heaviest
1. weighing a lot 重的,重型的
2. a lot 大量的,多的
3. serious or severe 严重的,严肃的
heavy-handed 笨手笨脚的
heavy-hearted 心情沉重的
adv. 沉重地,笨重地
AMT: light
height[hait] n. 1. [u] tall 高,高度
2. [c] distance above the ground 距地面的距离
3. high place (plural heights] 高处,高地
heighten Vt. 加高,提高,增加,增大
Vi. 变大,(颜色)变深
hello[h 'l u, hel u] also hallo, hullo, interjection
1. used as a usual greeting (用于打招呼)喂
2. used when answering the telephone or
starting a telephone conversation.
(打电话或开始打电话用语)喂
3. used when calling to get someone's attention
(唤起某人注意的)叫声
say hello to 向...问好
help[help] v. [I,T] to make it possible or easier for someone to do
something by doing part of their work or by
giving them something they need. 帮助
n. [u] the action of helping someone by doing part of
their work or by showing them how to do it.  帮助
help oneself to 自取,随便吃
help sb. with sth. 帮助某人做某事
help...out 帮助某人解决困难
can't help doing sth. 禁不住做某事
helpful adj. 有用的,有帮助的
helpless adj. 无助的,无用的,未收到帮助的
helper 帮手,助手
SYM: assist, give/lend a hand, help out, come to
somebody's aid, assistance, aid, give/ send
aid
her[h :,h ] 1. determiner[possessive form of she], she 的物主代词
a. belonging to or connected with a woman, girl or
female animal that has been mentioned or is known
about. (指女性,雌性)她的
b. connected with a country, ship, car,etc that has
been mentioned. (指国家、船只、车等)她的
2. pron [object form of 'she'] she 的宾格
a. a woman, girl, or female animal that has been
mentioned or is known about. (女性,雌性)她
b. a country, ship, car etc that has been mentioned
(指国家、船只、车辆等)她
herself 她自己
hers (名词性物主代词)她的
hi[hai] interjection informal hello 嗨(表示问候或用以唤起注意)
SYM: hello
hide[haid] v. past tense hid past participle: hidden['hidn]
1. Vt to deliberately put or keep something/sb.
in a place where it/he cannot easily be seen or found.
把...藏起来,隐藏
2. Vi to go or stay in a place where you hope no one will
find you. 躲藏,隐藏
n. 1. BrE a place from which you can watch animals or birds
without being seen by them 躲藏处
2. an animal's skin, especially when it has been removed
to be used for leather. 兽皮,皮革
hide and seek 捉迷藏
SYM: conceal      AMT: reveal, disclose
high[hai] adj. 1. measurement/distance 高的
2. large amount/number (程度,数量,大小等)高度的,
强烈的,很大的,非常的
3. important(指等级、质量)高级的、高等的
adv. 高,高价地,高额地
high-rise adj. 多层的,高层的
high-rise block 高楼、大厦
SYM: tall     AMT: low
hill[hil] n. [c] 1. an area of land that is higher than the land
around it, like a mountain but smaller. 小山
2. a slope on a road 丘陵,斜坡
SYM: mount, mountain
him[him] pron object form of he. he的宾格
himself 他自己
hire[hai ] v. [T] 1. BrE to pay money to borrow something for a period
of hours or days. 租
2. to employ someone for a short time to do a job for
you 雇
n. [u] 1. BrE an arrangement by which you borrow something
for a short time in exchange for money. 租用,雇用
2. old use wages 租金,工钱
hirer 雇主,租借者
SYM: employ
his[hiz] 1. determiner[possessive form of 'he'] 他的(他的物主代词)
2. pron [possessive form of 'he'] 他的(他的名词性物主代词)
history['hist ri] n. 1. [u] all the things that happened in political,
social, or economic development of a nation 历史
2. [u] the study of history, especially as a
subject in school or university 历史,历史学
3. if someone has a history of illness, problems,
or criminal activity, these things have happened
to them or been done by them in the past.
过去事物的记载,来历
make history 做出永垂史册的事情
hit[hit] v. past tense and past participle: hit present participle:
hitting
1. touch sb./sth. hard 打,击中
2. hit/crash into sth. 撞
n. [c usually singular] 1. a quick, hard touch with your
hand or something you are holding. 一击,击中
3. something such as a piece of music, a film, or a play
that is extremely popular. 风行一时的作品(或电影、歌曲、               演出等)
hit and miss 碰巧的,有时打中,有时打不中
hit and run (汽车驾驶员)闯祸挑走的
SYM: beat     AMT: miss(没中)
hold[h uld] v. past and past participle: held[held]
1. Vt to have something firmly in your hand or arms.
拿着,握住,夹住
2. Vt to have a particular job or position, especially an
important or powerful one. 担任要职
3. keep/control 抑制,约束
n. [c,u] action of holding something 抓住,握住
hold one's breath 屏住气
catch hold of 握,抓住
SYM: take hold of
hold back (adv.) 阻止
hold one's head high 昂首,趾高气扬
hold out 伸出
hold out one's hand/hold up (adv) 举起
hold up 阻挡,使停顿
hold on 等一等(别挂电话)
hole[houl] n. [c] 1. space in something solid 坑
2. space something can go through 洞
3. animal's home 洞穴
SYM: cave den
holiday['h lidi][h l di] n. 1. BrE also holidays. a time of rest from
work, school etc.  休假日
2. a period of time when you travel to
another place for pleasure. 假期
3. a day fixed by law on which people do
not have to go to work or school. 节日
on holiday 休假
SYM: vocation, festival
home[h um] n. [c,u] 1. place where you live 家,住宅
2. family 家庭
adj. [only before noun] 1. connected with or belonging to your
home or family 家庭的
2. connected with a particular country,
as opposed to foreign countries
本国的
adv. to or at the place where you live 在家,到家
at home 在家(里)
go home 回家
homeland 祖国
homework 家庭作业
do one's homework 做家庭作业
SYM: family
honest[' nist] adj. 1. someone who is honest does not lie or steal, etc
诚实的
2. not hiding the truth or the facts about
something 真正的,纯正的
adv. honestly 诚实地
n. honesty 诚实
to be honest 老实说
honour[' n ]n. honor AmE[' n ]
[u] the respect that you, your family, your
country etc receive from other people, which makes you
feel proud 荣誉,光荣
v. 1. be/feel honoured to feel very proud/pleased
使增光,给...以荣誉
2. to treat someone with special respect 尊敬
adj. honourable 荣誉的,光荣的
in honour of 为...表示敬意,为了纪念...
SYM: fame, reputation
hope[houp] v. [I,T] to want something to happen or be true, and to
believe it is possible 希望
n. [u] a feeling of wanting something to happen, and a
belief that it is likely to happen. 希望,期望
in the hope of 怀着...的期望
adv. hopefully 有希望地
adj. hopeless 绝望的,无望的
adj. hopeful 有希望的
SYM: wish, expect
horse[h :s] a large strong animal that people ride on and use for
pulling heavy things. 马
horse-race 赛马
horse-drawn 用马拉的
horse back  马背
hospital['h spitl] n. [c,u] a large building where sick or injured
people are looked after and receive medical
treatment. 医院
be in hospital 住院
hot[h t] adj. hotter hottest
high temperature 热的
hot dog n. 热狗(红肠面包)
hot spring 温泉
hotel[hou'tel] n. [c] a building where people pay to stay and eat
meals 旅馆
stay at hotel 呆在旅馆
hour ['au ] n. [c] 60minutes 小时
house[haus] plural houses ['hauziz]
a building that you live in, especially one that has more
than one level and is intended to be used by one family.
房子
housewife ['hauswaif] [c] 家庭主妇
housework['hausw k] [u] 家务活
SYM: family
how[hau] adv. 1. questions: used to ask about (what way or what method;
the amount, size, degree etc of something; someone's
health or about the feeling; someone's opinion or
their experience of something; the way something
looks. behaves or is expressed).
(表示方法、手段、程度、数量、状态、观点、经验、印象)                 怎样如何
2. emphasize: used before adjective or adverb to
emphasize the quality you are mentioning.
(表示感叹)多么
how much 多少(修饰不可数n.)
how many 多少(修饰可数n.)
how old 几岁
how about...怎么样(后接n,动名词)
how far 多远
how long 多久
however[hau'ev ] adv. 1. used when you are adding a fact or piece of
information that seems surprising, or seems
to disagree with what you have just said.
可是,仍然
SYM: but
2. however hard/serious/long/carefully etc it
makes no difference how hard, serious, long,
carefully 无论如何
conj. in whatever way 不管用什么方法
huge['hju:d ] adj. extremely large 巨大的,庞大的
SYM: big       AMT: tiny
hundred['h ndr d] number 100:  百 a hundred years 一百年
hundreds of 数以百计的
hunger['h  g ] n. [u] lack of food, especially for a long period of
time, that can cause illness or death. 饥饿
SYM: starvation
hungry['h  ri] adj. wanting to eat something 饥饿的
hungrily adv. 饥饿地
AMT: full
hurry['h ri] v [I,T] to do something or go somewhere more quickly than
usual, especially because there is not much time.
赶紧,匆忙
hurry up 赶紧,快点
n. to do sth, go somewhere, need something etc more
quickly than usual, often too quickly. 仓促,慌忙
in a hurry 仓忙地
SYM: haste
hurt[h :t] v. (hurt, hurt)
1. [I,T] if a part of your body hurts, you feel pain in it.
疼痛,伤害
2. [I,T] to make someone feel very upset, unhappy, sad etc.
使沮丧
SYM: injure, wound
husband[h z b nd] n. [c] the man that a woman is married to 丈夫
take a husband 嫁人
I  pron. the person who is speaking 我 (用做句子的主语)
ice  n. solid frozen water 冰,冰块 (不可数名词,表示“若干冰块”可用单位
量词,如:three blocks of ice;与数词连用表示“若干份”冰淇淋)
Three ices,please!即:Three ice-creams,please!
break the ice,打破沉默
idea  n. a picture in the mind 主意,构想 ( idea 之后可接 of, about或
for + doing sth.)
have no idea = not understand,后接of .that 分句或wh- 分句
idiom n. a phrase which means something different from the meanings of
the separate words 习语, 成语, 惯用语
idiomatic,adj.
idiomatically adv.
if conj. 1.如果,倘若,假如,是否
2.(用于虚拟语气结构)引导与现在事实相反的条件句时,从句谓语动词
用 were 或其他动词的过去式,主句谓语动词用 would/could/might +
V.;引导与过去事实相反的条件句时,从句谓语动词用过去完成时,主
句用would/should/might + V 现在完成时;引导与未来事实可能相
反的条件句时,从句谓语动词用should或were to + V.,主句用
should/would/could + V.
ill adj. 1.not well in health 有病的,不健康的
2.bad, harmful 不好的,有害的;
syn. sick;   ill—worse—worst  , ill—formed, ill—treated.
ant. healthy
illness  n. disease 病.疾病   sickness, disease   ill, illnesses, an illness.
illness 泛指一切疾病,侧重于强调病情和病程;
Cf: disease 为医学术语,病情及痛苦程度严重于illness。sickness 更加口语化,
多用于美国英语中。
imagine v. (不能用于进行时态) to form (a picture or idea) in the mind; to have an idea about 想象,设想,以为 (不可以用动词不定式充当宾语)
imagination  n. [C, U] the act of imagining or the ability to imagine
想象,想象力
immediate adj. (无比较级) done or needed at once; nearest
立即的,最接近的
immediately adv. at once 立即,马上
at once; right away; in no time; suddenly
important adj. having great effect, value, etc. 重大的,重要的
unimportant adj.
importantly adv.
Cf: considerable, remarkable, notable
Importance n. the quality, state or reason of being important
重要,重大
Cf: unimportance, usefulness, greatness
Impossible adj. not possible 不可能的
Impossibility n.
possible adj.
syn. (unable主语为“人”,impossible的主语为“物”
improve v. to become better 改进, 改善,更新
improves; improved; improving; improvement n 改良,进步
improve in 在某方面有所改进
improve on/upon 对......作出改进
syn. mend, repair, correct
in prep & adv. 1.在…..里面
2.(时间.地点)在
3.在某时期内
4. 用…...(语言);以…...方式
5.穿,戴
6.在…(情况)中
7.在内,在家
8.(时间)在…之后
9.表示几分之几
inch n. a measure of length 英寸
[Der.] inch, inch v. 使缓慢移动
every inch 彻底的;
inch by inch 逐渐地;
within an inch of 几乎,差一点
include v. (+ v-ing ) to have as a part; contain
包括,包含(侧重整体包容)
includes, included, including, inclusion
exclude 排除
Cf: contain  侧重表示数量,组成成分
involve  强调包含的必然性
cover    侧重表示面积或范围
count in  侧重通过计算而包括
income n. payment, interest 收入,收益,进款(常指由产业.商业.劳动等所
得的报酬)
Cf: earnings   一般的工资.薪水
salary  固定月(周.三月.年)工资 (通常指脑力劳动所得)
wages  以小时, 周或工作量记的合同工资 (通常指体力劳动所得)
increase v. to make or become larger in amount or number
增加,增长,增大;
n. a rise in amount or numbers, etc.
on the increase 逐渐增加    ant. decrease
increases, increased, increasing, increasingly
Cf: add   增补,加上,附加
raise  指强度,力度,价值(格)等提高(人为)
rise  自然增加
put on 体重.数量增加
indeed adv. 1.(答语) yes, certainly 确实,的确,实在
2.确实,的确.真的 (用在very之后,加强语气)
3.固然,虽然
independent adj. not needing other things or people; not governed by
another country 独立的,有主见的;有主权的
independently, adv; independence, n.
dependent adj. 依赖的,依靠的
independence n. [U] the quality or state of being independent, freedom
独立,自主,自立
India n 印度
Indian  adj 印度的,印度人的,印第安人的
n. 印度人;印第安人
indirect adj not straight 间接的,迂回的,曲折的
indirectly adv.   indirectness n. [u]
direct
industry n. 工业;产业
industries;
industrial adj.
Industrialize vt. 工业化;
Industrialization n. 工业化
light and heavy industries 轻工业和重工业
industrial adj. 1.of industry and the people who work in it
工业(界)的;
2.having highly developed industries 工业高度发达的
inform v. to tell, to give information to; 告知,通知,报告
informing, information    tell, report
inform that/of;
inform sb. (about) sth.
information n. (something that gives) knowledge in the form of facts.
信息、消息、情报、通知、报道
Cf: knowledge, message, report, announcement.
injure v. to hurt 伤害,损害(泛指大、小创伤)
injured adj. having been hurt 受伤的
injury n. (injuries)(an example of) harm 受伤处,伤害
add insult to injury 倍加侮辱,雪上加霜
Cf: wound (专指刀、枪伤)
ink n. colored liquid used esp. for writing 墨水
insect n. a small creature with no bones and a hard outer covering, six
legs, and a body divided into three parts, such as ant and fly
昆虫
insert v.  to put something inside 插入
syn. enter, put in (into)
inside n.  the area within 里面,内部;
prep. adv. adj. within or into sth. 里面的,向内
inside out 把里面朝外
ant. outside
ant. within
insist v. I+(t hat)/on/upon; to declare firmly (when opposed )
坚决主张,坚决认为
insist +on (doing sth.) 坚持,坚持认为,坚决要求
inspire v. to encourage in (someone) the ability to act
鼓舞,激励,促使(后可接 to 或动词不应式)
syn. encourage, cheer
instead adv.  in place of that 代替,顶替,更换
instead of :  in place of  代替
institute n. a society formed for a special purpose
学会、学院、研究所
syn. society, association, institution
institution n. an organization which provides people with help, work,
medical treatment or protection such as a school or
hospital
instruct v. to give knowledge or information to or to give orders to                        通知、指示
n. instructor
Cf: inform, teach, educate
instruction n. teaching, order or advice
Cf: direction, guidance, teaching
instrument n. an object used to help in work 工具、仪器、乐器
Cf: tool; means
intend v. to plan, to mean (可接动词不定式或 that 从句)想要、打算、计划
n. intention
Cf: v. plan, mean
interest n. a readiness to give attention 兴趣、爱好
v. to make (someone) feel interested 使感兴趣
a place of interest 名胜
take (great) interest in
Cf: pleasure, amusement
interesting adj. Keeping ones interest 有趣的,有意思的
interestingly adv.
ant. uninteresting
international adj. between nations 国际的, 世界的
internationally adv.
internationalism 国际主义
internationalize vt. 使国际化
interrupt v. (interrupted, interrupting, interruption) to break the flow
of someone's speech or the flow (of sth. continuous)
插嘴, 打断,打扰
Cf: stop
ant. uninterrupt
interview n. a meeting where a person is asked questions
面谈, 会谈, 采访
v. to ask questions (of somebody) in an interview
面试, 采访中提问
(interviews, interviewer, interviewing, interviewed)
into prep. 1.so as to be in or inside 进入内部,到…里面
2.so as to be 成为,转入
translate…into…
change (turn)…into…
get into trouble
introduce v. (introduced,  introducing )
1.to make known by name for the first time 介绍
2.to bring in for the first time 引进
introduction n.
introduction n.  1. the act of introducing 介绍, 引导, 倡导
2. a written or spoken explanation at the beginning
of a book or speech 引导, 开场白
invite v. 1.to ask (sb.) to a social; occasion 邀请, 招待所
2.to ask for encourage
(invites, invited, inviting, invitation)
. invitation n. 1.a written request to go somewhere or to do sth.
2.the act of inviting 请柬, 邀请
iron n. 1. a kind of metal 铁
2. heavy flat-bottomed object used for making clothing and cloth
smooth 熨斗
3.of great strength 刚强的意志
vt. to make (clothes) smooth with an iron 熨平,烫平
ironing board 熨衣板
irrigate v. to supply water to (dry land) 灌溉
(irrigates, irrigated, irrigating, irrigation)
irrigation n. 灌溉
island n. A piece of land surrounded by water 岛,岛屿
traffic island (safety island) 安全岛,安全地区(用于行人过马路避车用)
syn.  isle n. (文学用语)岛,小岛
islander n. People who live on an island 岛民
it pron. (used as subject or object) 它(用作主格,宾格)
1.作形式主语;2.指代时间、天气、距离;3.用于强调句式; 4.用于形式宾语]
its pron. (possessive form of "it") of that thing, animal, etc., already
mentioned  它的
itself pron. 它自己,它本身(反身代词或用于加强语气)
jacket n.  a short coat with sleeves 上衣
jam  n.  fruit boiled and preserved in sugar and used esp.  for spreading on bread 果酱(不可数)
jelly果冻
January n. (Jan. , Januarys )the first month of the year 一月;正月
Japan n.  日本。
Japanese adj.  日本的,日本人的n.  日语,日本人
jar n.  a short-necked wide-mouthed pot made of glass,  store, clay, etc. 罐子,坛子
jazz  n.  music originated by black Americans 爵士音乐
jewellery  n.  jewels (总称) 首都. 珠宝(不可数)
jewel n.  宝石(可数),jeweller n.  珠宝商 jewelry
job  n.  1.  regular paid employment 工作,职业
2.  a piece of work 活计
syn.  work, labour, task, occupation profession
join v.  1.  to come or bring together; connect(with)连接,接合
2.  to take part together with 和……一起做同样的事,参加,加入
join in 参加(活动)
join the army 参军
join the club 加入俱乐部
join up 联合(连接)起来
syn.  take part in, attend
joke  n.  anything said or done to cause laughter or amusement笑话,玩笑; v.  to tell jokes 开玩笑,说笑话。
a joke, joked, joking, jokingly, joker
joke with(about), no joke, play a joke on sb. 开某人的玩笑。
journalist  n.  a person whose profession is journalism 新闻工作者,新闻记者。
journalists, journalism 新闻业      journal (可数名词) 期刊,  杂志
journey  n.  a trip of some distance, usu.  by land 旅行, 旅程 (常指陆上的; 长途的)
a journey, journeys
syn.  travel (泛指旅行. 游历, 尤指国外旅行, 无"路程"之义); trip (短期或短程旅行, 常可替换"journey"或voyage); tour (观光旅行); excursion (群体性的娱乐旅性); voyage (海上旅行)
go on a journey; wake a journey to
joy  n.  great happiness 高兴,快乐
joyful, joyfully, joyless, joyfulness
syn.  happiness, pleasure
to one's joy 使人高兴的是
judge  v.  1. to from or give an opinion about 评判,判断
2. to act as a judge(in) 审判,  判决
n.              1. a public official who has the power to decide questions brought before a court of law 法官,审判员
2. a person who has the right or knowledge and experience to make  a sound decision 裁判,鉴常家
a judge, judges, judging, judged
judgement n.  an official decision given by a judge or a court of law 判决
judgment, see "judge"
syn.  decision, determination          ant. misjudgment
juice  n.  the liquid part of fruit, vegetables, and meat (果. 蔬菜. 肉等的)汁, 液
juicy adj.  having a lot of juice 多汁的
junior  adj. & n.  1. younger较年幼的,年少的
2. of /over rank or position 下级的,职位低的
syn.  smaller, lover, secondary  ant.  senior, superior
July  n.  the seventh month of the year 七月
jump  v.  to push oneself into the air by the force of one's legs; spring 跳,跳跃
syn.  hop, spring, leap, skip
june  n.  the sixth month of the year 六月
just  adv.  1. exactly at that time or please; exactly 正好,恰恰是
2. almost not, hardly 刚刚,差点不
3. only仅仅
just as 正如,  恰恰
just now 刚才(常用于一般过去时)
just then 正在那时
only just 容易才…; 勉强
just about 几乎,  差不多
just 常用于现在完成时,  just now常用于过去时态。
justice  n. 1. the quality of being just; rightness, fairness正义,公正,公平,合理
2. a judge (美)法官
a justice, justices, justly
do justice to someone, do someone justice 公平或公正对待某人
kangaroo  n. an Australian animal which jumps along on its large back legs
and which carries its young in a special pocket of flesh袋鼠
keep v. 1. to have without the need of returning 保留; 保有
2. to have for some time or for more time (暂时)保管; 有效
3. v.+ ing: to (cause to) stay, remain, or continue
(使)保持;(使)持续(某一状态)
4. to take care of and provide with food, money, etc. 照顾;供养
5. to own 经营;饲养
6. to hold back, prevent 耽误; 阻止
kept, keeping, keeps [-s]
keep a record: to make regular written notes of 作记录
keep back: not to tell or give 隐瞒; 保留
keep fit: to remain healthy
keep in touch with: to continue connecting with
keep off: to be away from
keep on doing sth. to continue doing sth.
keep one's balance: to cause to remain in an equal or proper state 保持平衡
keep one's promise: to fulfil what one claims 履行诺言
keep up: 1. to keep in good condition 保持
2. to continue 继续
keep alive: to remain alive 活下来,继续活着
keep away: not to go closer 避开,不接近
keep one's word: keep one's promise 守信用
keep up with: 跟上,不落后于
keeper n. a person who guards, protects, or look after 看守人,看护员,管理员
door keeper 看门人,门房;shopkeeper 店主,店东
key  n. 1. an instrument to lock or unlock a door, start or stop a car engine, etc.钥匙
2. (与to连用)something that explains, answers, or helps you to understand 解答,答案
key figure n. an important person 关键人物
keyboard  n. a row of keys on a musical instrument or machine 键盘
kg =kilogram(me) n. 1,000 grams 千克,公斤
kick  n.&v. To hit with the foot or an act of kicking 踢
kill v. To cause to die 杀死,毁掉(一般意义“使死亡”)
killer 杀手,凶手
syn. murder 故意杀人;slaughter, butcher 屠宰,屠杀,滥杀无辜
kilo n. kilogram or kilometer 公斤,千克,公里,千米
kilometre n. (kilometer Am.E) 1,000 meters 公里,千米
kind adj. & n. 1. a group; type; sort 种; 类; 属
2. interested in the happiness or feelings of others 友好的,和善的
kind, kindness, kind-hearted adj.仁慈的
syn. Sort
a kind of        一种的
all kinds of      各种各样的
of…kind…      种(类)的,属…一类
do sb. a kindness  帮某人忙,做一件好事
out of kindness   出于好心
kindergarten  n. A school or class for children aged 4 to 6 before entering grade school 幼儿园
king n. the male ruler of a country 国王  the most important number of a group 首脑,最重要者
kingdom n. 1. a country governed by a king(or a queen)  王国
2. divisions of objects 领域,界
kiss v. & n. 1. to touch with the lips as a sign of love or as a greeting 吻,接吻
2. an act of kissing 吻
a kiss, kisses
kiss sb. good-bye 吻别
kitchen  n.a room used for cooking 厨房,灶间
kite  n. a wooden or metal frame covered with paper or cloth for flying in the air at the end of a long string 风筝
knee  n. The middle joint of the leg 膝盖
a knee, knees
on one's knees 跪着
knife n. a blade used for cutting as a tool or weapon (有柄)小刀
knives
stick a knife in someone's back 背后捅刀;
knife and fork 刀叉
knock v. to strike a blow; hit    打. 击. 敲
n.(the sound of) a blow  一击,敲击声
syn. hit strike
knock at 敲(门窗)
knock into sb.  撞到某人身上,偶然遇见
knock out of  从……中敲出来
knock down 撞倒,摧毁
knock over  击倒,打翻
know v.  1. to have information (about) in the mind 知道,了解
2. to have met or spoken to(someone) several times认识,熟识
3. to have seen, heard 听过,见过
knew ,known ,knowing
be known as 被称为,大家公认。
know about (of) 听说过。
knowledge n. 1. understanding 理解,了解,知道
2. learning 学识,学问,知识
3. information about 熟悉,见闻
knowledgeable adj. 知识渊博的
syn. understanding, learning
koala n. an Australian tree-climbing animal like a small furry bear 考拉,树袋熊
Kph=kilometre(s) per hour  千米/小时
Lab also laboratory  n. a building or room which contains scientific
apparatus and in which a scientist works  实验室;实验大楼
labour/labor 1.  work, esp. tiring physical work, or effort
(尤指费力的)体力劳动
2.        workers, esp. those who use their hands  劳力;工人;
(尤指)用手操作的工人
3.  the act of giving birth  分娩
lack v.  to be without; not have enough of  缺少;缺乏;短缺
n.  absence or need  缺少;缺乏
ladder n.  a frame with steps, used for climbing, as up a building or the
side of a ship 梯子
lady n. 1. (polite) a woman, esp. a woman of good social position
(雅)女士;夫人;(尤指)有社会地位的贵妇人
2. also woman  (亦作woman)-female  女性
lake n.  a large mass of water surrounded by land  湖,湖泊(比较POND)
lamb n. 1. a young sheep 小羊,羔羊
2. the meat of a young sheep  羔羊肉
lamp n.  an apparatus for giving light, as from oil, gas, or electricity
灯,如油灯;煤气灯;电灯
land n. 1. the solid dry part of the earth’s surface  陆地
2.    a part of the earth’s surface forming a political whole;
country; nation  国土;国家
3. a part of the earth’s surface all of the same natural type
地带地球的表面与海洋比较时称为land; 与天空比较时称为earth;
被看作财产的一块地皮是land; 生长植物的土地称为ground, earth
或soil。Ground也指我们行走的地面,但在室内就叫做floor。
v.  to come to, be to, or put on land  使上岸;登陆
landowner n.  the owner of land 地主;土地所有者
language n. 1. the system of human expression by means of words in speech
or writing 语言,文字
2. a particular system of words, as used by a people or nation
一个国家(或一个民族)的语言
3. any system of signs, movements, etc. used to express
meanings or feelings
(用以表达意义或感情的)一套符号或动作
large adj.  more than usual in size, number, or amount; big
大的;巨大的
last n., pron. 1. the person or thing after all the others
最后的人(或物)
at (long) last  in the end; after a long time  最后;终于
determiner, adv.[no comp.] (无比较级)
1. after everything else; after the others  最后的,唯一剩下的;最后
2. on the occasion nearest in the past; most recent
紧接前面的;最近过去的
v.       to measure in length of time; go on; continue  持续;继续;延续
eg. The film lasted nearly three hours.
Late adj. 1. arriving, happening, etc., after the usual, arranged, or
expected time  迟的; 晚的
2. happening towards the end of the day, life, a period, etc.
(白天、生命、时期等)将尽的,快结束的;末期的
3. that happened only a short time ago  新近的
4. former (not  living)  已故的
adv.  1. after the usual, arranged, or expected time  迟;晚
2. towards the end of a period  在晚期
be late for (school)   迟到(校)
lately adv.  in the recent past  近来,最近
later adv. 之后;不久
latest  n. infml (非正式的) the most recent news, fashion, or example
最新消息;最新款式;最近事例
at the latest  最迟;至迟
laugh v. 1. to express amusement, happiness, carelessness, disrespect(etc.)
by making explosive sounds with the voice, usu. while smiling
笑;大笑
2.to influence or bring to a result by laughing 笑得使...
laughter  n  an act or sound of laughing 笑;笑声
laugh at    嘲笑
law n.  1. a rule that is supported by the power of government and that
governs the behavior of members of a society  法令;法规
2. the whole body of such rules in a country (一个国家的)法律
3. such rules, either in total or in part, and the way in which
they work 法律及其动作
lawyer n. a person whose business is to advise people about laws and to
represent them in court  律师
lay v  laid laid laying 1. to cause to lie flat  放下;搁置;铺放
2. to set in proper order or position
安排;布置;摆好
lay the table  for dinner. (=place knives, forks, etc., ready for a meal)
摆好餐具准备吃饭
3. (of birds, insects, etc. ) to produce (an egg
or eggs)(鸟类,昆虫等)下(蛋);产(卵)
USAGE  Do not confuse lay (laid, laid). With lie (lay, lain).用法:不要把
及物动词 lay(laid, laid)与不及物动词 lie (lay, lain) 相混淆。
eg. A person can lay his coat on the bed;
When he has done this his coat is lying on the bed.
一个人可以把他的外衣放在(lay)床上。(当他放好时,这件外衣就平搁(is
lying)在床上了。
A third verb lie (lied, lied) means “to tell a lie”. 还有一个不及物
动词lie (lied, lied) 意思是“说谎”。
lazy adj. 1. disliking and avoiding activity or work
懒惰的;懒散的;偷懒的
2. (esp. of periods of time) encouraging inactivity
(尤指一段时间)令人懒散的
3. moving slowly 慢吞吞的
lead v  led, leading  1. to bring or show the way to (person or animal)
by going in  front
领头;带领;引导,牵引(人或动物)
2. to be the means of reaching a place, going
through an area, etc. 通往;导向
3. to persuade or influence(someone) to do
something 影响,劝诱(某人)做(某事)
lead a simple life    过着俭朴的生活
USAGE: to lead is to show the way by going first, to guide is to show the way
and explain things, and to direct is to explain to someone how to get
to a place 用法:走在前面带路用lead ,边领路边讲解用guide ,向某人解
释如何到某一地方去用direct:he lead them down the mountain. 他带领
他们下山。| She guided the tourists round the castle. 她引导旅游者
参观了这座城堡。| Could you direct me to the station, please? 请问到
车站怎么走? to drive is either to control a moving vehicle, or to make
animals move forward by going behind them drive 既可表示驾驶车辆,也
可表示在后面驱赶动物: Driving the cattle to market. 把牛群赶到市场去。
To steer is to control the direction of a moving vehicle or boat.
steer 表示控制行进中的车或船的方向。steering wheel (汽车的)方向盘
lead to  v. prep  to have as a result; cause 引起;导致
lead n. a soft heavy easily melted dull grey metal, used for pipes, to
cover roofs, etc. 铅
leader n. 1. a person or thing that leads or is in advance of others
先导者;领先者;前导的事物
2. a person who guides or directs a group, movement, etc.
领袖;领导人;首领
leading adj.  1. most important; chief; main 最重要的;主要的
2. guiding, directing, or controlling
指导的;领导的;控制的
leaf n. pl.  leaves 1. one of the usu. flat and green parts of a plant that
are joined to its stem or branch  叶
2. a thin sheet of paper, esp. a page in a book
一张薄纸;(尤指书的)一页
league n  a group of people, countries etc. who have joined to work for
some aim  联盟;同盟
Communist Youth League of China 中国共青团 League member  团员
Leak v. 1. to let (a liquid, gas, etc.) in or out of a leak
(漏洞;漏隙)   让(液体、气体等)渗漏
2. (of a liquid, gas, etc.) to pass through a leak
(液体、气体等)漏出
3. to make know (news, facts, etc., that ought to be secret)
泄露(秘密的消息,事实等)
learn  v.  learned or learnt, learning
1.    to gain knowledge (of) or skill (in) 学;学习;学会
2.    to fix in the memory; memorize 记住
3.    to become informed (of ) 听说;获悉
learn...by heart  记住;背诵
learned adj.  having or showing much knowledge 有学问的;博学的
learner n  a person who learns  学习者;初学者
least adv.  in the smallest degree  最小;最少;最不
determiner, pron. (superlative of LITTLE) (LITTLE 的最高级)
the smallest number or amount 最小;最少量
eg. He’s not in the least (=not at all) worried. 他一点也不担心。
at least: a)  not less than; if not more 至少,起码
b)  if nothing else; anyway   无论如何
leave v.  left, leaving
1. to go away (from) 离开
2. to allow to remain, esp. after going away
(尤指走后)留下;剩下;使处于(某种状态)
3. to fail to take or bring, esp.
by accident (尤指偶然地)遗忘;忘记拿去;忘记带来
lecture n.  (to give)a speech to a group of people, esp. as a method of
teaching at universities  (尤指大学里的)讲课
left adj.  1. on or belonging to the side of the body that usu. contains
the heart (身体上)左的,左面的
2. on, by, or in the direction of one’s left side
左边的;左侧的;左方的
n.  1. the left side or direction   左;左边
2. the left hand  左手
adv.  towards the left   向左(<反>right)
on the left   在左边
left-handed adj. 1. using the left hand for most actions
惯用左手的;大多用左手做事的
2. made for use by a left-handed person
为左撇子使用的
ant. right-handed
handedly  adv.  -left-handedness  n.
leftovers n.  food remaining uneaten after a meal   吃剩的食物
leftover adj. 剩余的
leg n. 1. one of the limbs on which an animal walks and which support its
body(动物的腿)
2. that part of this limb above the foot  腿部
3. the part of a garment that covers the leg 裤腿
Legend Computer Group Corporation   联想计算机集团公司
Lend v.  lent, lending  to give(someone) the possession or use of
(something) for a limited time  把...借给
length n. 1. the measurement or distance from one end to the other or of
the longest side of something  长;长度
2. a piece of something esp. of a certain length or for
a particular purpose(一)段;(一)节
less adv. (comparative of LITTLE)(LITTLE的比较级)
1. (with adjectives and adverbs)not so; to a smaller degree(than)
(与形容词和副词连用)不如;在较小程度上;不及
2. (with verbs)not so much(与动词连用)较少;更少
determiner, pron.(comparative of LITTLE)(LITTLE的比较级)
a smaller amount  较小(少)的;更小(少)的
less and less (an amount)that continues to become smaller 越来越少
no less(than)(expressing surprise at a large number or amount)
(对大数目或大数量表示惊奇)不少(于),不亚(于)
less than   不到;少于
lesson  n. 1. something taught to or learned by a pupil, esp. in school;
the period of time a pupil or class studies a subject
课业;课程;一节课
2. something, e.g. an experience, from which one should learn
教训;经验
have lessons   上课
do one’s lessons  做(预习或复习)功课
let v. let, letting 1.to allow to do or happen   允许,让
2. must; is to  须,应,可,让
3. Br.E to give the use of(a room, land, etc.)in return
for regular payments  出租(房间、土地等)
let us: a)  allow us to  让我们:Please let us buy you a drink!
请让我们给你买杯饮料吧!
b)  also let’s(used when suggesting a plan that includes the person
spoken to) we must should (亦作let’s)(提出一项包括听话者在
内的建议时用)我们必须/应当
eg. Let’s go. 我们走吧!
Let us go, please!请您让我们走吧!
let in    让进来
let out   放出;发生;泄露
letter n. 1. a written or printed message sent usu. in an envelope  书信
2. one of the signs in writing or printing that represents a speech
sound  字母
3. the words of an agreement, law, etc., rather than its real or
intended meaning (法律、协议等的)字面,字面意义
eg.  to the letter a. with close attention to the written details of
an agreement, law, etc. b. to the fullest degree
level n.  1. a position of height  高度;水准,水平
2. a smooth flat surface, esp. a wide area of flat ground
平面;(尤指)大块平地
3. amount, size, or number  数量;大小;数目
liberate v.  fml(正式)to set free(from control, prison, etc.)
(从控制、监禁等情况下)解放;释放;获得自由
liberation n.  解放
librarian n. a person who is in charge of or helps to run a library 图
书馆馆长;图书馆管理员
library  n.  1. a building or room which contains books that may be looked
at or borrowed by the public(public library) or by members
of a special group 图书馆、图书室,收藏馆
2. a collection of books 藏书
lie v.  lay, lain, lying
1.    to be in a flat position on a surface 卧,躺;平放
2.    to put the body into such a position 躺下
3.    to be in the stated position; be placed 位于
4.    to remain or be kept in the stated condition or position
处于;保持在(某种状态或位置)
v.  lied, lying  to tell a lie   说谎、撒谎
n.  an untrue statement purposely made to deceive  谎言
life n.  lives  1. the active force that enables(animals and plants) to
continue existing  生命
2. living things   生物
3. human existence   人生;生活;生存;世事
4. the period during which one is alive  一生;终生
5. a person  性命;人命
lifetime  n.  the time during which a person is alive  一生;终生
lift  v.  to raise to a higher level  提升;抬起;举起
n.        the act of lifting, rising, or raising  提;升举
Br.E = elevator Am.E  elevator<美>)-an apparatus in a building that moves up
and down between floors and carries
people or goods  电梯
a free ride in a vehicle, esp. one given to a traveller 免费搭车
light n.1. the natural force that is produced by or redirected(reflected)from
objects and other things, so that we see them 光;光线
2. the light of the sun or the time it lasts 日光;白昼
3. something that produces light and causes other things to be seen,
such as a lamp or torch 发光体,光源(如灯、电筒)
adj. 1. easy to see in; bright  明亮的
2. not deep or dark in colour, pale 浅色的;淡的
v. ( lit or lighted, lighting ) 1. to (cause to) start to burn 点燃,点着
2. to give light to 照亮
3. to (cause to ) become bright with pleasure
or excitement (因高兴或激动而)(使)
变亮,现出喜色
USAGE:  Use lit as the past participle of light, except when it stands as an
adjective before the noun 用法:除了在名词前用作形容词外,light 的
过去分词都用 lit:He’s lit a match. 他划着了一根火柴。/ The match is
lit.  火柴划着了。/ a lighted match 划着了的火柴
lightly adv. 1. with little weight or force; gently  轻轻地,轻微地
2. to a slight or little degree  轻度地;略微地
3. without careful thought or reasoning
未经深思熟虑地;轻率地
lightning  n. 1. a powerful flash of light in the sky, usu. followed by
thunder闪电
2.very quick, short, or sudden  闪电似的
like v. 1. to be fond of; find pleasant 喜欢,爱好
2. to wish or choose  希望;想要
be like   像
USAGE: When like means “to be fond of or enjoy”, it is used on its own; when
it means “to want”, it is used with would. 用法:当like意为:“爱好,
喜欢”时,总是单独使用;当它表示“想要”时,便与would连用。与动词love
的用法相同
prep. 1. in the same way as; of the same kind as 象...一样
2. typical of; showing the usual manner of  典型...的;一向是...的
3. for example  譬如
USAGE: Note the difference between these uses of like and as 用法:注意like
和as用法上的区别:He has been playing tennis as a professional for two
years(=he is a professional tennis player).他作为职业网球运动员打网
球已有两年了(=他是职业网球运动员)。
eg. He plays tennis like a professional(=he is not a professional tennis
player, but he plays as well as someone who is) .他打起网球来象个职
业运动员(=他不是职业网球运动员,但他打得和一个职业网球运动员一样
好)。
Likely adj. 1. probable; expected  很可能的;可期待的
2. suitable to give results  会有结果的,有希望的
ant. unlikely
limit n. the farthest point or edge(of something)
(事物的)界限;限度;极限
v.     to keep below or at a certain point or amount 限制
vi. 限定
limited adj.    有限的
line n. 1. a thin mark with length but no width, which can be drawn on a
surface 线;线条
2. a long mark that acts as a limit or border 界线;界限
3. a row  行;排
link v.  to join or connect  连接;联系
lip n. 1. one of the edges of the mouth where the skin is delicate and rather
red  嘴唇
2.the ordinary skin below the nose  唇部的皮肤
lion n. a large yellow four-footed animal of the cat family which lives
mainly in Africa  狮子
list n. a set of names of things written one after the other, so as to remember
them or  keep them in order  清单;目录;一览表
listen v.  to give attention in hearing   听;留神听
listen to  听...(讲话)
litre/ liter  升(容量单位,约1.25品脱)
little adj. 1. small小的
2. short 短暂的
3. young 幼小的
adv. 1. not much  少;稍许
2. not at all  毫不
determiner. pron  less, least
1. (used without a, to show the smallness of the  amount) not much;
not enough  (不与a连用,表示量极少), 没有多少;少量;不足
2. a)  a small amount, but at least some  一点儿;少量
b)  a short time  短时间,一会儿
little rather   稍微;些许
little by little gradually 一点一点地;逐渐地
live v.  lived, living 1. to be alive; have life 活着;生存
2. to continue to be alive 活下去;继续生存
3. to have one’s home   居住
live on sth.   v. prep   to have as one’s only food or income
只以...为食, 只靠...为 收入
lively adj. 1. full of quick movement, thought, etc.
活泼的;思想活跃的;有生气的
2. life like; as if real栩栩如生的;逼真的;生动的
a lively description 生动的描述
living adj. 1.alive now  活的;活着的 (注:living 可放在被修饰的名词前,
alive 却不能 )
eg. a)  There is a living snake on the floor. Don’t go near it.
b) The passengers alive after the terrible accident were in
bad need of food and medical care.
2. existing in use 现存的
living-room  also sitting room( B.rE):  the main room in a house where people
can do things together, (usu.) apart from eating
客厅,起居室,起坐间
load n.1. an amount being carried, or to be carried, esp. heavy
负载;(尤指)重载
2.the amount which a certain vehicle can carry  (车辆的)装载量
3.the work done by an engine, etc. (发动机等的)负载;负荷
loaf n. loaves  bread shaped and baked in one piece, usu. fairly large
(通常较大的)长面包
local adj.1. of or in a certain place, esp. the place one lives in
地方的;当地的;本地的
2. tech concerning a particular part, esp. of the body
(专业术语)(尤指人体)局部的
lock n.1. an apparatus for closing and fastening something by means of a key

2. a stretch of water closed off by gates, esp. on a canal, so that
the level can be raised or lowered to move boats up or down a slope
(运河等的)水闸
v. 1. to fasten with lock 锁;锁上
2. to put in a place and lock the entrance  锁入
3. to become fixed or blocked  固定住;阻塞住
lonely adj.  alone and unhappy; away from other people 孤独的;寂寞的
long adj.  1. measuring a large amount in length, distance, or time
(长度、距离或时间)长的
2. covering a certain distance or time
走过一段路程的;花费一定时间的
(for) a long time  长久地
as/ so long as if: on condition that  如果;只要
long ago:  at a distant time in the past  很久以前
no longer/(not)any longer: (used only in negatives, questions, etc.)(not)any
more; not now (只用于否定、疑问等句中) 不再;现在不(是)  so long infml (非正式) goodbye  再见
the long and the short of it the general result 总的意思是;梗概
long-term     长期的
before long    不久以后;很快
long before    很久以前
look v. 1.to turn the eyes so as to see, examine, or find something
看;瞧;望;注意看
2.to have the appearance of being(ill, well, etc.)
显得,看来,好象(有病、健康等)
3.to see and notice carefully  留神
look after  v.  prep.  to take care of 照顾;照料
look around/ round/ about  v. adv.  to search  到处寻找
look at  v. prep  1. to watch  看
2. to regard; judge  看待;对待;判断
3. to consider, examine  考虑;检查
4. to remember and learn from记住并吸取教训
look back  v.  Adv. 1.  to remember  回顾,回想
2. never look back to have complete success 获得全胜
look down on/upon  v. adv.  prep.  to have a low opinion of(esp. someone thought
less socially important)轻视;看不起(尤指被认为社会地
位较低者)
look for  v.  prep.   to try to find  寻找
look forward to  v. adv.  prep.   to expect to enjoy(something that is going
to happen) 盼望;期待(某事发生)
look out   v. adv.  to take care; watch(for) 当心;留神;注意看
look up  v. adv. 1. to get better; improve  好转;有起色
2. (look sth. up) to find(information)in a book
(在书中)查寻
look into   v.  prep.    向......里面看去;investigate调查
have a look   看一看
take a look    看一看
loose adj. 1.not fastened, tied up, shut up, etc.; free from control
开的;自由的;没有束缚的
2. not bound together  松散的;散装的
3. not firmly fixed; not tight松的;松动的
lorry Br.E also truck  a large motor vehicle for carrying heavy goods
卡车
lose v.   lost, losing 1. to come to be without, e.g. through carelessness;
fail to find  丢失,遗失;迷失;找不到
2. to (cause to )have taken away; (cause to)have to
longer, as a result of time, death, or destruction
(使)失去,(使)丧失
3. to fail to win, gain, or obtain  输了;未得到
lose heart    失去信心;灰心
lose one’s life  死;牺牲
lose one’s voice    失音;噪子哑
lose weight    减肥;降体重
get lost     走开,滚开 (美国口语)
loss n. 1. the act or fact of losing possession(of something)  丧失;遗失
2. a person, thing, or amount that is lost or taken away
失去的人(或物);损耗量
3. a failure to take a profit亏损
lot n. 1. a large quantity, number, or amount  很多,许多
2. the whole quantity, number, or amount  全部;总数;总量
3. a group or amount of people or things of the same type
某一类的人;一批东西
n. esp.  Am.E an area of land used for building or parking cars on
(用于建房或停车的)一块地
a lot of/ lots of  许多;很多;大量
loud adj.1. having or producing great strength of sound; not quiet; noisy
响亮的;高声的,吵闹的
2. unpleasantly noisy or colourful 喧闹的,嘈杂的;过分花哨的
adv.   loudly, in a loud way   大声地;响亮地
love n. 1. a strong feeling of fondness for a person  爱;热爱;爱戴
ant. hate, hatred
2. warm interest and enjoyment(in) 爱好,喜爱
3. the object of attraction or liking  喜爱的东西
v. loved, loving  1. to feel love, desire, or strong friendship (for)
爱;热爱;挚爱
2. to like very much; take pleasure in  非常喜欢;爱好
ant. hate
be in love with  与...相爱
lovely adj. 1. beautiful; that one loves or likes  美丽的;可爱的
2. infml(非正式) very pleasant  令人愉快的
loveliness  n.
low adj. 1. being or reaching not far above the ground, floor, base, or bottom;
not high 低的;矮的
2. small in size, degree, amount, worth, etc.
(在大小、程度、数量、价值等方面)少的,小的,低下的
3. lacking in strength or spirit; weak or unhappy
没精神的;体弱的;情绪低落的
adv. 1. in or to a low position, point, degree, manner, etc.
(位置、程度、态度、地位等)低地;向下地;卑微地;粗俗地
2. near the ground, floor, base, etc.; not high低矮地
3.(in music)in or with deep notes (音乐中)以低音调;低沉地
ant. high
4. quietly; softly  轻声地;轻柔地
low-lying adj.  地势低洼的
luck n. 1.  that which happens, either good or bad, to a person by, or as
if by, chance;  fortune  运气
2.  good fortune  好运道
luggage  n.  the case, bags, boxes, etc., of a traveller  行李(Br.E) baggage
lunch n.  a meal eaten in the middle of the day 午餐
have lunch   吃午饭
lung  n. either of the two breathing organs in the chest of man or certain
animals (人或某些动物的)肺
machine[m ‘ in] n.  a man-made instrument or apparatus which uses power(such as
electricity)to perform work  机器,器械
mad[m d] adj. 1.ill in the mind  发疯的,疯的
2.filled with strong feeling, interest, etc. 狂热的;着迷的
madam[’m d m] n. a polite way of addressing a woman, usu. sb. one does not know      personally对妇人的尊称,通常用于不相识者
magazine[m g ’zin] n. a sort of book with a paper cover, which contains writing,            photographs, and advertisements, usu. on a special subject or for a certain group of people, and which is printed every week or
month 杂志;期刊
magic[‘m d ik] n.  1. the system of trying to control events by calling on spirits,  secret forces, etc.  魔法,巫术
2. the art of a theatrical performer who produces unexpected objects and results by tricks  魔术
3. a charming quality or influence 魔力,魅力
adj. 有魔力的
maid[meid] n.  a female servant  女仆
mail[meil] n.  1. the postal system  邮政制度
2. letters and anything else sent by   post  邮件
mailbox[‘meilb ks] n.  AmE<美> a place for collecting mail; postbox  邮筒,邮箱;    信箱
main[mein] adj.  chief; most important  主要的;最重要的
mainly[‘meinli] adv. 大体上;主要地
mainland[‘meinl nd] n.  a land mass, considered without its islands 大陆
major[‘meid  ] adj. greater when compared with others, in size, number, or  importance  较大的,较多的,较重要的  (<反>minor)
majority[m ‘d  riti] n. the greater number or amount(esp. of people)(尤指人)多数;大部分
make[meik] v. ( made, making)1.to produce by work or action  制造,生产
2.    to put into the stated condition, position, etc.; cause
to be   使处于某种状况(地位);使成为
3. to force or cause(someone to do something/ something to happen)  (迫)使某人(做某事/使某事(发生)
be made from  由...制造
be made in   在...制造
be made of  用...制造
be made up of  由...组成
make… to one’s own measure   依照某人的尺寸做...
make a decision  作出决定
make a good effort  作很大的努力
make a plan for  为...作计划
make a promise  答应;允诺
make a record  录制唱片
make ends meet  量入为出;使收支相抵
make fun of  取笑某人
make progress  取得进步
make sense  讲得通;很有意义
make sure of    确保;确定
make up  编出
make up one’s mind  下决心
make use of  利用
male[meil] adj. & n.  the sex that does not give birth to young  男性(的);公 (的);  雄(的)
man[m n]n.(pl. men)  1.  a fully grown human male  成年男人
2.    a human being, male or female  人
3.    human beings in general; the human race 人的总称;人类
manage[‘m nid ] v.  1. to control or guide(esp. a business)控制;管理(尤指企
业)
2.to succeed in dealing with(a problem)设法对付(一个难题)
manager[‘m nid  ] n.  person who directs the affairs of a business, a sports team,   a singer, etc. (企业,运动队,歌唱家的)经理,管理人
manifesto[m ni’fest u] n. a (written) statement making public the intentions,    opinions, etc., of a political party or group (一个政党或团体的)宣言;(书面)声明
mankind[m n’kaind] n.  the human race, both men and women   人类
manmade[‘m n’meid] adj.  1.produced by people; not found in nature  人造的
2.(of materials) made from chemical, not natural,      substances; synthetic (衣料)化纤的;人造的,合成的    (<反>natural)
manner[‘m n ] n.   1. the way or style of doing something  方式;方法
2.a personal way of acting or behaving  举止;态度
manners[‘m n z] n. (polite) social practices or habits (有礼貌的)社交举止;社
习惯
many[‘meni] determiner, pron.  more, most
1.(used without a to show the large size of a number)  许多,很多
2.  a good/ great many: a large number of  很多
3.  many a man, time, etc. many men, times, etc.许多人,许多次(等)
map[m p] n. a representation or plan showing the shape and position of countries,  towns, rivers, etc. 地图
march[ma:t ] v.  1.to walk with a regular, esp. forceful, step like a soldier  行                                    进;进 军;行军
2. to force to walk(away)  迫使走(开)
n.  1.the act of marching   行军  2  the distance covered while marching in a   certain period of time  (在一定时间内的)行程
mark[ma:k] n.  1.a spot, line, or cut that spoils the natural colour or appearance  of   something  痕迹,斑点
2.an object or sign serving as a guide, giving information, or
showing a quality   记号;标志
3.a figure, letter, or sign which represents a judgment of quality  in someone’s work, behaviour, or performance  (给某人的工作、行为、表演等给予的)评分
v. 1.to make a mark on, or to receive a mark, in a way that spoils the appearance   留痕迹于;作记号于;标明
vi. 2.to be a sign of  成为...的标志
market[‘ma:kit] n.  1.a building or open place where people meet to buy and sell  goods  市场,集市
2.a gathering of people to buy and sell on certain days at such a place  定期集市
3.an area or country where is a demand for goods 推销地区(或国家)
marquis[‘ma:kwis] n.   候爵
marry[‘m ri] v.  1.to take (a person) in marriage   和...结婚
2.(of a priest or official) to perform the ceremony of marriage  for (two people)   (牧师或官员)为(两人)证婚
3.to cause to take in marriage 使结婚
marriage[‘m rid ] n.  结婚;婚姻
marxism[‘ma:ksizm] n.the teaching of Karl Marx on which communism is based,
which explains the changes in history according to the  struggle between social classes  马克思主义
mass[m s] n.  1.a solid lump, quantity, or heap, or large number     一块;一团;一堆;大量
2.(in science) the amount of matter in a body  (科学)物体的质量
adj.  of or for a great number of people  大众的,群众的
masses of   大多数;大部分
master[‘ma:st ] n.  1.mistress  fem(阴性)-a man in control of people, animals, or things  主人
2.mistress fem(阴性)-fml (正式) a male teacher  男教师
3.a man of great skill in art or work with the hands 艺术大师;手工高超的人
v.  to gain control over or learn thoroughly  掌握;精通
mat[m t] n.  1.a piece of rough strong material or small rug used for covering part  of a floor  席垫;地席
2.a small piece of material used for putting under objects on a table
(桌上用的)衬垫
match[m t ] n.  1.a game or sports event in which teams or people compete  比赛, 竞赛
2.a person who is equal or better in strength, ability, etc., (to another)  对手,敌手
3.  a thing or set of things that is like or suitable to another or each other  相象的东西;相配之物
v.      1.to be like or suitable for use with(another or each other)  相 象;相配
vi.    2.to be or find an equal to  是...的对手,vi 能与...较量
3.to find something like or suitable for use with 找相象的东西;找相配的东西
4.well-/ ill -matched suitable/ not suitable to with, or to  compete with, each other  很相称/不vii 相称
have a match   举行/进行一场比赛
material[m ‘ti ri l] n. 1.anything from which something is or may be made 材料,原料
2.cloth  布,布料
3.knowledge of facts from which a (written) work may be produced 素材;资料
mathematics[m  i’m tiks] also infml. maths BrE || math AmE(亦作maths<英>||math< 美>,非正式)-n.   the study or science of number 数学   -mathematical  adj.  - mathematically  adv.
matter[‘m t ] n. 1.the material which makes up the word and everything in space which can be seen or touched  物质
2.a subject to which one gives attention; an affair  事情,
问题
3.a trouble or cause of pain, illness, etc.麻烦事;痛苦的起因;病因;毛病
v.  to be important  要紧;有关系
maximum[‘m ksim m]n.  1.the most, or the largest possible, quantity, number, or degree  最大量;最大数;最大限度
2.largest, or largest possible(in amount, degree, etc.) 最大(数量、程度等)     (<反>minimum)
may[mei] v.  1.(shows a possibility)(表示可能性)
2.to have permission to  准许,可以
3.(used when expressing a wish(表示愿望))
May[mei] n.  the 5th month of the year 五月
maybe[‘meibi] adv.  perhaps  也许
me[mi:]  pron. (object form of I )(I 的宾格)
meal[mi:l] n. an amount of food eaten at one time  膳食;一餐,一顿饭
mean[mi:n] v.  meant, meaning  1.to represent(a meaning )  意思是;有...的意思
2.to have in mind as or for a purpose; intend  意欲;打算
3.to be a sign of  有...的征兆,意味着
meaning[‘mi:ni ] n.  the idea which is intended to be understood  意义,意思,涵义
meanwhile[‘mi:nwai l] also meantime infml. (亦作meantime;非正式)- adv.  during  this time; in the same period of time  在此期间;同时
measure[‘me  ] v.  1.to find the size, length, amount, degree, etc., (of)in standard
measurements  计量,测量(尺寸,长短,容量,程度等)
2.to show or record amount, size, length, etc.  表示或记录(数量,尺寸,长度等)
3.to be of a certain size 具有某种尺寸
meat[mi:t] n.  1.the flesh of animals(sometimes including birds, but not including fish) which is eaten    食用肉(有时包括禽肉,但不包括鱼肉)
2.valuable matter, ideas, etc. 有价值的东西(想法等)
medal[‘medl] n.  a round flat piece of metal, or a cross, with a picture and/ or words marked on it, which is usu. given to a person as an honour for an act of bravery or strength奖章;勋章
medical[‘medikl] adj.  1.of or concerning medicine and treating the sick   医学的;医疗的
2.of the treatment of disease by medicine rather than by operation 医药的;内科的 -medically  adv.
medical care   医疗护理
medicine[‘medisn] n. 1.a substance used for treating disease, esp. a liquid which is drunk   药;(尤指)药水
2.the science of treating and understanding disease 医学
have some medicine  服点药
meet[mi:t] v.  met, meeting  1.to come together(with), by chance or arrangement 遇见;偶然相遇;约会
2.to get to know or be introduced (or )for the first time 认识;首次引见
3.to touch, (as if)naturally  自然地接触
meet[mi:t] n.  a gathering of people, esp. (BrE) on horses with hunting dogs to hunt foxes or (AmE) for sports events (<英>尤常用)猎捕狐狸前猎人和猎狗的聚集;<美>集会(尤指运动会)
meeting[‘mi:ti ] n. 1.a gathering o people, esp. for a purpose  (尤指为了一个目的的)集会;会议
2.the coming together of two or more people, by chance or arrangement  偶然的相遇;约会;约见
have a meeting  开会
hold a meeting  举行会议
member[‘memb ] n.  a person belonging to a club, group, etc.  成员;会员
ant. nonmember
memory[‘mem ri] n.  1.(an) ability to remember events and experience  记忆;记性;记忆力
2.an example of remembering  回忆;记得的事情
3.the time during which things happened which can be remembered 能记忆的时期
mend[mend] v.  1.a. to repair(a hole, break, fault, etc. )in (something ) 修补,修理;修正;织补;缝补
b.(of something broken or worn) to be able to be repaired(断裂,磨损的东西)能补,可以补
2.to regain one’s health 康复
men’s room  男厕所
mental[mentl] adj.  1.of the mind   脑力的;精神的
2.done only in or with the mind, esp. without the help of writing  内心的
3.concerning disorders or illness of the mind 精神病的
mentally[‘mentli]adv.  精神上;智力上
mention[‘men n] v.  1.to tell about in a few words, spoken or written  (口头或书面)提到,提及;谈起
2.to say the name of  提出...的名
3.Don’t mention it polite .There’s no need for thanks; I’m glad to help (礼貌)别客气;不用谢;乐意帮忙
menu[‘menju:] n.   a list of dishes in a meal or to be ordered as separate meals,
esp. in a restaurant  (尤指餐馆里的)菜单
merchant[‘m :t  n] n.  a person who buys and sells goods, esp. in large amounts  商人(尤指)批发商人
merciful[m :siful] adj.  showing mercy, forgiving rather than punishing  仁慈的;宽大的
-mercifully  adv.
mercy [‘m :si] n.   1.willingness to forgive, not to punish   仁慈;宽恕;怜悯
2.a fortunate event  幸运的事
3.at the mercy of powerless against 受...支配,在...的支配下
merely[‘mi li] adv.  only…and nothing else 仅仅,只不过
message[‘mesid ] n. 1. a spoken or written piece of information passed from one person to another (口头或书面的)信息;消息
2. the important or central idea 要旨;启示;中心思想
take a message for  给...捎个信儿
metal[‘metl] n. any usu. solid shiny mineral substance which can be shaped by
pressure and used for passing an electric current 金属
metallic[mi’t lik] adj. of or like metal 金属的;金属似的
method[‘me  d] n.  1.a way or manner(of doing) 方法;方式
2.(the use of) an orderly system or arrangement 条理(的运用);规律;秩序
metre[‘mi:t ] BrE meter AmE  n. (a measure of length equal to) 39.37
inches(长度单位)米,公尺(合39.37英寸)
microcomputer[‘maicr uk mpju:t ] n. 微机
midday[‘middei] n. the middle of the day; 12 o’clock noon 正午,中午;中午十二点
middle[‘midl] n.  1  the central part, point, or position 中部;中央;中间
2 infml (正非式)the waist or the part below the waist 腰;或腰以下的部位
3  in the middle of something/doing something in the course of or busy with something/doing something 在做
某事的当儿/正忙于做某事时
in the middle of    在......中间
midnight[‘midnait] n.  12 o’clock at night 晚上十二点,午夜,半夜
might[mait] v.  negative contraction  mightn’t(否定缩略形式: mightn’t)
1 (shows a possibility)(表示可能性)
2 (used as the past of may用作may的过去式)
3 BrE <英>(used instead of may, for asking permission politely )(有礼貌地请求许可,代替may)
mile[mail] n.  (a measure of length equal to)1609 metres or 1760 yards 英里(长度单位,等于1609米,或多或少760码)
milk[milk] n.  a white liquid produced by human or animal females for the feeding of their young, and (in the case of cows’ and goats’ milk)often drunk by human beings or made into butter and cheese 奶;牛奶;羊奶
millimetre[‘milimi:t ] BrE  -ter AmE  n.  (a measure of length equal
to) 1000th of a metre  毫米(千分之一米)
million[‘mili n] determiner. n.& pron.  million or millions(the number)1000000;百万
millions of 成百万的;许许多多的
millionaire[milj ‘n  ] n.  a person who has 1000000 pounds or dollars; very wealthy person 百万富翁;巨富
mind[maind] n.  1  a person’s way of thinking or feeling; thoughts 头脑;想法;思维;思想
2 memory 记忆
3  attention 注意;注意力
v.  to be careful(of); pay close attention (to) (通常用于命令句)注意;当心; 留心
never mind  没关系;不必顾虑
make up one’s mind 下决心;决定
mine[main] pron.  (possessive form of I )of the person who is speaking(代词I
所有格形式)我的
mine[main] n.  a deep hole or network of holes under the ground from which coal, gold, tin and other mineral substances are dug 矿;矿山;矿井
v.         mined, mining  1  to dig or work a mine in (the earth)开矿,采矿;打矿井
2  to obtain by digging from a mine (从矿里)采掘,挖出
mineral[‘min r l] n.  any of various esp. solid substances that are formed naturally in the earth(such as stone, coal, salt, etc.), esp. as obtained from the ground for man’s use 矿物;矿石
minibus[‘minib s] n.  a small bus with seats for between six and twelve people 小型公共汽车;小面包车
minister[‘minist ] n.  1  a politician who is a member of the government and is in charge of a particular government department 部长;大臣
2  a priest in some branches of the Christian church(基督教某些教派的)牧师
minority[mai’n riti] n. 1  the smaller number or part; a number or part that is less than half 少数;少数派
2  a small part of a population which is different from the rest in race, religion, etc. 少数民族
minus[‘main s] adj.  (of a number or quantity) less than zero 负的;零下的
minute[minit] n.  1  one of the 60 parts into which an hour is divided 分(一小时的1/60)
2  infml(非正式)a very short space of time 一会儿;片刻
in a minute   一会儿;立刻
just a minute  等一下
mirror[‘mir ] n.  a piece of glass, or other shiny or polished surface, that throws
back(reflects)images 镜子
miss[mis] v.  1  to fail to hit, catch, find, meet, see, hear, etc. 未击中;未赶上;未找到;未遇到,未看到,未听到
2        to feel sorry or unhappy at the absence or loss of(因...不 在或失去...而)想念;怀念;惦念
3  to discover the absence or loss of 发觉...不在或遗失
Miss[mis] n.  (a title placed before the name of) an unmarried woman or a girl对未婚妇女或少女的称呼
mistake[mis’teik] n.  a wrong thought, act, etc., something done, said, believed, etc., as a result of wrong understanding, lack of knowledge or skill, etc. 错误;过失
by mistake   由疏忽所致
make a mistake  犯错误
misunderstanding[mis nd ‘st ndi ] n.  1  (an example of )the act of putting a wrong
meaning(on something); confusion误解;误会;错误的理解
2  often euph(常用委婉)a disagreement less serious than a quarrel 分歧;失和
mix[miks] v.  1  to (cause to) be combined so as to form a whole, of which the parts cannot (easily) be separated one from another(使)混合;搀和  2  (of a person)to be, or enjoy being in the company of others 交往;相处
mixture[‘mikst  ] n.  1  a set of substances mixed together 混合物;混合料;混合体
2  a combination (of things or people of different types or qualities)混杂的事物;杂乱的人群;混乱
mm=millimetre [‘milimi:t ] n.  毫米
mobile[‘m ubail] adj.  movable; able to move, or be moved, quickly and easily; not fixed in one position 运动的;活动的;可动的
model[‘m d l] n.  1  a small representation or copy of something 模型;雏型;原型
2    a person, esp. a young woman, employed to wear clothes and show them to possible buyers (as in a shop, by being photographed, etc.) 时装模特儿
3  a person employed to be painted, drawn, photographed, etc. by an artist(供艺术家写生或摄影的)模特儿
modern[‘m d n] adj.  of the present time, or of the not far distant past; not ancient 现代的;近代的
moment[‘m um nt] n.  1  a very short period of time 片刻;瞬间
2        a particular point in time 某个特定时刻
3(常用单数)the right time for doing something适当的时刻
the moment (that): just as soon as; at exactly the time when 一...就;正当...的一刹那间
just a moment  等一会儿
Monday[‘m ndi] n.  the second day of any week; the day after Sunday 星期一
money[‘m ni] n.  1  coins or paper notes with their value printed on them, given and taken in buying and selling 货币(硬币和纸币)
2  wealth 财富
moneylender[‘m nilend ] n.  放债者
monitor[‘m nit ] n.  a pupil chosen to help the teacher in various ways  (学生中的)班长;级长
monsieur[m ‘sj ] n.  (法)先生
monkey[‘m  ki] n.  a small tree-climbing animal, with a long tail, and part of the class of animals most like man 猴子
month[m n ] n. any of the 12 named divisions of the year 月,一个月的时间
moon[mu:n] n.   the body which moves round the earth once every 28 days, and can be
seen shining in the sky at night 月球,月亮
more[m :] adv.  (comparative of many ,much)(many, much)的比较级
1    to a greater degree 更多;更 (<反>less)
2    (with once, no) (与once, no连用) again 另外;再
determiner, pron.  (COMPARATIVE of many, much)
1 a greater number or amount (many, much的比较级) 更多的数量
2 an additional number or amount 额外的数量;另外一些
3    any more: any longer; now(不)再
4    more and more: increasingly; (an amount) that continues to increase 越来越(甚)(<反>less and less)
5    more or less : about; not exactly 或多或少;左右;大约
6  the more: (used to show that two things get larger, or change, together) 越发;更;越...越...  (<反> the less)
no more   不再
not...any more  不再
once more  再一次
morning[‘m ni ] n.  the first part of the day, usu. until the time when the midday meal is eaten 早晨;上午
most[m ust] adv.  (superlative of much) (much 的最高级)
1        to the greatest degree最多的,最高程度地
2  fml(正式)very 极,很;十分
determiner, pron. (superlative of many, much) (many, much的最高级)
1   the greatest number or amount 最大量,最高级
2  at most; not more than; if not less 至多,最多,不超过
mother[‘m   ] n.  a female parent 母;母亲
motor[‘m ut ] n.  a machine that changes power, esp. electrical power, into movement 电动机;发动机;内燃机;马达
motherland[‘m   l nd] n. 祖国
motto[‘m t u] n.   a short sentence or a few words taken as the guiding principle of a person, a school, etc. 箴言,座右铭;格言
mountain[‘mauntin] n.   a very high hill, usu. of bare or snow-covered rock 大山,山岳
mountainous[‘mauntin s] adj.  full of or containing mountains 多山的
mourn[m :n] v.  to feel and/or show grief, esp. for the death of someone 哀痛;哀悼
mouse[maus] n.  mice a small furry animal with a long tail that lives in houses and in fields 老鼠,耗子
moustache[m sta: ] n.  小胡子
mouth[mau ]n.  mouths  1  the opening on the face through which a person or animal
may take food into the body and speak or make sounds 口; 嘴;口腔
2  an opening, entrance, or way out 出入口
mouth-to-mouth  口对口的
mouthful[‘mau ful] n.  1  as much(food or drink) as fills the mouth  2  infml, usu. humor(非正式;常含幽默) a big long word that one finds difficulty in saying or pronouncing又长又难念的单词
move[muv] v.  moved, moving  1  (cause to ) change place or bodily position 移动;
搬动;使改变位置
2  to be in movement; go, walk, run, etc., esp. in a particular way 开动,走,运行
move on v. & adv.  to change(to something new) 转换(话题);go away to another place or position 去别处;前进
movement[‘mu:vm nt] n.  1  (can act of ) moving or of being moved; (example of) activity 活动;移动;动作
2  a group of people who make united efforts for a particular purpose 运动
movie [‘mu:vi] n.  电影
Mr.[‘mist ] also Mister(亦作Mister) n.  1  a title for a man who has no other title 先生
2 a title used when addressing certain men in official position 先生(对于某些有官职者的称呼)
Mrs.[‘misiz] n.  a title for a married woman who has no other title(对已婚女子的称呼)太太
Ms[mis] n.  a title for a woman who does not wish to call herself either “Mrs” or “Miss”女士(用于不愿被称为“太太”或“小姐”的女人姓氏前)(比较:Miss, Mrs)
much[m t ] adv.  (more, most)  1  by a great degree 多;很;非常;更
2  nearly; in most ways  几乎,差不多
determiner pron.& n.  more, most  (used in questions and negatives and after so and too, but not usu. in simple statements) a great amount 许多,大量
mud[m d] n.  very wet earth in a sticky mass 泥淖,泥浆
multiply[‘m ltiplai] v.  to combine by multiplication 乘,用乘法算
murder[‘m d ] v.  to kill illegally, and on purpose  谋杀;凶杀
–murderer  n.
music[‘mju:zik] n. 1  the arrangement of sounds in pleasant patterns and tunes 乐曲;曲
2   the art of doing this 音乐;作曲法
3  a written or printed set of notes乐谱
musical[‘mju:zikl] adj.  1  of, like, or producing music 音乐的;音乐似的;悦耳的
2 skilled in and/or fond of music 精通音乐的;爱好音乐的
n.  a play or film with songs and often dances 音乐喜剧;音乐片;歌舞片
musician[mju:’zik  n] n.  a person who performs on a musical instrument, or who writes music 音乐家;作曲家
must[           ] v. negative contraction  mustn’t (否定缩写形式:mustn’t )
1        (past usu. had to) (used to show what it is necessary for one to do, what one ought to do, or what one is forced to do) (过去通常用had to ) 必须;应当
2  (past must have) to be likely or certain to(过去式用must have) 很可能;谅必;肯定会见
my[mai] determiner (possessive form of I) (I的所有格)
1        of the person who is speaking 我的
2  (used as a cry of surprise or pleasure)(用来表示惊奇或愉快)
myself[mai’self] pron.  (used as the object of a verb, or after a preposition, when the person who is speaking does the action and is the object of the action)(用作动词的宾语或介词之 后)我自己
nail [neil] n.[C] (pl. nails) a thin piece of metal with a point at one end and a
flat head at the other for hammering into a piece of
wood, usu. to fasten the wood to something else
钉;钉子
fingernail指甲
toenail趾甲
drive/ knock in a nail 钉钉子
name [neim] 1. n. [C] (pl. names)
a)the word(s) that someone is called or known by 名字,姓名,名称
full name全名(称) /
the first name<美>(= the given name<美>
the middle name
the Christian name<英>)名字;教名
surname/the family name<英>(= the last name<美>)姓;姓氏
a pen name笔名
b)a title for someone arising from his character 辱骂之名
to call someone names(=say bad or rude things about someone)辱骂某人;说某人坏话 [比较:to call ones name 喊(叫)某人的名字]
c)(for) fame; recognition by others; reputation 名声;声望
to make a name for oneself
made ones name (=became famous) as a painter. 以绘画出名
to have a name for  以出名
2. vt. a) to give a name to (someone or something)命名,取名
eg. He was named after / for(= given the same name as) his father. [Note:
name after (Br.E); name for (Am.E)]
b)to tell the name(s) of 说出的名称
eg. Can you name all the plants in the garden?
c)(+as / for / to be) to choose or appoint 选择; 提名; 任命; 指派; 指定  eg. The President named him (as / to be ) Secretary of State.
We’ve named August 23rd for our wedding day.
Name a price for car; I’d like to buy it.
narrow[5nAr[U] adj. 1.small from one side to the other, esp. in comparison with
length or with what is usual 狭窄的
2. limited; small狭小的;有限的;有范围的
3.almost not enough or only just successful勉强够的;险胜的
a narrow escape 死里逃生
ant. wide; broad
nation[5neiF[n] n. 1. a large group of people living in one area and usu. having
an independent government 国家 (比较:country着重指疆土、
国土、家园; nation着重指人民; state着重指政权、国家机器。)
2.a large group of people with the same race and language
民族;种族
national [5nAF[nl] adj. 1.of, being, or concerning a nation
国家的;全国性的(=nationwide)
2. owned or controlled by the central government of a
country 国有的;  国立的; 国营的
nationality [9nAF[5nAlItI] n. 1.membership of a person, esp. when abroad国籍
2.a large group of people with the same race, origin,
language, etc.民族; 种族
nationwide [neiF[n5waid ] adj. over a whole country; national 全国性的
native [5neitIv] 1. n. someone who was born in a place or lives in a place all time
or has lived in a place a long time 本地人;本国人;当地人
2. adj. a) belonging to or being the place of ones birth
属于出生地的;出生地的
b)(of a person) belonging to a country from birth
(指人)土生土长的
c)(+to) growing, living, produced, found, etc., in a place;
not brought in from another place 本地产的;土产的
ones native language = ones mother tongue 母语
nature [5neitF[] n. 1.the whole world, esp. as something lasting and not changed by
people自然;自然界
2.quality and character性质;本质;本性;天性
3.type; kind; sort种类
to keep the balance of nature 保持生态平衡
by nature 生就的;天生的
natural [5nAtF[r[l]  adj.1.of, concerning, or being what is or happens ordinarily
in the world自然的;天然的
2.normal; usual; ordinary普遍的;平常的
3. belonging to someone from birth; not learned
生来的;天生的
[句型] a) It is natural that-从句(从句谓语动词要用虚拟语气,即should +动
词原形或省略should, 直接跟动词原形。
b) It is natural for sb. to do sth.
naturally  adv.
navy [5neivI] n. 1. the organization, including ships, people, buildings, etc., which
makes up the power of a country for war at sea. 海军
2. the ships of war belonging to a country(=a countries warships)
一国军舰 [注意] navy是集体名词,作主语时,谓语动词可用复数,
也可用单数。用单数强调整体; 用复数强调“人人”。
[比较] army陆军; air force空军
in the navy在海军(部队)
join the navy参加海军
navy blue深蓝色
near [ni[]  1. prep. adj. adv. not far from in distance, time, degree, quality etc.;
close (to)靠近(的);近(的); 邻近(的)
2. adj. in a close relation or association 亲近的; 近亲的
ant.far
[辨析]  1. near 与 nearby: a)nearby 通常指空间上的接近,放在名词前后均可。
a nearby hospital = a hospital nearby b)near则指时间、空间、
年龄、关系、程度等的“接近”。c)作副词用时,多用nearby; 如要
用near,则其前通常有修饰语如 quite, very等。
2. near与close:在意义上两者几乎相同,只是close比near更接近,等
于very near,其后的介词搭配都用to。 但在下列词语中,两者不能
互换:the near future最近的将来; the near distance近处; a close
friend密友; a close contact 紧密的接触
3.near; at; by; beside: a) beside表“在旁边”  指两者位置关
系;也表“在(人)身旁” b) by表“在旁边” 时含有“倚、凭、
靠、沿着”等意 c)near表示两者之间的距离,作“在附近” 解 ;
d)at 表示有目的地靠近 e)beside 和by表示偶然地接近,比 near表示
的距离更近;  by比 beside的语气更强。
nearby [5ni[bai]1. adj.& prep. near close by, a short distance away (from)
附近地;近旁地
2. adv. near , within a short distance附近的;近旁的
[注意] a) nearby作形容词表示附近的既可放在所修饰的名词前面也可放在所修饰的
名词后面
b) nearby作副词放在句首时,句子要倒装
[辨析] nearby 与 near by : nearby 是形容词,修饰名词, near by分开写,作状
语,修饰动词。
nearly [5ni[lI] adv.  almost; not quite or not yet completely 几乎;近乎
[辨析] nearly 与 almost:两者都有“几乎”、“差不多”的意思,有时可以通
用,但两者有时还是有区别的。
a)    almost 所表达的相差程度较nearly小,有very nearly的含义。
b)    almost 在句子中不能与not连用, 但 almost 可以与no, none, nothing,never连用, 此时不可与 nearly 通用,常可与hardly any或 scarcely any通用。
c)    nearly 一般用来修饰表示肯定意义的词语,不能与never, nobody, none, nothing, nowhere, no等否定意义词连用,但可与not连用,构成not nearly(=far from, much less than),其意思是“差得远,远远不够”。
d)    当句子谈的不是向某个目标发展的趋势,也不是容易衡量的东西(即修饰表示感觉或心境的动词和形容词)时,不用nearly,要用almost。
syn. almost
neat [nI:t]adj.1. in good order; arranged well; showing care in appearance; tidy
整洁的; 整齐的
2. liking order and good arrangement; orderly 爱整洁的;有条理的
3. simple and exact 简洁的; 雅致的
4. clever and effective巧妙的
neatly[5nI:tlI] adv.
neatness [5nI:tnIs]  n.
necessary [5nesIs[rI]adj. 1.(+to/ for) that must be had or obtained; needed
必需的;必要的
2. that must be; that cannot be different or avoided;
determined or fixed by the nature of things
必定的;必然的
[句型] a) It is necessary (for sb.) to do sth. (某人)做某事是必要的
b) It is necessary that sb. (should) +do sth. 某人有必要做某事(从
句谓语动词用虚拟语气,即(should) +动词原形。)
c) if necessary 如果有必要
ant. unnecessary
neck[nek] n. 1. the part of the body between the head and shoulders 颈;脖子
2. this part of the body of an animal, used as food
动物的颈部(做食用)
3. the part of a garment for this part of the human body 衣领
neck and neck不分上下;并驾齐驱;不分胜负;肩并肩地
necklace [5neklIs] n. 项链
need [nI:d] 1. vt.  to have a need for; want for some useful purpose; lack; require
需要
2. aux. v.  to have to必须
3. n. a) (+of/for)a/the condition of lacking or wanting something
necessary or very useful缺少;缺乏;需要  b) (+for) (a ) necessary
duty; what must be done; obligation责任;义务 c) (pl.)something
necessary to have必需品
in (good/great) need of (很)需要
[句型] a) There is (no) need to do sth. 有(没有)做某事的必要
b) needn’t have done sth.表示 过去本不必做某事(但实际上做了)
[用法] a)need作及物动词,作 需要解, 后面常跟名词(代词), 不定式或v-ing形
式, 与普通实义动词一样,有人称,数和时态的变化,其否定形式要借助
于助动词do的各种形式。其后跟v-ing形式作宾语,v-ing为主动形式,却
表示被动意思, 相当于不定式的被动式, 这时v-ing 和主语之间有动宾
关系(want, require也有这一用法).。
b)need 作情态动词, 后面跟动词原形, 通常用于否定句, 疑问句, 条件句,
whether(if) 名词从句或含否定意义的肯定句中, 此时,它无人称, 数的
变化, 其否定是否定其本身, 即needn’t . 引导疑问句时,肯定回答用must,
否定回答用needn’t。
needle [5nI:dl] n. a long metal pin used in sewing for pulling thread, with a sharp
point at one end and a hole in the other end for the thread
针; 缝针
as sharp as a needle 非常敏锐
neighbo(u)r[5neib[]  n.[C] one of 2 or more people that are near one another
邻居; 邻人
neither[5]naiT[ 1. pron. (sometimes used after a Pronoun) not one and not the other
of two (有时用于代词之后)两者都不 (作主语时,句子谓语动词常用
单数形式,间或可用复数形式)
2. conj. (used before the first of two or more choices which are expressed
by like noun phrases, verb phrases, etc., separated by nor) not
either(用于被nor分开的名词、短语或动词短语等两个以上的选择之
前)既不; 也不 (neither ...匼nor匼 连接句子中两个
同等成分,若连接两个主语, 谓语动词与靠近它的主语人称数相一致。)
3. adj. not one and not the other of 2 两者都不(修饰单数名词。Neither
同所修饰的名词作主语,谓语动词用单数。)
4. adv. (used in answer to or in addition to an expression or sentence
with no, not, never, etc.) nor; no more; also not用于回答否定
句或加于否定句)也不(放在句首,表示前面否定的内容也适合于另
一个人或事物,句子要倒装。句型为neither + be / 助动词/情态动
词 + 主语。)
[辨析] neither, either, both  neither和 either作形容词,后修饰的名词都
是单数。 both表示“两者都”, 修饰的名词是复数形式。
neithernor既不也不...; 两者都不;  either or或者或者
both and 两者都
nephew[5nefjU(:),  5nevjU(:)]  n. 1.the son of ones brother or sister侄儿; 外甥
2.the son of ones wives or husbands brother or sister
姻侄; 姻甥
nervous [5n[:v[s]adj. 1.a) excited and anxious; worried焦虑的;担忧的
b) of or resulting from this kind of condition
紧张的; 不安的
c) (of a person)easily excited and worried
(指人)神经质的; 易紧张的
2. of or related to the nervous system of the body, or to the
feelings神经系统的
3.(+of)(Br. E)slightly afraid; timid(英)害羞的;胆怯的        nervously adv.
nervousness  n.
feel nervous about/ at sth. 因某事而坐立不安
make someone nervous 使人心烦;使人担忧
[辨析] nervous, anxious, upset:  nervous指对正在发生的事情紧张、害怕;
anxious指对可能发生的事情担心、焦虑; upset指对已经发生的事情(不
是大的事)不安、难过。
net [net] n. a material of strings, wires, threads, etc. tied or woven together with
regular equal spaces between them网;网状物
a fishing net渔网
cast ones net撒网
network [5netw[:k]  n. 网络系统
never [5nev[]adv. 1. not ever; not at any time从未;未曾;决不
2.not (常用于短语never so much as 和never do中以及命令句中)不;
不要
never mind (=Don' t worry; Don’t pay any attention to what has just been said)
不要紧,没关系
ant. always
[用法]never作为否定副词,放在句首,句子要倒装,即用句型:
Never + do/does/did/will/can + 主语+谓语动词。
new [njU:]adj. 1.having begun or been made only a short time ago or before
新的;新近的
2.not used by anyone before.未用过的
3.being found or becoming known only now or recently in the past.
新发现的; 初为人知的
4.being in the stated position only a short time 新(加入)的
5.different; another不同的;另一 6.fresh新鲜的
new to (= just beginning to know about or do; still unfamiliar with/to) 不
熟悉的;陌生的;无经验的
new from (=freshly or recently arrived from)刚自来到
newly adv. a)recently新近地  b) In a new, different way以一种新方式
newness  n.
news [njU:z] n. (U)new information新闻
a piece of news一条新闻,一则消息
some pieces of news(= some news)几条新闻
much news许多消息
the latest foreign (home) news最新国际(国内)消息
news desk新闻台
news that-从句:从句可以是同位语或定语;若在从句中充当成分则为定语从句,
否则是同位从句。
newspaper [5njU:s9peip[] n. 1.(C) (=paper) a paper printed and sold to the public usu.
daily or weekly, with news, notices, advertisements, etc. 报纸
a daily newspaper每日发行的报纸
a newspaper reporter(=a newspaper man/woman) 新闻记者
an evening newspaper晚报 /
read (a) newspaper看报
2. ( C ) a company which produces one or more of these papers 报社
3. (U) paper on which these have been printed印上新闻的纸
a piece of newspaper一张报纸
next [nekst] 1. adj. a)without anything coming before or between; nearest
最近的; 下一个的
2.(in time) the one after the one mentioned or after now; following;
(without the) the one after this
次(日,周,月,年);明(日,年);(不用)不次的
the week after next下下星期
(the) next day(=the day after)次日 (比较:the other day = on a recent day
前几天) / next Sunday下星期天
3. adv. a)in the order, place etc., or at the time following nearest;
just afterwards之后;下一步;其次  b)at the first time after this
or that下次
4. prep. (= next to) in the closest place to 在近旁;在隔壁
a seat next the fire火炉旁边的座位
next to 贴近;其次
next time下次
nice[nais] adj. 1.good; kind; well done or made; pleasant; pleasing
友善的;做得好的;漂亮的;令人愉快的
2.showing careful understanding or decision; fine; delicate需要
识别力的;精美的;精细的;细微的
nice to meet you (= nice meeting you)!见到您很高兴。
It's nice of you to do sth. 你能做某事真好。
be  nice  to sb.(= be good /kind to sb.)对某人好
nicely adv. a)well; in good, pleasant, or skilful way很好地
b)in an exact, fine, or delicate way精确地;细微地;精细地
niece [nI:s]  n. 1. the daughter of ones brother or sister
(兄弟姊妹的女儿)侄女;甥女
2. the daughter of ones wives or husbands brother or sister
(夫或妻的兄弟姊妹的女儿)侄女;甥女
night [nait] n. 1.[C, U] the dark part of each day when the sun cannot be seen
夜晚;黑夜
2. [C, U] any of various parts of this period, 夜间
the evening黄昏
the period after bedtime深夜
the period before midnight 午夜以前
3.[C] an evening, considered as an occasion一晚(视为一场合)
all night (long) (= right through the night without stopping)整夜
at night (= during the night/ at the end of the day)在夜间/在一天结束时
by night (= during the night)在夜间(与by day相对)
have a good / bad night (=to sleep well/ badly)睡得好/不好
in the night (= at some time during the night)在夜里;在夜间
night after night (=regularly every night)每晚;夜夜
night and day/ day and night (= all the time)日日夜夜;夜以继日
from morning till night (= from dawn until dark)从早到晚地
nine [nain] num. the number between eight and ten
nine times out of ten (= almost always)十次有九次;几乎都是;十之八九
nineteen [5naintIn] num. the number between eighteen and twenty
talk, speak, etc., nineteen/ twenty/ forty to the dozen (= to talk quickly and continuously, never stopping) 哇啦哇啦地说个不停
ninety[5naitI] num. 九十
in ones nineties 在某人九十多岁时
ninth[nainW] num. 第九
no[n[U] I. adv.1.(in an answer to a statement, question, request, etc., expressing
refusal or disagreement)(在回答语中表示拒绝或不同意)不;不是
2. (used for expressing great surprise) (表示极大惊讶)不会吧
3. (used before an adjective to give the opposite meaning to the
phrase containing the adjective)
(置于形容词前表与该形容词相反之意)
4.(before a Comparative adjective) not (any)置于比较级形容词前)
毫不;一点也不
no more than(=only)仅仅,只不过
no longer 不再(与not匼 any longer, no more, not匼 any more同义)
5. (after or) not(在or之后)否:You may not like it, but youll have
to do it
whether or no(= whether or not you like it)你也许不喜欢,但不管你喜不喜
欢,你都得做。
Like it or no, you’ll have to do it.不管你喜不喜欢,你都得做。
II. adj. 1.not a; not one; not any (修饰名词,单复数均可)
in)no hurry(=willing to wait; not eager)不忙;不着急
no matter无论;不管
no doubt无疑地
no one没有人
2.(in formal commands, warnings, road signs, etc., expressing what
is not allowed) 不准(用于正式的命令,警告,路牌等)
No smoking! 禁止吸烟!
No Parking! 禁止停车!
No spiting! 禁止吐痰!
No bare feet! 禁止裸足!
No bicycles against this wall! 禁止把脚踏车靠墙放!
3.very little; hardly any极少
in no time (= very soon)不久,马上
[句型] a) No matter what / who/ when/where/how, +主句:表示“无论何事,
无论何人,无论何时,无论何地,无论怎样”(用来引导让步状语从句)
[注:No matter what 和 No matter who不能引导主语从句,要用
whatever和 whoever引导主语从句,表示“无论什么”,“无论谁”。
Whatever和 whoever 引导让步状语从句时可以和No matter what和 No
matter who互换使用。]
b) no soonerthan...刚就 [与hardly/scarcelywhen同义; 用
法一样:主句谓语动词用had +过去分词,从句谓语动词用一般过去时;
no sooner/hardly/scarcely位于句首时,主句要倒装,即将助动词had
提到主语前。]
noble[5n[Ubl]  I. adj. 1.of high quality, esp. morally; deserving praise; worthy;
unselfish 高尚的;崇高的
2.admirable in appearance; grand堂皇的;宏伟的
3.of or belonging to a high social rank with a title
贵族的;属于贵族的
II. n. (usu. pl.) a man of the highest and most powerful social class
(通常为复数)贵族
nobleman/ noblewoman  n.贵族
noble-minded adj.心地高尚的;有高尚情操的
nobody[5n[Ub[dI] pron.(同no one) not anybody; no person没有人;没一人;谁也不:
nobody else (= no other person)没有其他人;
nobody but sb. (= only sb.)只有某人
[注:nobody含有否定意义,用于肯定句中; 在否定句中,用anybody;作主语时,
谓语动词用单数形式;在反意疑问句中的陈述部分作主语时,附加疑间部分
的主语用they. no one 也一样;nobody后不接of短语,接of短语时用 none. ]
nod[nCd] v. to bend (ones head) forward and down, esp. to show agreement or give
a greeting or sign点头(表同意, 打招呼或示意)
nod ones head点头;
nod ones agreement点头表同意
ant. shake
noise [nCiz] n. 1.[U; C] an unwanted or unpleasant sound 不悦耳的声音;噪音
make a noise发出响声
make a great noise发出很大响声
make a loud noise发出闹声
make no noise 没发出声音
2.[U] confused meaningless and continuing sound混乱,无意义,延
续的声音(尤其指:公共场所的喧哗声;收音机或电话等中的杂音或
静电干扰声)
3.[C]an unmusical sound that is difficult to describe or strange.
杂音
noisy adj.喧闹的;嘈杂的
noisily [5nCizI]adv.喧闹地
syn. sound , voice
ant. silence; quiet
[辨析]:a) noiseless, silent, quiet, still, calm : silent 主要用于人,指
“沉默的”、“不出声的”, 但不一定无活动。quiet指“安静的”、
“宁静的”, 强调“安静”, 没有干扰活动。 still指“不动的”、
“寂静的”, 强调“静止 的状态”,只限用于 物理上的安静,不用于
心理上的安静。 calm指“镇静的”、“平静的”,主要批人“沉着镇
定”,指自然“无风无浪”。 noiseless指“声音很轻的”、“无声的”,
常用来形容机器。
b) noise, sound, voice: 三者都有“声音”的意思。noise指“噪音”、
“吵闹声”, 通常指高声吵闹。 voice指“嗓音”, 指人说话或唱歌
的声音。 sound指人能听到的任何声音。
none [nQn] pron. 1. not any; no amount or part 毫无2.not any; not one (usu, of a
group of more than
2. (用于三者或以上)无一; 没有一个人或物
[辨析] none, allnot, no one, neither: a) allnot作“并非全部”解,是
部分否定;none作“没有任何一个”解,是全部否定。 b)neither表示“两
者都不”,none用于三者或三者以上“都不”。 c) no one = nobody通常
不与of短语连用。none可以与of连用,也可不用;后接名词可以是单数, 也
可以为复数;作主语时, 谓语动词可用单数或复数,在侧重表示“所有
的......都不”时,多用复数,表示“其中一个也不时”,  用单数形
式。在回答how many提问时,否定回答用none;在回答 who提问时,否定
回答用 no one.
noon [nU:n] n. the middle of the day; 12 o’clock in the daytime; midday
中午;正午
at noon 在中午
at the noon of life在壮年时
ant. midnight 午夜
nor [nC:]conj.1.(used between the two or more choices after neither) 也不; 也没有
neithernor 匼 表示“既不也不, 可以用来连接句子中的两个同等成
分(连接两个主语时,谓语动词和靠近他的主语一致即就近原则), 也
可以连接两个句子(连接两个句子时,nor引导的句子要倒装);
2.(used before the 2nd, 3rd, etc. choices after not)and/or not
也不
not nor叡硎尽癨不也不”, 后接的分句要倒装;
notnor... nor匼 表示“ 既不..., 也不..., 又不.......”, 表示连              续否定几个事物.
normal [5nC:m[l] n./adj. 1.according to what is expected, usual, or average
正常(的); 常态(的)
2.(of a person)developing in the expected way; without any
disorder in mind or body
(指人)正常发展(的);身心正常(的)
above/ below normal标准以上/标准以下
return to normal 恢复正常
normal school 师范学校
normal temperature 正常体温
normal state正常状态
normally adv.正常地
[辨析] normal, common, ordinary, general, usual: 均有 普通之意, 但又各有
不同. normal 指人或物符合常态、常规;common 指符合或具有全体人或
物所共有的特征;ordinary指人或物符合一般标准,并无非凡或独特之处;
general指较少例外,含有“普及”,“大众化”之意;usual指符合习惯
或常规制度,这种习惯可能是好习惯,也可能是恶习,但总之是司空见惯的。
north [nC:W] n. 1.(the direction of ) one of the 4 main points of the compass, which
is on the left of a person facing the rising sun. 北;北方
north and south 南北各地
2.(of a wind) (coming from ) this direction
(指风)北方; 来自北方
adv.   towards the north 向北方

in the north of 在......北部(表示"在范围之内")
to the north of 在北方(表示"在范围之外")
on the north of 在北面(表示"在范围之外, 又与之相邻")
North of A is/lies B: 某地(A)之北有某物(B)
North China华北
North America 北美洲
up north 到北方;在北方(比较:down south 到南方;在南方)
face north(= face to the north) 朝北
adj. 北方的;来自北方的
northern  [5nC:T[n]adj.
northerner  n.
northeast  n./adj.
northwest  n./adj.
nose [n[U]n. 1.鼻子;鼻状物
blow ones nose 擤鼻子
lead sb. by the nose 牵着某人鼻子走;控制某人
under someones (very) nose就在某人面前; 当着某人的面
2.管闲事:push ones nose into another business
管闲事;干涉别人的事
3.嗅觉: have a good nose 嗅觉灵敏
not [nCt]adv. 1.[表示否定, 修饰谓语动词, 放在系动词、助动词、情态动词之后] 不
2.[用在动词think, suppose, believe, expect, hope, seem等及副词
perhaps, probably等, 连接词if等和词组be afraid等之后构成省略结
构,代替对话双方都有明了的词、短语或句子;表肯定用so] 不;不会:
I think not.(= I don’t think so.) 我想不会吧。
I hope not.希望不会。
I’m afraid not.恐怕没有
If not.要不然;如果不
3.[与all, both, every等词连用, 表示部分否定]
Not all匼(= All not匼) 并不是所有的.......都(全部否定要用:
None );
Not both匼(= Bothnot匼)并不是两个都(全部否定要
用:Neither)
Not every匼(=Every匼not匼)并不是每个都(全部否定
要用Not one)
not a, not any = no没有; 无
Not at all.(= You’re welcome.)别客气!
not ...at all  根本不;一点也不
not... any more 不再(指数量或次数)
not  any longer不再(指时间)
not....匼 but匼不是...而是(用来连接两个并列成分; 若连接
两个主语时, 谓语动词同靠近的主语一致)
not only 匼but also匼不但......且(重点在后者; 若连接两个主
语时, 谓语动词同靠近的主语一致; 若连接两个句子, 前一句子要倒装)
not匼until匼直到才......(No until 引导状语位于句首, 主句要
倒装.)
not a little (= a lot; very much)不少; 非常
not a bit (= not at all; not in the least)一点也不(同not a little相反);
not a few(= many) 许多
note [n[Ut]n. 1. a short usu. informal letter便条; 短笺
2. (Am.E. Usu. bill) a piece of paper money 钞票; 纸币
3. (usu. pl. with single meaning) a record or reminder in writing(复
数具有单数意义)笔记
to make/take a note/ notes of 作笔记
notebook [5n[UtbUk]笔记本
to take note of (= to pay attention to)注意;留心
4. a remark added to a piece of writing and placed outside the main
part of the writing (as at the side or bottom of a page, or at the
end)注释;注解:notes to the text 课文注释 5.a written sign for
a musical sound 音符;音调
nothing [5nQWIN]n./pron. not any thing; no thing 无事;无物;没有什么;没有东西
have nothing to do with...与没有关系(
ant. have something to do with )
nothing but(= nothing except) 仅仅, 除之外别无其它[比较
anything but以外什么都; 根本不]
nothing to do but do sth. else (= do nothing but sth. else) 除之外什
么也没干[but 后接不带to的动词不定式; 如果but前没有do任何形式, 就
接带to的不定式, 如: have no choice but to do sth.别无选择只得] nothing like 没有比更好的
nothing much 不多, 很少
[注:] a) nothing可作主语或宾语, 但在否定句中,则一般不用 nothing作宾语, 而
用 not 匼anything.
b)  nothing在反意疑问句中陈述部分作主语时, 附加疑问部分的主语用代词
it, 动词用肯定形式( there be句型除外).
c) nothing在句中作主语时, 谓语动词 用单数.
d) 修饰语应放在nothing之后。
notice [5n[UtIs] I. n. 1. warning or information about something to happen
警告; 通知
put up a notice 贴出布告
put a notice in the paper登报通知
notice board通知栏
book notices 新书介绍;出版预告
2. attention 注意:
take (no) notice of (不)注意,(不)理睬
bring it to ones notice引起某人的注意
3.a usu. short written statement of information or directions
to the public 公告; 告示; 启示
4.(often pl.) a statement of opinion, as in a newspaper, about
a new book, play, etc.; review 评价; 短评
II. vt. to pay attention (to) with the eyes, other senses, or mind
注意到; 认识到
notice + O. + do sth. 注意到厖做过某事
notice + O. + doing sth.注意到厖正在做某事;
notice +O.+ v-ed 注意到厖被厖;
notice + that-clause注意到厖;
be notice to do sth. 被注意到做某事
[辨析:] notice指无意中的注意, 强调结果;  pay attention to指有意识的行为,
强调动作和过程。
noun [naun]n. a word that is the name of a person, place, thing, quality, action,
etc., can be used as the subject or object of a verb or the object
of a preposition名词
November [n[U5vemb[]n. the 11th month of the year十一月
now [nau]I. adv. 1.at this time; under these conditions; at present现在; 目前
2.(usu. in stories) at this time (in the past)
(通常在故事中)(过去)那时; 当时
3. at the time just following the present; without delay; at once
即刻; 马上
4. 常用于There now; now then; now, now等短语中, 用以吸引注意或
表达警告, 命令等。
(every) now and then/again (= at times; from time to time, occasionally)
偶尔; 有时
just now (= at this moment; a moment ago) 这时, 此时; 刚才, 刚刚
now ...匼now /then (= sometimesand sometimes)
一会儿一会儿; 时而时而
right now (= at once)立刻; 马上
now that (= since) 既然; 因为 (用来引出原因状语从句)
II. n. the present time or moment现在; 目前
from now on 今后;从现在起
up to now (= until now) 直到现在
nowadays [5nau[deiz]adv. at the present time; in these (modern) times; now
(与过去比较而言)现今; 时下; 现在; 在这时代
nowhere [5n[UhwZ[]adv. 1.not anywhere; (in/at/to) no place 无处; 到处都没有
2.(to/at) no purpose or result 无目的; 无结果
be nowhere to be found/ seen 不可能发现或看到
[注:] nowhere含有否定意义, 放在句首时, 句子倒装。
number [5nQmb[]n.1.a member of the system used in counting and measuring数
2. a written sign for one of these.  数字; 号码 (常用No. ) telephone / room/ page number电话号码/房间号码/页码
Bus No. 3 (= the No. 3 bus)
Room No. 205
School No. 12 ;
3.  quantity or amount  数目; 数量: the number of匼 
的数目; 的数量(作主语时, 谓语动词用单数)
a number of(= some)一些; 若干; 许多(后接可数名词复数形式, 作主语时, 谓
语动词用复数)
a large/ great/ big number (= a great / good many)大批; 大量
ant. a small number of
to the number of匼(= as many as) 达到数目; 总数为
in number (= by number) 总计; 总共
nurse [n[:s]n. 1.a person, typically a woman, who is trained to take care of sick,
hurt, or old people, esp. as directed by a doctor in a hospital
护士
a doctor and nurse 一名医生和一名护士(英语中表示成双成对的一对名词, 第二
个名词前的冠词可以省略)
2.a woman employed to take care of a young child褓姆; 保育员
nut [nQt] n.1. a dry fruit with a seed surrounded by a hard shell consisting of  usu.
2 parts 坚果; 硬壳果;
2. this seed, which is eaten 果仁
for nuts (用于否定句) 一点也(不); 怎么也(不)
a hard / tough nut难题; 难处理的情况
obey  v. to do what one is asked or ordered to do by someone
服从; 遵守; 顺从
obey the law/orders rules/ones instructions/sb.
遵守法律/服从命令/遵守规则/按照说明/遵从某人
obey to sb.遵从某人; 服从某人
ant. break
object I. n. 1.a thing; substance 物; 物体
2.purpose; aim目的; 目标
3. 宾语 no object (= not a difficulty) 毫无困难; 不成问题
II. v. (+ to ) to be against something or someone
反对某事或某人(后接介词to)
objection n. (= disapproval; opposition)不赞成; 反对
ocean n. 1.[(the +) U] the great mass of salt water that covers most of the earth
(带定冠词the)海洋
2.[C](often cap. As part of a name) any of the great seas into which
this mass is divided(当名称时常大写)洋
oceans of (= lots of)许多
occur v.1. (occurred; occurring) (esp. of unplanned events) to happen; take
place (指未计划的事件)发生
2.(often neg.) ( esp. of something not alive) to exist
(常否定) (指无生命物的)存在
occur to sb. 浮现于
[辨析]: occur所指的事情, 既可以是意料中的, 也可以是意外的; happen强调事情的
意外与偶然; take place通常强调事情的预先安排.
occurrence  n.
o'clock adv. (of the clock的缩写)点钟 (只用于表示正点)
October n. the 10th month of the year 十月
of  prep. 1. belonging to(表示所属关系)的
2.(that is )part in relation to ( a whole or all)(after expression
of quantity)(表示数量)的
3.from among (表示其中)的
be of great little/some/any/no/not/much + 抽象名词(如: value, importance, use,
significance等 ) = be +形容词(valuable, important, useful, useless,
significant 等) 表示主语的特性;
be of a size/ an age/ a style/ = be the same size/ age/ style/ 表示 同一; of one s own 某人自已的;
in spite of 尽管;
be tired of厌倦;
be fond of 喜欢;
a  row of一排;
a friend of mine/ my father's我的/我父亲的一位朋友
off   I. adv. 1. away 离开; 离去; 脱离; 脱落
drive off 开走;
get off 从下来;
take off 起飞; 脱掉
be off 离开;
2. aside 向旁边
3. (表示中断) (电, 自来水)停了
turn off 关
ant. on
II. prep.  away from 离开(表面)
Keep off the grass勿践踏草地;
jump off跳离;
offer v. to hold out; to give 提供; 提出; 给与
n. 提供;提出;提议;报价
offer sb. sth.= offer sth. to sb. (主语) 拿给某人某物; 给与;
offer to do sth. ( 主语)提出做某事
offer sb. a lift home 让某人搭车回家
office n. 1.a place where business is done 办事处;事务所;营业所
2.a place where written work is done in connection with a business)
办公室;办事处;
3. a place where a service is provided 服务处
4.a government department (通常大写)政府的部、局、处
5.employment and special duties 职务; 职责
6. a position of some importance, esp. in government高级职位
be fit for ones office胜任职务;
take office 就职;
work in an office当职员;
an office girl女职员
an office boy勤杂工
office hours办公时间; 营业时间; 门诊时间
officer n.1.a person in a position of command in the armed forces军官
2. A person who holds a position of some importance, esp. in
government, a business, or a group
(政府,企业或团体中)高级官员;高级职员
3.a policeman警察
official  I. n. a person who works in government, esp. one whose job is
less import than that of a government officer.
文职官员;公务员(指其职务较government officer次要的)
II. adj. of or about a position of trust, power, and responsibility
官方的;正式的
often adv. 1.(at) many times 多次地; 时常地
2. In many cases在许多情况下
[用法] 1. 一般位于be动词之后, 或第一个助动词之后, 或行为动词之前
2. 多与一般现地时连用.
[辨析] always, often, usually:  always ( = at all times)作 总是讲,  含有 毫
无例外之意; often指桑骂槐经常性 的动作; usually 也可指 经常 的动作, 但
侧重从已形成 习惯 的角度来说明动作.
ant. seldom
oh  interj. (expressing surprise, fear, etc.)(表示惊讶, 恐惧等)啊; 哦; 哎呀
oil  n. any of several types of fatty liquid ( from animals, plants, or under
the ground) used for buring, for making machines run easily, also for
cooking 油
burn the midnight oil (= stay up late at night to read or study)
读书至深夜; 开夜车; 挑灯夜读
O.K./ okay  adj. 1. all right; satisfactorily顺利地; 令人满意地
2. all right; agreed; yes 好的;可以 (用于征询寻建议的意
见,或表示同意,或表示许可)
old  adj.1. advanced in age; of age(年纪)大的;年岁的
2. having lived or existed for a long time or long enough to show signs
of age.年老的;旧的; 古老的
the old/young/poor/sick 老人/年轻人/穷人/病人(the +adj. 相当于名词,作主语
时,谓语动词用复数形式。)
the older of the two men 两个人中年纪较大的那个(the+比较级:表示两者中最高
级,意为“两者中最/较的那一个”);
a boy of 5/ a five-year-old boy/ a boy five years old 一个五岁的男孩;
[辨析] older 与 elder: older表示年龄较大的, 用于比较两者之间年龄, 可与than连
用; 还可以表示事物年代的久远; elder表示年长的, 用于比较两个人的长幼, 表
示兄弟姐妹关系, 不与than连用
elder brother/ sister哥哥/姐姐
on  I. prep. 1. (so as to be)touching ( a surface) 在.上
2. during; at the time of 在时候; 在从事中
3.about 关于
4. by means of靠
5.to; towards; in the direction of朝向;向......方向
6. supported by,  hanging from, or fastened to  由......支持;
自......悬下; 绑于......上
7.very near非常近
8.along ( esp. a long or flat surface)沿着
9. on the occasion of or directly after在...场合; 一.....就
10. because of; as a result of; through
因为; 由于; 依据...... ; 照.....
11. in a state of 在...情况之下
12.as a member of 为......之一员
13.working for; belonging to为......工作; 属于.
14.by means of and /or in 以方式
II.adv. 1.in or into a state of being connected or in place(穿,戴,放上
2. so as to be connected to the electrical supply, lit, or in use
(电灯,水管等)接通
3. continuously, instead of stopping进行下去; 继续下去
4.further更向前; 更远的
5. forward向前
and so on等等;
on and on继续不断
on board在船上
on doing sth(= as soon as)一.就.
on ones own独立地, 独自地
on ones/the way (to)在去的路上, 即将
on the point of正要的时候
on the/an open fire在篝火上
on time准时, 按时
on the top of在上面
on average平均;  on foot步行
on holiday/vacation休假, 度假
on fire着火, 失火
on the air(用无线电, 电视)播送
on the radio通过收音机
on show展览, 陈列
on strike罢工
on guard站岗
on duty值班
talk on the telephone在电话里交谈
on business出差;
once  I. adv. / n. 1.one time; on one occasion一次; 一回
2. some time ago; formerly 从前; 曾经; 一度
II. conj. from the moment that一旦就(接时间状语从句,与as soon
as相反, 都有表示主句动作是紧接在从句的动作之后发生, 但as
soon as强调时间性紧接, once则带有条件意味)
all at once突然
at once立即, 马上
once again/ more再一次, 重新
once in a while偶尔, 隔些时候
once upon a time从前
once or twice数次,几次, 一两次
one  num. & adj. 1.a 一个
2.a certain某一个
3.some哪一
4.the same同样的
pron.一(个,只, ) (pl. ones)
one after another一个接一个地
one another(= each other)互相, 彼此
one another一个另一个;
one by one依次地, 一个一个地;
one the other (用于二者之间)一个另外
[辨析] 1. a(n) 与 one: 二者都表示 一(个)的意思, 有时可以互换, 特别在表示时间、
长度及重量时: in a word = in one word 概括地说, 总而言之。 但在
多数情况下,它们仍然存在着一定的差异,主要在于:不定冠词意在说明“类
别”, 而数词one意在强调“数目”; 在表示数目对比的场合里, 只能用
数词one, 而不能用不定冠词;有些习语中,用不定冠词和用数词one意义
不同.
at a time每次
at one time一度
more than a year一年多(如一年又三个月)
more than one year不止一年(如两年或三年)
one day 有一天
an hour or two = one or two hours 一、二个小时, 若干时辰
a day or two = one or two days一两天
one rainy day = on a rainy day在一个下雨天
2. it, one, that: 三者都可用来代替前面提到过的人或物,但三者用法有别:it
可代替前面提到过的同一事物,表示 “同一”; 既可以代替可数名词,也可以
代替不可数名词;还可以代替上文中的某个句子或句子中的一部分;通常不加
修饰语;复数形式为them;  one可代替前面提到过的同类人或物, 表示 “同
类”;只能代替可数名词,其复数形式为ones; 其前一般带有修饰语; 其前加
上定冠词则表示特指; that可代替前面提到过的同类事物,表示特指,相当于
“the +名词”,其后一般带有修饰语(介词短语或定语从句),其复数形式为 those.
Oneself pron. (反身代词)自己, 亲自
all by oneself独自(没有别人帮助)
enjoy oneself(=have a good time)自己娱乐,玩得快活
teach oneself sth.自学
by oneself独自地
of oneself自发地,自动地;for oneself独自, 独立,自己
help oneself to sth.(= take what one want or like)随便拿或取
give oneself to 献身于
only  adj. having no others;  in the same group; of the same quality; the best
唯一的;仅有的; 最高分
adv. and nothing more; and no one else只;仅仅;只是;才
if only但愿(句中动词要用虚拟语气)
not only (but) also不仅而且(用来连接两个平衡结构, 如果连接的是两个
主语, 句子的谓语动词要采用就近原则)
only a little(= not much)一点点
only just刚刚, 正好
only too(=very)太了, 很, 非常
the only one of the + n.(pl.)+ 定语从句(定语从句的谓语动词用单数形式)
[注意] only修饰副词、介词短语或状语从句位于句首时,句子要部分倒装;修饰主语
时,句子不倒装。和不定式连用常构成结果状语。
Onto prep. to a position or point on到的上面
jump onto / on the horse跳到马上/跳上马
open adj. 1.not shut开的
with open eyes张开眼睛
push the door open把门推开
2.not enclosed开放的;空旷的
be open to sb.对某人开放
open fields空旷的田野
3.not covered露天的;无盖的
in the open air在露天,室外, 户外
on an open fire 在篝火上
4. ready for business(商店等)开着的;营业的
vt./vi. 开, 打开, 睁开;开放;开始,开学,开幕
open fire at/on (= start shooting at)开火
open out (= speak more freely) 自由地说出
open up 打开, 开放;开创;开辟
ant. closed adj. close  v.
operate  vt./ vi. 1.to (cause to ) work; 操作;操纵;运转
2. to produce effects 生效
3. to be in action实行
4. to cut the body in order to set right or remove a
diseased part(做)手术
operate a machine操作机器
operate on sb. 给某人做手术
operation  n.1.[U] a start of working; the way a thing works; a state in
which effects can be produced运转; 运用; 操作; 实施
come / go into operation实施; 生效; 开始运作; 开始运转
in operation实施中的; 操作中的; 正生效的
2.[C] the cutting of the body in order to set right or remove
a diseased part手术
perform/ give an operation on sb. for为病而给某人做手术
need an operation需要手术
opinion  n.  that a person thinks about something 看法; 见解
have a good/ bad/ high/ low opinion of (= think well/ badly of )
对印象好/坏; 对评价高/低
in ones opinion(= in ones view) 依某人见解; 据某人看来
What's your opinion about ?你对的看法怎样?
opposite  adj. 1.as different as possible from相反的;
2. facing对面的; 相对的
be opposite to在的对面
in the opposite direction 在/朝相反的方向
adv. 对面; 相反
or  conj. 1.and not[用于否定句中的并列]也不 not or
2. [表示选择]还是
eitheror要么要么; 不是就是;
whetheror 是还是; 是不是[用来引导主语从句, 宾语从句或让步状语从
句]
3.大约; 或许
two or three days两三天
sooner or later迟早
or so(=about; at least; or more大约; 左右
4.or (else) (= if not ; otherwise)否则;  要不然
syn. otherwise
orange  n. a type of very common round bitter-seet fruit from hot areas with
a reddish-yellow outside and divided into parts inside
橙子; 柑子; 橙色
adj. the colour of an orange橙色的
order  n. 1. a command or direction or something to be done, given by a person
who has the right or power to command[常用复数形式]命令
obey the orders 服从命令
give orders for 吩咐做;
2.a request (as to a tradesman) to supply goods 定货; 定货单
be on order已经订购
place an order for sth. with sb.向某人订购某物
3. the special way in which a group of people, objects, etc., are
arranged in connection with each other顺序; 次序
in order整齐; 按顺序
in order of以为序
in good order(= orderly  adj.) 井井有条
out of order出了故障
4. purpose目的; 意向: in order to(+do sth) 以便; 为了
in order that(+ 从句)(=so that) 以便; 为了[从句的谓语动词之前要有情态动词might,
can, could, may等]
5. the condition in which laws and rules are obeyed by most of the
people and the government or the person(s) in charge can keep
control规则; 秩序
v. to give an order; command命令[后接that 从句, 从句谓语动词用should +动词原
形,  should可以省略.  order 作名词后接同位语从句和表语从句也一样]
order sb. to do sth. 命令某人做某事
ordinary  adj. not usual; common 普通的; 平常的; 平凡的
in an ordinary way 用普通的方法
in the ordinary way按惯例
out of the ordinary(= unusual; uncommon) 不寻常的; 特殊的
ordinary-looking  adj. 长相一般的
ordinarily adv. (= in an ordinary way; usually) 正常的, 一般地; 通常
ant. special ; extraordinary
organize/ organise  vt./vi.  to form (parts ) into a whole
组织,  建立;   组织起来
organization  n. the arrangement of parts so as to form an effective whole/ a
group of people with a special purpose, such as a club or
business 组织
organizer n. 组织者
other  adj. 1.the remaining (one or ones ) of a set; what is/are left as well
as that / those mentioned剩余的, 其余的
2.( +than) additional ; more as well多余的;其他的;更多的
3. not the same; not this; not oneself; not one's own, etc.
不同的;不是这个的;别人的;非自己的
the other day  every other day  write on every other line  pron.
另一个人(物); 其余的人(物); 其他人(物): each other相互; 彼此;  onethe other一个另一个
someothers 一些另一些; 比较级+than any other +n.(单) /比较级+ than any
of the other +n.(复): 比任何都;
the two other books = the other two books = two other books 还有两本书;
[辨析] other, the other, others, the others, another: other作前置定语, 修饰
单数或复数名词, 表示泛指; another用于泛指三者以上的不定数目中的 另一
个. 其名词前不要加冠词.   the other表示两者加的 另一个 或两部分中的 另
一部分. 是特指.  others用作代词, 泛指 其他人 或 其它物.  the others指
整体中除去一部分后, 剩余的全部. 表特指.
otherwise  adv. if not; or else 否则, 要不然 [同]or , or else
ought  aux. v. to have the moral duty (to do something); should
应当; 应该(须与to 连用)
ought to do sth.应该做某事
oughtn’t (=ought not )to do sth.不应该做某事
ought to have done sth.(过去)本应该做某事(而实际上没做)(表示后悔或责备)
syn. should
our  pron.  belonging to us[we的所有格, 形容词性物主代词]我们的
ours  pron. that/those belonging to us[名词性物主代词](= our + n.) 我们的
ourselves  pron. [we的反身代词]我们自己
by ourselves 独立地
out  adv. away from the inside; in or to the open air, the outside, etc.
在外; 向外; 离开
be worn out穿破; 累坏
go out出去; 熄灭
find a way out 找到出路
tire out使精疲力竭
put out(使)熄灭
turn out熄灭
work out算出; 解出
speak out 大声说
be sold out被卖完了
out of 在外; 在外; 缺乏; 没有; 用完; 由于; 出于
out of work失业
out of ones reach够不着
out of breath 上气不接下气
outdoors  adv. in the open air在户外; 在野外
outdoor   adj. existing, happening, done, or used in the open air
户外的; 室外的
ant. indoor
outside n.  the outer part of a solid object; the part that is furthest from
the centre, or that faces away towards other people or towards
the open air外部;外面;外表;外层
adj. 1. facing the outside外部的
2. in the open air户外的
3. coming from or happening elsewhere外来的;确良发生于他处的
adv. & prep.   on or to the outside (of)在外面;在外; 向外; 在附近
ant. inside
over  prep. 1.directly above, higher than , but not touching在上方
2. more than; to the other side of esp. going up and then down
again; from side to side 越过
3.in, on, or through many or all parts of 遍及
4.during; in the course of (an event or period)在......时间内;
蒙古自治区在....过程中
adv. 1. directly above在上
2.across a distance or open space 越过, 超过
3. ended or finished结束; 完了
all over浑身; 全身; 全部; 整个; 在整个
all over the country/world 全国/全世界
over and over again 反复不断地; 再三
over there在那边(指较远处)
go over复习
show sb. over some place 领某人走遍某地(参观)
ant. under
[辨析] 1. over,  through,  across:  over指从一个物体的一边经上方到另一边的越
过. through 指(在空间)通过一物体或洞穴的穿过 、“通过”.  Across
指在同一范围内从一边到另一边的横过, 指平面穿过.
2. over  above,  on:  above 表示 “在之上” , 指斜上方, 其反义词为
below;  over表示 “在正上方, 垂直于之上”, 可以有面与面的接触,
也可以有一定的距离. 其反义词为under.  on表示“ 在的面上”,  强
调有接触.
overcoat  n. [C] a long warm coat worn over other clothes by men and women
when going out esp. in cold weather 大衣, 外衣
owe  vt. 1. to have to pay欠债
2. to have to give负有债务; 应向某人付出
3.to feel grateful to sb. for归功于; 感激
owing to(= because of) 由于; 因为
own  adj.   belonging to oneself自己的
vt. 1.to possess something , esp. by lawful right拥有; 持有; 所有
2.admit 承认  pron.自己的东西
of ones own 属于某人自己的
on ones own 独立地; 独自地; 亲自地
owner   n. [C] a person who owns something esp. one who possesses something by
lawful right所有人; 主人
ownership   n. [U] possession, esp. by lawful right.所有制; 所有关系
ox (pl. oxen) n. [C] a male cow which has been made unable to breed, used for
pulling vehicles and for heavy work on farms 公牛
ant. cow  奶牛
pack [pAk]v.to put (things, esp. one's belongings) into ( cases, boxes, etc.for   travelling or storing捆; 扎; 打包; 包装; 打行李  n.a number of things wrapped or tied together , or put in a case, esp. for carrying on the back by a person or  animal 包; 捆; 束; 行李;
a pack of 一群(包、副、盒、伙、派,);
packs of 大量的;  一大堆的
packet [5pAkIt]n.a small package; a number of small things tied or put together into a small box, case, or bag小包; 小捆; 小盒; 小袋;
a packet of 一包(盒、捆, )
page [peidV]n. one side of a sheet of paper in a book , newspaper, etc., usu. numered页; 页码:
turn to page翻到页;
Open the book at page 请把书翻到页;
turn the page over 翻过一页
pain [pein]n. 1. [U]suffering; great discomfort of the body or mind 疼; 疼痛: have a pain in ones head(= have a headache) 头痛; have pains all over浑身疼痛;  cry with pain痛得哭起来
2. [C] a feeling of suffering or discomfort in a particular part of the body; a feeling of annoyance or displeasure[常用复数形式] 劳苦; 苦心; (内心的)痛苦;
No pains, no gains 不劳则无获;
spare no pains不辞劳苦;
be at the pain of learning 刻苦学习 [同]ache  [反]pleasure  [辨析]pain 指肉体的、精神的痛苦; ache指连续的、局部的隐隐作痛
painful [5peinfUl]adj. 1.causing pain痛的;   痛苦的
2. hard or difficult 费力的;   艰苦的
painfully adv. [反] painless
paint [peint]v.1.to put paint on (a surface)粉刷; 油漆;
2.to make a picture or pictures of somebody or something using paint(用颜料等)绘画;
paint from nature 写生; paint in oils/water colours画油画/画水彩画;
paint the house粉刷/油漆屋子;
paint sth. red/ green 把某物染成红色/绿色
n. liquid colouring matter which can be put or spread on a surface to make it a certain colour油漆; 涂料; (常复数:paints)颜料:
Fresh/ Wet paint!油漆未干!
a peace of paint一幅绘画作品;
painter [5peint[]n.a person who paints pictures; artist  绘画者;(油)画家
paintbrush n.画笔; 画刷
painting [5peintIN]n. 油画; 水彩画 [同]drawing;  picture  [辨析]  painting,  drawing,  picture, portrait:
painting泛指油画、 水彩画等带有色彩的绘画作品。
drawing泛指黑白类的绘画作品或线条画;指素描作品。
picture泛指各类绘画作品、图片,亦可表示电影作品。
portrait 指人物的肖像, 或人物肖像的语言描写。
pair [pZ[]n. [C] something made up of two parts that are alike and which are joined and used together一双; 一对; 一副; 一条; 一把;
a pair of匼(后接 “物”时, 谓语动词用单数;后接 “人”时, 谓语动词则用复数。)一双, 一对:
a new pair of shoes(= a pair of new shoes) 一双新鞋子;
in pairs 成双地  [辨析] pair,  couple:  两者都含有 “双”、“对”之意; pair可以用于人或物, 指物时, 常指其中之一受损, 另一个则不能使用的物品; couple指被视为一体的, 同类的两个人或物: a couple of (= a few, several) (Am.E.) 几个
palace [5pAlIs]n. a large grand house where a ruling king or queen officially lives/ a large , often showy building for public amusement, dancing, eating, etc.宫; 宫殿:the Childrens Palace少年宫; the Summer Palace颐和园  [近] temple(以供奉神祗为主的)宫殿;寺院
pale [peil]adj. having less than the usual amount of colour; rather white(脸色)苍白的; 灰白的;(颜色)暗淡的:look / turn/ go pale 看起来苍白/变苍白;in pale苍白的;pale blue 浅蓝色 [反]dark
pan [pAn]n. any of various kinds of container usu. with one long handle, used esp. in cooking.aaathey are often wide, not very deep, made of metal, and often without a cover平锅; 盘子  pancake n. 薄煎饼
paper [5peip[]n. [U] material made in the form of sheets from very thin threads of wood or cloth, used for writing or printing on, coverying parcels or walls, etc.纸 :a piece of paper (= a sheet of paper) 一张纸; a fine paper 一种优质纸
[C]a set of printed questions used as an examination in a particular subject试卷、a piece of writing书面作业、论文、newspaper报纸.
paragraph[5pAr[grB:f] n. [C] (pl. paragraphs) a division of a written or printed piece made up of 1 or more sentences, of which the first word is set a little inwards to the right of a new line(文章)段;节
pardon [5pB:dn]vt. (+for) to forgive; excuse 原谅; 宽恕: pardon sb. for (doing) sth.原谅某人做某事
n. (+for)forgiveness 原谅; 宽恕:I beg your pardon(= Beg your pardon =Pardon)? 常用于:①作错了事表示道歉(用降调)(相当于Im sorry.);②谈话中提出导议(用升调)(相当于Im afraid I disagree with what you have just said./ Im afraid I think that what you have just said is not true/proper.);③没听清对方的话,要求重复一遍(用升调)(相当于I did not hear/ understand what you said and would you like to repeat it / say it again?)[辨析]pardon, excuse:excuse指原谅某人的小过失或疏忽。常用来客气地打断某人的话, 或引起某人的注意:Excuse me(用升调);pardon指饶恕严重的过失,尤其指法律或道德上的过失;也可以表示原谅礼节上的疏忽(此词比较正式)。
parent [5pZ[r[nt]n. (often pl.常用复数) the father or mother of a person; the father and mother of a person 父亲或母亲;父母亲
Paris [5pArIs]n. the capital of France 巴黎
park [pB:k]n. a large public garden in a town or city used by the public for pleasure and rest 公园
v. to put or place (a car or other vehicle) for a time; to leave something in a place for a certain time停车;放置:
No parking here 此处禁止停车!
car park (Br.E.)/ parking lot(Am. E.) 停车场
part [pB:t]n. 1. any of the pieces that make up a whole 部分; 部件: part of部分(作主语时, 谓语动词的数取决于of后的名词或代词的数); a part of 一大部分;  parts of有些部分; part of speech 词类; for ones part 就某人而言; 至于某人; 对某人来说; for the most part(= mostly; most of the time; in most cases)主要地; 大部分时间地; 大部分情况; in part一部分; 部分地
2.a character acted by an actor in a play角色:have /take a part of 扮演角色 play a part in (= have an influence on/ have an effect on)对有影响/在中起作用
3.a share or duty in some activity分担责任;参加:take part in 参加(某项活动)v. to (cause to) separate 分手; 分别; 分开; 分裂:  part from sb. 与某人分手;  part with sth. 舍弃某物
partly [5pB:tlI]adv. 1. not completely 部分地; 不完全地
2. In some degree有几分地
particular [p[5tIkjUl[]adj. 1.worthy of notice; special; unusual值得注意的; 特别的; 不寻常的
2.single and different from others; of a certain sort独特的; 某一种的
3.showing (too) much care or interest in small matter考究的; 讲究的
4. hard to please难以取悦的; 挑剔的
5.careful and exact详尽的
in particular(=especially)特别地; 尤其
particularly adv. especially; in a way that is special and different from
others特别; 尤其; 与众不同地 [反]generally 一般地
party [5pB:tI]n. 1.an association of people having the same political aims, esp. as formed to try to win elections(通常要大写)政党; 党派:
a political party政党;
the Communist Party of China中国共产党;
the Party共产党;
Party member党员
2.a gathering of people usu. by invitation for food and amusement (宴饮性的, 娱乐性的) 聚会:
have an English party举行英语晚会;
give / hold a party 举行晚会/宴会;
a dinner party宴会;  a tea party茶话会;
a garden party游园会;
a birthday party 生日聚会;
an evening party晚会
3.a group of people doing something together团体; 一群人
pass [pB:s]v. 1.to go forward; advance向前行; 前进
2.to reach and move beyond ( a person or place); (of a car or motorist) to reach and move beyond (another car); overtake 走过; 超过; 赶上
3. to get or go through, across, over, or between通过; 穿过
4.to move, place, or be placed (in or for a short space of time)(短时间内)移过; 掠过
5.to give (esp. by hand)传送
6.to kick, throw, hit, etc. (esp. a ball) to a member of ones own side传; 送; 打击
7.(of time) to go by; to cause time to go by(指时间)流逝; 消磨(时间)
8.to succeed in (an examination)(考试)通过; 合格 [反]fail
9. to give an official acceptance通过; 批准:
pass () on (to)传给  pass by从旁经过; 路过; 略过; 忽略
pass sb. sth.(= pass sth. to sb.)递给某人某物
pass away(= die)[委婉语]去世; 逝世
pass through (从空间内)径直经过; 穿过
n.出入证; 山口; 关口; 要隘; (河流)渡口  [辨析] pass,  cross:  pass 表示从某地, 某物或某人的旁边 经过, 也可以表示从某物内部, 或人与人, 物与物之间 穿过, 还可以表示时间或空间的 经过;
cross表示从表面 “横过、越过、穿过”, 强调从一边到另一边;注意与across (介词, 副词)的区别。
passage [5pAsIdV]n. 1.a usual narrow way through; opening通道;走廊
2.a usual short part of a speech or a piece of writing or music,
considered by itself (演讲或文章的)一段;一节
passenger [5pAssIndVe]n. a person going from one place to another in a public or private vehicle乘客; 旅客
passerby[9pB:s[5bai] (pl. passersby) n. a person who happens (by chance) to pass by a place 过客; 过路人
past [pB:st]adj.1. (of time) much earlier than the present (指时间)早就过去的
2. (with the perfect tenses) (of time) a little earlier than the present; up until now or until the time of speaking(与完成时连用)(指时间)刚过去的:
in (for, during , over )the past / last few days (weeks, years, etc.)在过去的几天(星期、年等)里
3.finished ; ended结束的
4.former以前的  prep. 1.after; beyond in time在之后; (
性上)越过:
half past(= after美) seven 七点半
2.farther than; up to and beyond 比远; 越 过  n.① (the +) time before the present过去: in the past在过去  ②(the +) what happened in time (long) before the present往事 ③(of a country) history; (of a person) life, actions, etc., before the present time,(指国家的)历史; (指个人的)过去的生活, 行为  adv. by; to and beyond a point in time or space过; 越过(时间或空间): walk past 走过去 go past(= go by, pass) 流逝 [辨析] 1.past, passed: past 用作形容词、介词、副词、名词,用作表语或状语时说明动作发生时的状态;passed是动词pass的过去式和过去分词,说明某一行为或状态的完成, 并对以后产生影响; 2.at present,  in the past,  in the future:at present在目前; in the past在过去;  in the future在将来  3. across,  through,  over,  past: across 表示动作是在某一物体的表面进行的;through表示动作是在某一空间进行的; over指从上方跨越而过; past指从某物体旁边经过
path [pB:W]n.1.(=pathway) (+ to)a track or way made by people walking over the ground径; 小路
2.footpath人行道
3. (+ through) an open space made to allow forward movement通道
4.a line along which something moves路线
5.(the +)( of action, thought, living, etc.) a way途径; 方式  [辨析]path, road, street, way:  都有 “道路”的意思, 有时可以通用。path指未经开凿,通过践踏而自然形成的小路;road常指城市与城市之间的大路或乡村大道,在城市内部 road常与 street通用; street指城市或村镇中两旁有房屋的路, 注意:英国英语习惯说:in the road/street; 美国英语习惯说:on the road/street; way一般指去某地的走法, 又可以泛指在途中。
patient [5peiF[nt]n. 1.a person receiving medical treatment from a doctor and / or in a hospital (住院)病人
2.a person who goes to a particular doctor when he needs medical treatment患者; 病人
adj. having or showing patience 忍耐的; 有耐心的:
be patient with sb.对某人有耐心
[反]impatient
patience [5peiF[ns]n. 容忍; 耐心
pattern [5pAt[n]n. 1.ornamental design图案,花样, 样式
2.the way in which something happens or develops方式
3.sample样品, 样本
4.a person or thing that is an excellent example to copy模范,典型
pause [pC:z]n. a short but noticeable break (in activity, or speech)停顿, 中止, 暂停 :
give somebody pause (= to cause somebody to stop and consider carefully what
he is doing)使(某人)停下来三思
v. to make a pause; stop for a short time中止, 暂停
pay [pei]vt. (paid, paid) 1.to give money for goods bought, work done , etc.付(款):pay () for sth.付的钱; 买; 赔偿
2.to settle ( a bill, debt, etc.) 付清:
pay off 还清债务;
pay back偿还(借款等)
3.to bring or give one money or something of value in return报酬;
pay sb. for sth 为给某人报酬
4.to make or say 做; 致; 说: pay a visit to sb./some place (= visit sb./some place; call on sb./at some place)  访问; 拜访; 参观
pay a call
5.to give willingly给;
pay attention to注意, 留心 n. money received from work工资 [辨析]
1.    pay, spend, cost, take:  pay 的主语必须是人: (sb) pay money for sth. / pay sb.for sth.;  spend的主语必须是人: (sb.) spend money/for/on sth./ in doing sth. 在方面花钱或精力; cost 的主语必须是物或事: (sth.) cost sb. money/life/health/time;  take表示做某事花费多少时间, 其主语一般是 一件事 ; 有时也可以是人: It takes/ took sb. some time to do sth. 强调完成动作所花费的时间。
2.pay, wage, salary, income:  wage 一般指工人或服务人员等体力劳动者的 工资, 工钱, 通常按时计数, 分周发给, 通常用复数, 不能被 many 或few修饰, 只能被 high,  low等词修饰;  salary一般指机关单位官员、职员和管理人员的确良“薪水”, 一般按年计算, 分月或半月发给;   pay可译为“工资”、“薪饷”, 既可指, 也可以指, 但更多地是指军队的薪饷或津贴; income意为“收入”、“收益”, 通常指一个人收入所得的钱, 不仅限于工资, 也可以指一个国家的收入。
peace [pI:s]n.1.a condition in which there is no war between 2 or more nations和平; 太平
2.  a period in which there is no war和平时期
3.(the +) a state of freedom from disorder within a country, with the citizens living according to the law安宁; 治世:
keep the peace维持治安; 保持宁静
4.a state of agreement or friendliness among people living or working together和解;和睦: be at peace with sb. 和某人和睦相处
5.calmness; quietness镇定;安静:in peace安静地;平平安安地;和睦地
6.freedom from anxiety or troubling thoughts平静; 安心:be at peace (= to be dead)(委婉语)去世  hold ones peace (= to remain silent although one has something to say)保持缄默 make (ones) peace with sb.(= to settle a quarrel with sb.)与某人解决纷争; 讲和
peaceful [5pI:sfUl]adj. 1.quiet; untroubled和平的;安宁的;安静的  2.loving peace爱好和平的
adv. peacefully
pear [pZ[]n. a sweet juicy fruit, narrow at the stem end and wide at the other 梨
peasant [5pez[nt]n. a person who works on the land, esp. one who owns and lives on a small piece of land农民 [辨析]peasant,  farmer: farmer 在英、美等国家指拥有或经营农场的人, 通常译为“农夫”或“农场主”;peasant多用于发展中国家, 原指有一小块土地,并来自己耕种的“小自耕农”。
pen [pen]n. an instrument with a pointed piece of split metal fixed into a holder of wood or other material for writing with ink; fountain-pen 钢笔
penny [5penI]n. (pl. pennies/pence) a small copper and tin coin, 100 of which make a pound(复数为pennies美/pence英)便士
people [5pI:pl]n. 1.persons in general; persons other than oneself人
2.all the persons forming a State 人民
3.the persons in a society who do not have special rank or position平民
4.a race, nation 各族;民族 [注意]
(1)people泛指“人们”, 前面通常不加冠词,  是集体名词, 作主语时谓语动词用复数;
(2)the people意思是“人民”,单数形式表示复数概念,作主语时谓语动词用复数;
(3)people作“民族”、“种族”解,通常用不定冠词或
复数
(4)a person or two只指“一两个民族”, 不是指“一                                                                                                   两全人”。
percent [p[5sent]n. (= per cent) one part in or for each 100  百分之一:
percent of +n 作主语时谓语动词的数依后接名词的数而定
n. percentage百分率
perfect [5p[:fIkt]adj.1.complete with everything needed完全的; 完备的
2. without fault; excellent无瑕的;极佳的
3.exact; accurate正确的; 准确的
4.complete; unqualified(只作定语)全然的,绝对;
Practice makes perfect. 熟能生巧。
the perfect tenses[语法]完成时
adv. perfectly quite; quite well; completely 十分地; 美好地;完全的;全然地
perform [p[5fC:m]v. 1.to do; carry out (a piece of work)实行; 做
2.to fulfil (a promise, order, etc.)履行;执行
3.to give , act or show (a play, a part/role in a play, a piece of music, tricks, etc.)esp. before the public 表演;演(剧);奏
performance  [p[5fC:m[ns]n. 表演;演出:put on/ give a performance演出
performer [p[5fC:m[]n. 表演者;演奏者
perhaps [p[5hAps]adv. maybe; possibly; probably 也许; 可能  [辨析]perhaps, possibly, probably, maybe: 均可表示“可能”, 但有区别:perhaps常置于句首,表示“有大致一半的可能性”;maybe常置于句首,表示不能肯定,含也许如此, 也可能不是;possibly常与can , could, may, might 连用,表示可能性较小, 但仍有机会;probably表示可能性较大,可能性比maybe 和perhaps 大;是有几分根据的推测
period [5pi[ri[d]n.1.a stretch of time with a beginning and an end, but not always of measured length 一段时间
2.a particular stretch of time in the development of a person, a civilization, the earth, an illness, etc.时期;时代
3.a complete and repeated stretch of time fixed by the forces of nature周期
4.a division of a school day; lesson 一节; 一堂: a period of time 一段时间  [辨析] period, time, age:  period含有“周期、时期”之意, 时间性可长可短;time指特定的时期、时代, 常用复数形式;age指有某种明确特征或以杰出人物为标志的“时代、时期”
permit [p[5mIt]vt.(permitted, permitting) to allow 允许; 容许; 准许;许可:allow sb. top do sth. 允许某人做某事; allow (sbs) doing sth. 允许做某事;
weather permitting 如果天气允许的话(用作状语) [辨析]permit, allow, let, promise, admit:  allow 日常用语,指允许某人做某事, 一反对某人做某事, 有消极的意味,侧重于听任、默许、不加阻止, 不按常规行事;permit含有积极的下面意义,多用于正式场合,指给予做某事的权利,如通过法令或正式条文“允许”做某事;allow可以和副词连用,permit 则不能;在表示客气的请求时,主语是you时应用permit, 以表示尊敬的请求,若主语用I, 则应用allow的被动形式; let 指允许某人做某事, 多用于口语中,祈使句中用let,  let 一般不用于被动式,在被动式里改用allow; promise 表示“答应、许诺”,用于主语答应自己要做某事; admit 表示 “认可”,作“认为下当确实、允许、承认”解,有时指在外界压力下不得不“承认”错误或事实。
n. an official written statement giving one the right to do something通行证,许可证执照
permission [p[5mIF[n]n. agreement 允许,许可,同意:with ones permission 经某人允许  without ones permission未经某人允许
person [5p[:sn]n. a human being 人 [辨析]human, person, people :  human作名词时等于human being, 在将人与动物、神仙、鬼等到比较时常用human;  person可以指man, woman 和child, 其复数形式常是people, 用persons 则强调数量的概念, 比较正式,“一个人”应该说:“a person , 一能说:“a people, 两个人则可以说“two persons或“ two people; people泛指人们,  the people指人民或确指的“人们”,  a people和 peoples指民族, 种族;
personal [5p[:snl]adj. 1. private; individual 个人的; 私人的
2.done or made directly by a particular person, not by a representative亲自的  personally [5p[sn[lI]adv. speaking for oneself only; as far as oneself is concerned 就自己而言
persuade [p[(:)5sweid]vt. 1.(+ of sth./ that-clause) to cause to feel certain; convince劝说;使相信
2. (+ sb. into/ out of/ to do sth.) to cause to do something by reasoning, arguing, begging etc.说服:
persuade sb. into doing sth./ persuade sb. to do sth. (成功地)说服,劝说好某人做某事
try / want to persuade sb. to do sth.(= advise sb. to do sth) 试图想说服某人做某事, 表示劝说不一定成功
pet [pet]n. 1.an animal kept by a person in the home as a companion爱畜;宠物
2.a person (esp. a child) or thing specially favoured above others.受宠爱的人或物
3. a person who is specially loved or lovable特别受爱护的人;可爱的人
photo/photograph[5f[Ut[U]/[5f[Ut[grB:f] n. a picture obtained by using a camera and film sensitive to light照片:
take a photo/photograph/ take photos/photographs 拍照
have/get ones photo taken请人给自己拍照
photocopier (= photocopying machine) n.影印机
photographer n.摄影师
physics [5fIzIks]n. a science concerned with the study of matter and natural forces (such as light, heat, movement, etc.)物理学
physical  [5fIzIk[l]adj.1.of material things物质的
2.of the body; bodily身体的; 体力的:
a physical examination 体格检查
physical labour体力劳动
physical training体育锻炼
3.of the laws of nature自然规律的
[对]mental
adv. physically
piano [pI5An[U]n. a large musical instrument, placed by pressing narrow black or white bars which cause small hammers to hit wire strings 钢琴: play the piano 弹钢琴(演奏乐器,乐器名词前要带定冠词)pianist
n. a person who plays the piano, esp. with skill钢琴家
pick [pIk]v. 1.to choose挑选
2.    to pull or break off (part of a plant) by the stem from a tree or plant; gather 摘;捡;拾
3.to steal or take from, esp. in small amounts 扒窃; 窃取: pick out选出; 认出  pick up拾起;拿起;搭乘(客人);接收;用较少的钱买到  [辨析]pick, choose, select:  choose是一般用词,通常指在所提供的对象中,凭个人的判断力或一定标准选择最满意的人或物,特别是从两者中抉择其一;select是正式用词,语气较强,指有目的地仔细认真地选择最好的,有“精选”的涵义,不能用于两者之间选择;pick 是口语用词,指按个人喜好或希望挑选中意的, 多用于有形的东西(人或物)。
picnic [5pIknIk](picnicked) n. a pleasant trip in which (cold) food is taken to be eaten somewhere in the country野餐;
have / go for /on a picnic 举行/去野餐
v. to go on or have a picnic野餐
picture [5pIktF[]n.1.a painting or drawing 图画;画
2.a photograph照片
3.a representation of somebody or something made by painting, drawing, or photography图片
4.a cinema film影片;
picture-book图画书
take picture of给照像  [辨析]picture, photo, painting, drawing, portrait:  picture 含义较广,可指相片、 图片、电影片等; photo是photograph的缩写形式,仅指用照相机拍摄的相片;painting指着色的画, 如水彩画,油画等;drawing指用钢笔或铅笔画的线条画或素描;portrait指人或动物的照片,用线条或颜料画的人或动物的画,特别指面部的画,或指生动的人物描写或刻画
pie [pai]n. an often round pastry case filled with meat or fruit, baked usually  in a deep dish 馅饼
piece [5pI:s]n. 1.part or bit of a solid substance (complete in itself, but broken, separated, or made from a large portion)块;片;段;部分
2.separate instance or example个别的事例
3.single composition (in art, music, etc.)幅;张;首
4.single thing out of a set件;个
5.amount of work done(工作的)件:
pay sb. by the piece/by hours 按件/时付给某人工资
a piece of一张(块/条/则/片)
pig [pIg]n.1.a fat short-legged animal with a usu. curly tail and thick skin with short stiff hairs, esp. as kept on farms for food猎
2.a person who eats too much , is dirty or ugly in manners, or refuses to consider others 贪吃的人; 肮脏的人;贪心的人;粗野的人;
make a pig of oneself 大吃大喝
pile [pail]n. a number of things of the same kind placed on top of each other 堆:  a pile of一堆  piles of (=a lot)一大堆
piles and piles of 一堆堆.
vt. 1. to make a pile of堆起
2.(+ with) to load, fill, or cover堆积;塞满
pillow [5pIl[U]n. a cloth bag longer than it is wide, filled with soft material, used for supporting the head in bed 枕头
pilot [5pail[t]n. (pl. pilots) a person who flies an aircraft/plane 飞行员
pin [pIn]n. a short thin stiff piece of metal that looks like a small nail, used for fastening together pieces of cloth, paper, etc. 别针; 大头针
vt. (pinned, pinning) 1. to fasten or join with a pin or pins(用别针等)别住; (用钉等)钉住
2.to keep in one position使固定; 使不能动
pink [pINk]n. / adj. (a colour that is ) pale red 粉红色(的)
pioneer [5pai[5ni[]n. 1.one of the first settlers in a new or unknown land, who is later followed by others拓荒者
2.(+of) a person who does something first and so prepares the way for others先锋; 首倡者:
the Young Pioneer 少年先锋队
pipe [paip]n. 1.a tube used for carrying liquids and gas, often underground管子; 导管; 输送管
2.a small tube with a bowl-like container at one end, used for smoking tobacco 烟斗
pity [5pItI]n. 1.[U]sensitiveness to and sorrow for the suffering or unhappiness of others怜悯; 遗憾: out of pity出于怜悯  have/take pity on sb. 怜悯某人  feel pity for sb.为某人惋惜
2.a sad, unfortunate, or inconvenient state of affairs不幸的事; 可惜的事: what a pity!真遗憾!  Its a pity that是遗憾的; 真遗憾(从句谓语动词用虚拟语气, 形式为(should )+ 原形动词, 表示惊奇、不满意等感情。)
vt. to feel pity for同情
place [pleis]n. 1.a particular part of space or position in space occupied by sb. or sth. 地方;地点;位置
2.an empty space 空间
3.a position which one considers to be of value or importance 重要的位置:
take ones place 入座;站好位置;就职;代替
take place发生;出现(无被动语态形式)
take the place of  代替(职务、工作);取代
in place of 代替; 取代 in the place of 在地方
in place在适当的位置;在原来的位置;保持原状
a place of interest名胜
vt. 1. to put or arrange in a certain position放置;排列
2.to pass to a person , firm, etc., who can do the needed action发出(订单);订(货):place an order for sth. with sb. (see ---order)  [辨析]①happen, take place:  happen 往往表示偶然性的没预料到的事情的“发生”;take place表示必然性的“发生” 或指是布置或策划好某事而后“举行”的。)②put, lay, place, set:  均有“放置”之意。put为最普通用词,强调放置的动作,可用于任何场合; lay 兼有put和 place的含义,表示平放或横放; place是比 put较为正式的用词, 表示将某物放置在一定的位置; set 表示按一定的计划、要求或某一目的将某物放置在一定的地点, 比place的意义更严格。
plain [plein]n. a large stretch of flat land平原;旷野
adj.1. clear; easy to see, hear, or understand明白的;清楚的;易了解的
2.simple, ordinary, without ornament or pattern简单的;平凡的;   朴素的
3.straightforward; frank坦白的;直截了当的
4.not pretty or handsome不漂亮的;不美的
plan [plAn n. a carefully considered arrangement for carrying out some future activity计划;安排:
a five-year plan 五年计划
a plan for/of的计划
make a plan for匼制定计划
vt.(planned, planning) to make a plan for sth. 计划;
plan to do sth计划做某事
had planned to do sth , but匼 原来本计划做某事的, 但(表示过去未曾实现的愿望,  英语中动词think, hope, want, mean, expect, suppose等均有此用法)
plane[plein]/aeroplane n. (= airplane  Am.E.) a flying vehicle that is heavier than air, that has wings, and has at least one engine飞机:  by plane/ by air 乘飞机
plant [plB:nt]n.1. a living thing that has leaves and roots, and grows usu. in earth, esp. the kind smaller than trees植物
2.a machine; apparatus机器; 设备
3.a factory工厂
vt. 1.to put plants or seeds in the ground to grow 种植
2.(+ with) to supply a place with seed or growing plants 播种;培植  [辨析]plant, factory,  works: 均可表示“工厂”. factory可指各类工厂,亦可指任何生产产品的地方; plant一般指化工、电力、机械等行业的工厂;works一般用作单数, 多指钢铁等重工业工厂。 ①plant,  grow: plant的意思是移栽、移植已经长成秧苗的植物  grow的意思是使某种植物在某地生长着或使其发展下去。
plastic [5plB:stIk]n. any of various light man-made materials produced chemically from oil or coal, which  can be made into different shapes when soft and keep their shape when hard塑料;塑料制品
adj. (of a substance) easily formed into various shapes by pressing, and able to keep the new shape 可塑的;塑料的
plate [pleit]n. a flat, usu. round dish with a slightly raised edge from which food is eaten or served 盘子;碟子;
on the plate在盘子里
platform [5plAtfC:m]n. 1.a raised floor of boards for speaker, performers, etc.台; 讲台
2.a raised flat surface built along the side of the track at a railway station for travellers getting on or off a train(火车站)月台;站台
play [plei]n.1.activity for amusement only, esp. among the young 玩耍;娱乐
2.the action or manner in a sport运动;竞赛
3.a piece of writing to be performed in a theatre 剧本
v.1.(+ with) to do things that pass the time pleasantly, esp including running and jumping; have fun玩
2.to amuse oneself at (a game)玩耍
3.to amuse oneself by pretending to be or do something扮演
4.(+on) ot plan and perform or carry out for ones own amusement or gain做;实行
5.to perform扮演;演;演奏
6.to take part in a sport or game 参加(运动或游戏);
play on words说俏皮话;玩文字游戏
play a part/role in在方面起作用
play the part/role of扮演角色
play with sb./sth.同某人玩; 玩某物
play basketball打篮球
play cards玩牌
play the violin拉小提琴
play a joke on sb.开某人的玩笑
player [5plei[]n. 1.a person taking part in a game or sport 运动员; 选手
2.a person playing a musical instrument乐师  3.an actor演    员
playground [5pleigraund]n. 1.a piece of ground kept for children to play on , esp. at a school运动场;游乐场
2.an area favoured for amusement娱乐场
playmate [5pleimeit]n. (= playfellow) a companion who shares in childrens games and play玩伴;游戏伙伴
pleasant [5pleznt]adj. 1. pleasing to the senses, feelings, or mind; enjoyable令人愉快的; 舒适的;
sth. is pleasant 某事令人愉快
It is pleasant for sb. to do sth.做某事使某人感觉愉快
2.(esp. of people) likeable; friendly可爱的;友善的         3.(of weather) fine; favourable 晴朗的
adv. pleasantly
[近]pleased[plI:zd]
please [plI:z]v. 1.to make someone happy; give satisfaction (to) 取悦;使满足
2.to choose; like 选择;喜欢
interj. 1.(used to make a request polite)请(礼貌的请求)
2.(used to give force to or make polite a request for attention) 对不起(用来使请求更有力或更有礼)
3.(used for turning a question into a request) 好吗?(改问为请求)
4. Yes, please (= Yes , I accept and am grateful)好;谢谢你, 我接受
pleased plI:zd]adj. feeling or showing satisfaction or happiness高兴的; 愉快的:
be pleased at (doing) sth. 因快乐
be pleased with sb/ sth对表示满意
be pleased to do something(=be very willing to; be glad to)非常乐意做某事
be pleased with oneself (= be too satisfied with what one has done) 怡然自得
adj. pleasing 1.likeable; give delight令人喜欢的
2.giving satisfaction 令人满意的
pleasure [5pleV[]n. 1.[U]the state or feeling of happiness or satisfaction resulting from an experience that one likes愉快;欢愉  2.[U]enjoyment; recreation 娱乐;享乐;
for pleasure
3.[C]a cause of happiness, enjoyment, or satisfaction 愉快的事物
4.enjoyment gained by doing or having something or some activity荣幸;
have the pleasure of有幸
5.something that is not inconvenient and that one is pleased to do(某人)方便而乐意做的事;
(Its) a/my/our pleasure别客气; 没什么;不用谢
6.desire; wish愿望; 意愿;
take (a) pleasure in doing sth. 对于感到乐趣
to ones pleasure 使某人高兴(满意)的是
with pleasure(= willingly)愉快地; 高兴地; 十分愿意地(答应对方时的用语,4美国一般用OK, sure, certainly) [辨析]pleasant, pleased, pleasing, please, pleasure:  pleasant作定语时意思是令人高兴的, 令人愉快的,修饰事物, 不能修饰人; 作表语时意思是使人感到高兴(愉快),句子的主语只能是表示事物的词语; 侧重客观地、总体地描述事物;pleased一般用作表语,偶而也作定语,但所修饰的名词往往是表示人的感情、态度、表情等方面的名词,指某事使人非常高兴而产笺一种结果, 作表语时意思是“高兴的”、“喜欢的”,含义glad基本相同,因此句子的主语只能是“人”,后接at ding sth,  with sth,不定式或that从句;pleasing意思是“令人高兴的”、“令人满意的”, 用作表语和定语,说明某物; please是动词,可作及物动词, 表示“使高兴(满意、愉快)”, 也可作不及物动词, 表示高兴、愉快等,回答Would you like some water?等表示征求意见的问题时,如同意,要说Yes, please.且用升调;pleasure是动词please的派生名词,表示“愉快、高兴、满意、喜欢”之意,多用于口语,当你帮他人受到对方感谢,你应说:Its a pleasure.或 A pleasure.  当别人请你帮忙,你乐意做时,则应说:With pleasure.  告诉他人坏消息时, 应用: It gives me no pleasure to have to tell you this. 表示 本来不愿意,但不得不的客套话, 写信时常用: I take pleasure in sending you my photo. / It gives me pleasure to send you my photo.等表达Im sending you my photo的意思, 请人吃饭可说: Will you do the pleasure of dinning with me?
plenty [5plentI]n. the state of having a large supply of ,esp. of the needs of life 充足; 大量;
plenty of 大量的; 充足的(其后接可数名词和不可数名词均可, 用于肯定句中
疑问句中通常用enough, 在否定句中用many 和much.)
in plenty(= in large supply; lacking nothing)供应充分; 不缺乏
pron. a large quantity or number, esp. as much as or more than is/ are needed or wanted; enough 充分; 大数目; 够多
plough [plau]n. a farming tool with a heavy cutting blade drawn by a motor vehicle or animal(s). It breaks up and turns over the earth in fields, esp. before seeds are planted犁
v. 1.to break up or turn over land with a plough 犁; 耕
2.to force a way or make a track (through or across) 奋力前进
3.(+ through) to make a way 费力前进
pocket [5pCkIt]n. a small flat cloth bag sewn into or onto a garment, for keeping small articles in 衣袋
poem [5p[UIm] n. a piece of writing, arranged in patterns of lines and of sounds, expressing in imaginative language some deep thought, feeling, or human experience 诗
poet [5p[UIt] n. a person who writes good or serious poems 诗人
point [pCint] n. 1.a sharp end尖
2.the end 尖端
3.(= decimal point) a sign used for separating a whole number from any following decimals小数点
4.a very small area or spot 点
5.the idea contained in something said or done, which gives meaning to the whole观点; 要点:  断自助on the point of 正要的时候 make a point 证明论点正确 to the point 正中要害; 恰到好处
v. 1.(+at/ to) to hold out a finger, a stick, etc., towards someone or something in order to cause someone to look, or to show direction or position 指; 指向
2.(+at / towards) to aim, direct, or turn 瞄准
3.to give added force to; stress指出; 强调:
point out 说明; 指出
point to 指向
point at指着
pole [p[Ul] n. 1.a long straight round piece of wood or metal as a support for a tent, telegraph wires, etc., or for flying a flag杆; 柱
2.either of the two ends of the earths axis (地球的)极
police [p[5lI:s] n. an official body of men (and women) whose duty is to protect  people and property, to make everyone obey the law, to catch criminals, etc.(集体名词, 单数形式表示复数, 作主语, 谓语动词用复数)警察
policeman[p[5lI:sm[n] (pl. policemen) n. a member of a police force (个体名词) 警察
polite [p[5lait] adj. having or showing good manners, consideration for others, and/or correct social behaviour 有礼貌的;
be polite to sb. 对某人有礼貌
反]impolite
political [p[5lItIk[l] adj. of or concerning public affairs and /or the government of a country政治的
politics [5pClItIks] n. the art of science of government政治学; 政治
pollute [p[5lU:t] v. to make (air, water, soil, etc.) dangerously impure or unfit for use污染
n. pollution [p[5lU:F[n]the action of polluting污染
pool [pU:l] n. 1.a small area of still water in a hollow place , usu. naturally formed水坑
2.a large container filled with water and built into the ground, used for swimming, growing water plants, etc.水池
poor [pU[] adj. 1.having little money; not having and not able to get necessaries of life 无钱的; 贫穷的;  衣食不足的
2.deserving or needing help or sympathy可怜的
3.humble; of little value不足道的; 无价值的
4.small in quantity少量的; 稀少的
5.low in quality质劣的; 坏的
6.lacking in spirit驯服的; 懦弱的; 卑怯的;
be poor at sth. (= be not good at sth.)在不好/ 差
the poor穷人(复数)
popular [5pCpjUl[] adj. 1.favoured by many people流行的
2.generally admired by great numbers of people孚众   望的
3.well like, esp. by people one meets in daily life受欢迎的
4.general; common; widespread普遍的;一般的;
be popular with sb.受某人欢迎的
population [9pCpjU5leiF[n]n. the number of people (or animals) living in a particular area, country, etc.人口; 人口数;
have a population of 有人口
Whats the population of? 某地的人口是多少?
[注] population的修饰语要用large 和small, 而不用 many和 much,  作主语时
子动词谓语要用单数形式, 若将其等分, 谓语动词要依表语而定。
port [pC:t] n. (a) harbour 港,港口
position [p[5zIF[n] n. 1.[C] the place where someone or something is or stands, esp. in relation to other objects, places, etc. 方位;位置
2.the way or manner in which someone or something is placed or moves, stands, sits, etc.(人或物的)姿态;姿势;坐立的方式
3.a condition or state, esp. in relation to that of someone or something else相对状况;状态
4.a particular place or rank in a group名位;身分
5.high rank in society, government, or business社会地位;高位
6.a job, employment职业
7.an opinion or judgement on a matter见解:
hold / take a position 担任职务
possession [p[5zeF[n] n. ownership; property财产;拥有;所有;
be in possession of拥有;
be in the possession of 掌握手里;
take possession of占领; 占有
possible [5pCs[bl] adj. 1.that can exist, happen, or be dome   可能的
2.that may or may no be, happen, or be expected也许会(发生)
3.acceptable; suitable可接受的; 适当的: as + adj./adv.  + as possible/one can/could尽可能地;
It is possible for sb. to do sth.对某人来说做某事是很可能的
[注]possible作表语时, 主语只能是事或物, 不能是人.
possibly [5pCs[blI] adv. 1.in accordance with what is possible可能地
2.perhaps也许   possibility
n.可能;可能性
n. post [p[Ust] (=mail 美) 1.the official system for carrying letters, parcels, etc., from the sender to the receiver邮政:
post office( a building, office, shop, etc., which deals with the post and certain other government business for particular area)邮政局
2.an official place, box, etc., where stamped letters are left for sending邮局
3.a job工作
4.a special place of duty, esp. on guard or on watch岗位; 哨位
v. 1.to take (a letter, parcel, etc.)to a post office or put into a collection box for sending邮寄; 投寄
2.to send (a letter, parcel, etc.)
by post邮寄
postcard [5p[UstkB:d] n. a card of a fixed size on which a message may be written and sent by post明信片
postman [5p[Ustm[n] n.(= mailman美) a man employed to collect and deliver letters, parcels, etc.邮差; 邮递员
pot [pCt] n. any of several kinds of round vessel of baked clay, metal, glass, etc., with or without a handle, cover, etc., made to contain liquids or solids, esp. for cooking罐; 锅; 壶
potato [p[5teit[U] n. a type of roundish root vegetable with a thin brown or yellowish skin, that is cooked and served in many different ways马铃薯; 土豆; 洋芋
pound [paund] n. 1.a standard measure of weight equal to 454 grams(重量单位)磅     2.the standard of money in several countries(货币单位)磅
pour [pC:] v. 1.to flow steadily and rapidly流
2.to rush together in large numbers蜂拥
3.to cause (liquid or something that flows like liquid) to flow使流
4.to give or send as in a flow倾泻
5.to rain hard and steadily; to fall hard and steadily倾盆大雨; 倾盆而下
6.fill cups of tea, coffee, etc., and serve them to others at table 倒茶咖啡等
7.to supply someone with a drink from a vessel 倒; 注; 灌
powder [5paud[] n. a kind of substance in the form of very fine dry grains 粉; 粉末
power [5pau[] n. 1.right to govern, to give orders, or to be obeyed权力
2.control over others; influence势力;影响力
3.force; strength  力; 力量
4.force producing electricity 电力
5.strength and effectiveness of armed force 军力
powerful [5pau[fUl] adj. 1.very strong; full of force强力的
2.of great ability; easily producing ideas极大的              3.strong or great in degree 强的
4.having a strong effect有效的; 有力的
5.having much control and influence有势力的;强大的
practical [5prAktIk[l] adj. 1.concerned with action, practice, or actual conditions and results, rather than with ideas实际的
2.effective or convenient in actual use; suited to actual conditions 实用的
3.    sensible; clever at doing things and dealing with difficulties; concerned with facts rather than feeling or fancies老练的; 变通的;实际的
4.taught by actual experience or practice, not by studying books 有实际经验的
practice [5prAktIs] n. 1.actual use or performance as compared with the idea, intention, rules, etc., on which the action is based 实行;实践
2.experience; knowledge of a skill 经验;实习  3.regularly repeated performance or exercise in order to gain skill 练习:
Practice makes perfect.熟能生巧
put into practice实行; 实施
[辨析]practice, drill, exercise:  均作名词,表示 练习.
practice指为求得完善, 熟练而反复地做某事;
drill指在老师(尤指军队中的教官)的监督下进行的严格、反复的练
exercise尤指为以展智力或体力而设计的练习。
practise [5prAktIs] v. (=practice 美) 1.to act in accordance with (the ideas of ones religion or other firm belief)实行; 实践
2.to (force oneself to) show or use (some necessary quality in behaviour) 实施
3.to do (an action) repeatedly or do exercises regularly in order to gain skill 练习;实习
practise /practice doing sth练习做
praise [preiz] v. to speak favourable and with admiration of赞扬;表扬
praise sb. for (doing) sth因某事表扬某人
n. 1.expression of admiration赞扬; 表扬
in praise of称赞;歌颂
sing high praise for 高度赞扬
2.glory; worship崇拜
precious [5preF[s] adj. 1.of great value and beauty 珍贵的
2.of great value that must be not wasted宝贵的   3.greatly loved or very valuable as being dear to one珍爱的
prefer [prI5f[:] v. (preferred; preferring) to choose (one thing or action) rather than another; like better宁可;宁愿;更喜欢;
prefer doing sth./to do sth宁愿做某事;
prefer (doing) to (doing)匼 宁愿而不愿......;
prefer to do than do匼 宁愿而不愿;
prefer sb. to do sth.宁愿某人做某事
prepare [prI5pZ[] v. to get or make ready准备; 预备:  prepare for(= get ready for)为作准备  prepare匼for匼使有准备; 为准备;  be prepared for匼准备(有某种情况);  be prepared to do准备; 打算; prepare to do匼准备做     preparation [9prep[5reiF[n] n. the act or state of preparing准备:  make  preparations for 为作准备
present [5preznt] adj. 1.(of a person) being in the place talked of or understood 在场的;  出席的     [反]absent
2.existing or in course of action now现在的
n. 1.the time now passing现在;
at present现在; 目前
2.a gift礼物
[辨析]gift,  present:  两者都可作 礼物解, 常可能通用, 但gift 着重于诚意与分量, 一般指上级或同级所赠的礼物, 侧重于送礼人的诚意;  present一般指同级或下级所赠的礼物, 口语中用得多.
president [prezId[nt] n. the head of government in many modern states that do not have a king or queen 总统
press [pres] v. to push firmly and steadily against something 压按
pretend [prI5tend] v. to make oneself appear (to be sth., to be doing sth.), either in play or to deceive others假装; 装作:
pretend (to be) + n. /adj. 假装;
pretend to do sth  假装做某事;
pretend to be doing sth假装正在做某事;
pretend that-从句:  假装
pretty [5prItI] adj. (of a woman, a child, or a small fine thing) pleasing or nice to look at, listen to, etc; charming but not beautiful or grand漂亮的; 迷人的; 可爱的; 俊俏的
[同] beautiful
adv. 1.in some degree; rather; quite though not completely相当; 颇
2.very非常
[辨析] 1.pretty, beautiful, handsome, lovely: 均有 美 的意思, 通常指的重点不同, 各用于不同的对象. beautiful 表示 :美丽时, 是最普遍的用法, 通常指最能产生美感的那种美, 给以人最大的满足, 是高尚的精神上的美丽, 包含喜悦感的温柔, 愉快, 爱怜, 优美等. 可以用于人, 一般用于女性, 亦可用于物, 如: face, body, flower, view, voice, poem, smell, morning, weather, music 等;  pretty通常形容小孩, 青年女子, 或比较细小的东西, 含有娇小, 悦人, 精致的美的特色, 它不用于精神上的美或高尚的美, 形容物时有 娇小玲珑的意思;  handsome 一般指男性美, 有 英俊, 潇洒的意思; 形容女性时, 通常指 五官端正, 有男人气质;  lovely通常指能引起赞美赞叹等感情的人或物, 也可以形容或描写女人的容貌;  beautiful, pretty, lovely 都不用于形容男子的美, 形容男子时, 一般用  handsome, good-looking等.  2.fairly, rather, quite, pretty, very: 这几个表示程度的副词从强到弱的顺序是very rather/pretty quite fairly. 用法上的区别在于: ①只有rather一词能和比较级及too连用, 但有quite better(完全康复); ②quite 和rather都可用在冠词前, 也可和动词连用, pretty, very, fairly 则不能; ③quite, fairly rather, very 可放在a./an后, 但只有当名词前有形容词时, 才这样用. ④只有quite一词能和一些没有程度差异的词(如: perfect, impossible, dead, wrong等)连用, 表示completely(完全地) 或absolutely(绝对的)的意思.
prevent [prI5vent] v. 1.to keep something from happening or existing 防止; 预防
2.to stop or hold back someone阻止:
prevent sb./ sth. (from) doing sth [= stop sb../ sth. (from) doing sth; keep sb./sth. from doing sth.] 阻止某人做某事; 阻止某事发
[注]keep sb./sth. doing sth. 使某人.某物处于某种状态
price [prais] n. 1.an amount of money for which a thing is offered, sold, or bought价格; 价钱 ;
2.that which one must lose or suffer in order to do or get something one wants代价
adj. priceless of very great value; of worth too great to be described or calculated无价的
[辨析]price, cost:  price 作 定价价钱价格 解, at a low/ high price 以廉价/高价; cost作 花费费用 解.
pride [praid] n. 1. a feeling of satisfaction, delight, and pleasure in what one can do or has done, or in someone or something connected with oneself 自豪
2.too high an opinion of oneself because of ones rank, wealth, abilities, etc.骄傲
3.reasonable self-respect; proper high opinion of oneself 自尊(心)
take (a) pride in匼(= be proud of匼) 以为自豪
Pride goes before a fall.骄兵必败.
print [prInt] v. 1.to press (a mark) onto a soft surface印
2.to press letters or pictures onto (paper) by using shapes covered with ink 印刷
3.to make (a book, magazine, etc.) by means of pressing letters or pictures onto paper 出版
n. printer印刷者
n. printing印刷; 印刷术
prison [5prIzn] n. a large ( government) building where criminals are kept locked up as a punishment for as long as the law has decided 监狱:
be in prison坐牢
out of prison出狱
put sb. in prison把某人投入监狱
throw/cast sb. into prison把某人投入监狱
take/send sb. to prison把某人投入监狱
enter/go to prison 进监狱
[注]prison 前不用冠词.
prisoner [5prIzn[] n. a person kept in a prison for some crime or while waiting to be tired囚犯
prize [5[praiz] n. something of value given to someone who is successful in a game, race, competition, game of chance, etc., or given for some deed that is admired 奖赏; 奖品:
win/take /receive the first prize 获一等奖
probably [5prCb[blI] adv. almost (but not quite) certainly 很可能; 大概  probable
adj. that may be expected to happen; that a good chance of being true or correct; likely 很有可能的; 很有希望的
[辨析] probable, likely: likely是形容词, 也有 很可能 的意思, 大体上和probab
同意, 但比probable更为多用, 在用法上也有些不同. likely之后常跟不定式(be likely to do sth.), 而probable之后通常不跟不定式. 但是在It is likely that-从句中的likely 可以用probable代替.    → possible
problem [5prCbl[m] n. a serious difficulty that need attention and thought 问题; 难题; 习题:
a maths problem一道数学题
solve/work out a problem解出一道题
no problem 没问题
[辨析]problem, question: 都有 问题的意思, 但用法略有不同: problem通常指等待解决或决定的问题, 尤指比较困难的问题;question通常指由于对某事疑惑不解, 因而提出问题等待回答.
produce [pr[5djU:s] v. to make (something, esp. goods) from materials 制造; 生产  product
n. something useful produced by growth or from the ground, or made in a factory产品   producer
n. 1.a person or company that produces goods, foods, or materials生产者; 生产商
2.a person who has general control esp. of the money for a play, film, or broadcast, but who does not direct the action制作者
production [pr[5dQkF[n] n. 1. the action of producing or making products 生产
2.the act of producing a play, film, or broadcast制作
3.the amount produced生产量
professor[pr[5fes[] n. the title of a teacher of the highest rank in a university department教授
program(me) [5pr[UgrAm] n. 1. a complete show or performance, esp. one made up of several different acts节目
2.a fixed plan of a course of action; list of duties, activities, etc.规划; 计划; 项目
3.a (printed) list of performers or things to be performed at a concert, a theatre, a sports competition, etc.节目单
progress[5pr[Ugres] n. 1.advance; journey onward; forward movement in space 前进; 行进
2.continual improvement or development 进步; 进展:
make (much/ great/ rapid) progress (= get better/improved) in sth. 在某方面取得很大/很快进步
promise [5prCmIs] n. 1.a statement, which someone else has a right to believe and depend on, that one will or will not do something, give something, etc.诺言:
make a promise to do sth./that-从句: 许下诺言;
break a promise违约; 不守诺言;
keep a promise守约; 信守诺言
2.expectation or hope (esp. of success or of something good or desired)希望
v. 1.to make a promise to do or give (something) or that (something ) shall be done许诺: promise sb. sth.答应某人某物  promise (sb.) to do sth.答应(某人)做某事  promise (sb.) +that-从句: 答应
2.to say that (something) is certain; warn (someone) of (something)保证; 警告
pronounce [pr[5nauns] v. to make the sound of ( a letter, a word, etc.) (in a particular way)发音
pronunciation [pr[9nQnsI5eiF[n] n. 1.a particular persons way of pronouncing a language, or the words of a language发音
2. the way in which a word is usually pronounced读音
proper [5prCp[] adj. 1.right; suitable; correct正当的
2.correct (for a purpose)正确的
3.fine; splendid; good-looking好的; 漂亮的
4.exact准确的  properly
adv. 1.suitably, correctly; sensibly适当地; 正确地
2.really; actually; exactly真正地
3. completely; thoroughly完全地
protect[pr[5tekt] v. (+ against/ from) to keep safe (from harm, loss, etc.), esp. by guarding or covering保护:
protectfrom/ against使勉受
[注: 较大的事情用against;  较小的事情用from]
proud [praud] adj. 1.having or expressing a proper personal feeling of satisfaction and pleasure in something connected with oneself 自豪的; 引以为荣的:
be proud of匼以自豪;
be proud of doing sth.以做某事而自豪
be proud to do sth.以为荣(自豪)
be proud that-从句: 以为荣(自豪)
2.having too high an opinion of oneself or a false idea of ones own importance 骄傲的; 自负的
3.having the quality of self-respect and showing this in ones standards of behaviour 自尊的; 自重的
prove [prU:v] v. 1.to give proof of; show to be true or give cause for belief in 证明
2.to test (a quality or the quality of something) 试验
3.to show (oneself or itself) afterwards, in the course of time or experience, etc., to be of the quality stated证实:
prove (to be ) + n./ adj.(作表语) 被证明/证实是;
prove that-从句: 证明; 证实
provide [pr[5vaid] v. (+ for/ with) to supply (something needed or useful)提供; 供给:
provide sth. for sb.(= supply sth for sb.)为提供;
provide sb. with sth.(= supply sb. with sth.) 供应某人某物
public [5pQblIk] adj. 1.of, to, by, for, or concerning people in general 公众的:
2.for the use of everyone;  not private 公用的
3.in the sight or hearing of many people; not secret or private公开的:
4.known to all or to many众人皆知的; 公开的
n.公民; 公众(集体名词, 作主语, 谓语动词用复数) :
the public公众; 公民(作主语, 谓语动词可单可复)
in public 公开地; 当众地
adv. publicly
pull [pUl] v. 1.to draw (something) along behind or after one while moving拉
2.to move (someone or something )to another place by holding and drawing along, sometimes with force 拖; 拉
3.to seize and draw roughly toward one, sometimes with the desire to hurt用力拉扯:
pull up (使)停下来
n. 1.force or effort used in moving or drawing something towards one 拉力; 牵引力
2.a natural force that influences or causes movement吸引力
[反]push
pump [pQmp] n. a machine, usu, with a tube and a handle, for forcing liquids, air, or gas into or out of something 泵
v. to move (liquids, air, or gas) by using a pump.用泵抽
punish [5pQnIF] v. (+ for) to cause (someone) to suffer for (a misdeed, fault, or crime)惩罚; 处罚
punishment [p5QnIFm[nt] n. the act of punishing or condition of being punished惩罚
pupil [5pjU:pl] n. a person, esp. a child, who is being taught学生(指小学生)
pure [pjU[] adj. 1.clean; free from dirt, dust, bacteria, or any harmful matter纯净的; 干净的; 无有害物质的
2.free from evil; without sexual thoughts or experience纯洁的; 无邪的
3.unmixed with any other substance纯粹的
purpose [5p[:p[s] n. 1.an intention or plan; reason for an action目的; 意图:
do sth on purpose故意做某事
do sth for/with the purpose of为目的做某事
2.use; effect; result用途; 效果; 结果
3.steady determined following of an aim; willpower决心; 毅力
purse [p[:s] n. a small flattish leather or plastic bag used, esp. by women, for carrying money(女性的)钱包
push [pUF] v. to use sudden or steady pressure in order to move (someone or something) forward, away from oneself, or to a different position 推:
push over推倒; (风)刮倒
n. an act of pushing 推
[反] pull
put [pUt] v. (putted; putting) to move, set, place, lay, or fix (someone or something) in, on, or to a stated place放置; 摆放:
put...away 放好; 把收起来
put on 穿; 戴上; 上演
put on performance演出
put on weight发福; 增加体重
put out扑灭; 关熄
put sth. down 把某物放下; 把记下
put up 挂起; 举起; 贴(广告等)
quake  v. to shake or tremble震动
n. an earthquake  震动,颤动,地震
quantity  n. amount, a large amount. 数量,大量
quarrel  v. dispute angrily 争吵
n. an angry argument 争吵(论)
quarrel with sb. about sth.
quarter n. one fourth, 15 minutes 四分之一,15分钟
queen n. the female ruler of a country 王后,女王
question  n. thing asked, matter to be talked over问题、疑问
vt. to ask sb questions to find out sth, about a crime or doubt询问、审问
quick adj. adv. fast, soon, clever 快、迅速地(的)敏捷的
quiet  adj. at rest, moving very little安静的
syn. silent (adj.)
quietly, silently (adv.)
quite adv. entirely; really, rather.很、十分、完全
quite a few =quite a lot of  …
quiz n. a short test 测验、小型考试
race  n. group of people, animals, or plants 族类、种族、人种
a competition in which one tries to run, drive, etc. fastest and
finish first 竞赛、赛跑
adj. racial 种族的
radio n. (pl. radios) [C][U] an apparatus to receive sound broadcast
无线电、收音机。
on the radio 通过无线电广播 =By using the radio
rail  n. one of the pair of metal bars fixed to the ground along which a train
runs, or railway 铁轨、轨道
syn. railway, railroad
rain n. [U] water falling in drops from the clouds, the fall of such drops
雨,下雨
vi. fall in drops of water 降雨
adj. rainy. raincoat 雨衣 rainfall 降雨量、一场雨
raise  vt, lift up, cause to rise, in crease in degree amount, price, etc
升高、提高、增加
rapid  adj. very quick, fast, swift 迅速的、急促的
adv. rapidly
syn. fast, quick, swift
ant. slow
rather adv. more willingly with better reason. somewhat, fairly, quite
宁愿、相当
rather than: more than. or instead of someone or something else
倒不如说,是……而不是……
ray n. [C] a narrow beam of light, usu, from sun or something else
光线、射线
syn, sunlight
read vt, get the meaning of (written or printed) speak 阅读,朗读。
n. reading  读物
realize  vt. to know the importance of sth. to achieve sth. you want to
achieve.意识到,实现
reach vt. get to. stretch, touch。达到,伸出,触及
ready  adj. prepared, willing 已预备的,愿意的
get/be ready for sth. (to do sth.)
real  adj. actual, true. 实际的,真实的
adv. Really 真正的,确实
reason n. cause, motive  原因,动机
adj, reasonable 有道理的,合情合理的
receive  vt. take (sth, offered or sent), take or let in to the mind,
suffer 收到,接到,遭受
recent adj. done or made not long ago 最近的,近来的
adv. recently. Lately, not long ago 近来,最近
reception n. a particular type of welcome for someone 接待
reception desk.(room)接待处(室)
recognize  vt. know again, accept. 认出,承认
record  v. set down in writing so as to keep for future use记录
n. a written statement of facts, events etc. 记录,记载
keep a record of …记录下
recorder 收录机
recover  v. get better after an illness, return to normal condition
恢复
recover from …
recycle v. use again ( of objects that have been used )
再循环,回收再用
red adj. having the colour of blood or fire 红色的,红色
reddish-brown  综红色
redirect  v. send sth in a different direction.转移呼叫,更改方向
n. redirection
reduce vt. make less or smaller in size. amount or price 缩减,减少
refer  v. phr. Refer to mention or speak about someone or something
to look at a book, map, reference materials etc.
提交,提到,参考(与to连用)
refuse v. turn down, reject, say one will not give 拒绝,不愿,不肯
regard  vt. consider, think of 当作,视为,看待
regard as: to consider (sb /sth) as being (something)
regret  n. vt. (regretted, regretting ) feel sorry for遗憾,抱歉
regular  adj. happening or doing sth very often or at a same time every
day  规则的,固定的,有规律的,整齐
adv. regularly
ant. irregular
relate v. to show or prove a connection between two or more things,
to speak of  有关,叙述
relate to 涉及,有关
n. relation关联,联系,交往,亲属
adj. relative 有关系的,相关的
adv. relatively 相对地,比较地
remark  n. notice, looking at, comment 注意,评论
v. notice, see, say sth. by way of comment. 注意,谈起,评论
remain vi. stay, continue, be left 保持,仍是,剩下
(always + adj. prep, linking verb)
remember  vt. call to mind, recall, keep in mind. 想起,记得
remember me to … 请向……致意
remind  vt. to make sb. remember, sth /sb that they must do or they know
before使人想起
remind sb that … 使某人想起……
remind sb of sth.
remove vt. take away, move from a place, get rid of  移动,除去
repair  v. mend, fix, make up for 修理
n. repair, the act of repairing sth. 修理
repay vt. pay back (money) 偿还,还钱
repeat  v. do again, say over 重复,重说
adj. repeated.   adv. repeatedly
replace v. take the place of 取代
reply v. to answer or to do as an answer回答, 答复
(usu. reply to…)
syn. answer
report  v. n.. announce ,give a formal account of an account of
events, experience, etc.  报告,汇报,报道
n.. reporter 记者
republic n.. a state completely governed by elected representatives.
共和国
eg. the People `s Republic of China
request n.. v. a polite demand for sth. require.请求
syn. demand ,require
require  v. need, ask, demand.需要,要求
n. requirement
rescue   v. save sb./sth. from danger 营救,援救
research n. ( u ) an advanced study of a subject, so as to learn new
facts or scientific laws  调查,研究
n.  researcher  研究人员
respect v. n. honor, expression of respect, show honor for 尊敬,尊重
rest  n.. sleep, ease after work, absence of motion, the remaining part of
something 1.休息,静止  2.剩余部分,其余
v. sleep, relax ,stop working. 休息,歇息.
take ( have ) a rest
restaurant  n. place to buy and eat a meal 饭馆
result n. something that happens because of something that happens before
结果,效果
as a result of …作为……的结果
return vt. put or pay back, come back 归还,返回
reuse vt. use again, recycle 重新使用,循还使用
review v. look at again; look back on 复习, 回顾
n. reviewer 评论家
n. revision 复习 温习
revolution  n. a complete overthrow of government 革命
n. adj. revolutionary 革命的 革命者
rewrite v. write again 重写
rice  n.[U] any of several kinds of food grain grown in wet tropical places
大米 米饭
rich  adj. having much money, fertile abundantly supplied
有钱的 富有的 丰富的
ride  vt. sit on a horse, bike, etc. And make it go 骑
right adj. just; correct; normal; on the side of the body that does not
contain the heart  公正的; 对的; 正常的 ; 右边的
adv. properly  ; correctly 正好 ; 恰恰
n. the right side; morally just or lawful claim右; 右边; 权力
all right: yes , good ; well in health
on the right: on the right side
right away: at once . immediately
right now: at present without delay
ring  v. (a bell, telephone )sound or cause to sound (钟,电话)响
n. a piece of jewellery that you wear on your fighter or a circle
环,戒指
ring back  回电话
ring  off  挂断电话
ring  up   打电话
ripe adj. (fruit or crops) fully grown and ready to eat, suitable
成熟的,适宜的
rise   vi. go upwards, increase, get up, come up 上升, 升高, 起床
n. the act of growing greater or more powerful 升高,增长
river   n. a long natural stream of water 江,河,川
road   n. way or course, high way between places.路.公路.
rock   n. a  stone or a type of stone.岩石,大石头
rocket  n. a vehicle used for travelling or carrying things into space
火箭
role   n. the way in which sb./sth. is involved in an activity, a part,
character in a play or film 作用,角色
roll v. move along by turning over and over 打滚,翻滚
roof  n. (pl. roofs) the top covering of a building屋顶,顶部
room  n. [C] a part of a house with walls separating it from the rest of
the building  房间 , 室
n. [U] space 地方, 空位, 余地
make room for…  给……腾出地方
standing room  立足之地
root n. part of a plant that grows down into the soil, holds it in place
and feed it 根,起源
rope n. a strong , thick line or cord. 粗绳子
rose n. red, pink, white or yellow flower that grows on a bush with strong
stems 玫瑰花
rot  v. decay, cause to go bad  腐烂, 使腐烂
rot away: to disappear by decay 烂掉
rough adj. not smooth, not exact, not gentle 粗糙的 粗暴的
round  adj . shaped like a ball.圆的,圆形的.
adv . in a circle, on all sides.循环地,围绕地.
all round: in a circular position.四周
prep. around , surrounding.围着,围绕一周.
row  n. a neat line ( of people or things ) a line of seats I a cinema or
theatre 排
robber  n. a substance used to make types, gloves, bouts, etc. which is made
from the juice of a tropical tree; a thing that you use to remove
pencil marks  橡胶,橡皮
rubbish n. [U] waste stuff of no use废物,垃圾
syn. garbage.
rude  adj. impolite, rough in manners.无礼的,粗暴的
adv. rudely.粗暴地
ruin  vt. spoil or destroy sth. completely.毁灭,毁坏
rule  n. principle governing conduct, action, etc.规则,规定.
vt. govern, control 统治
ruler  n. someone such as a king who has official power over a country,
a flat narrow piece of plastic, metal etc. with straight edges.
统治者, 尺子
run v. move quickly on foot , control operate.奔跑,操作.
run away  逃走 逃脱
run out of  用完
running water 自来水
rush v. move very quickly 冲, 奔
rush hour ( 上下班) 车辆拥挤的时间
Russia  n. ( the name of a country ) ( 国名) 俄国, 俄罗斯
adj. Russian : related to the language and people of Russia 俄国( 人 )的
n. Russian 俄语
sad adj. not happy, causing sorrow 难过的, 悲哀的
adv. sadly
sadness  n.
ant. happy; glad
safe  adj. free from harm or danger 安全的; 平安的
n. safety 安全 ,保险
ant. dangerous
sail  vi. travel on water by the action of wind on sails or on a steamboat, airship 张帆而行. 航行
n. sailing 航海 航行      sailor   海员  水手   水兵
sale   n. an act of selling 买  出售
on sale  出售    vt. sell    n, salesgirl    salesman
salt   n. (u) a white substance found in earth and in sea water, used to preserve food  盐
adj. salty  盐的   咸的    含盐的
same adj. not another , just the same 同一的 同样的
all the same  仍然   还是
the same …as    同……一样
sand n. (u) tiny grains of worn-down rocks   沙
n.(c ) 沙摊  海滩
sandwich n. two pieces of bread with cheese, meat between them  三名治
satisfy  v. make somebody happy; please  使满意   满足
adj. satisfied 满意的
Saturday   n. the seventh day or the last day of the week , the day before Sunday 星期六
sauce  n. a thick cooked liquid that is served with food to gave a particular taste  酱汁,调味汁.
save  vt. keep or rescue from harm, danger, hurt, loss, etc; store up救,援救,贮存.
say   v. speak, express 说,讲,表达.
say hello to sb.    向...问好
say goodbye to sb. 向...告别
scene  n. (in a play or film )any of the division; the background for the action of a play 一场,布景,场面.
School n. place for teaching and learning.学校,校舍.
after school    放学后
at school   在学校
go to school  上学
school-leaver  学校毕业生
scholarship 奖学金
science n. knowledge of facts and laws based upon observation and arranged in an orderly system.  科学
adj. scientific 科学的  n. scientist  科学家
scold vt. find fault with.责骂,斥责.
score n. a group of twenty record of points made in a game.二十,得分.
phr. scores of  许多,大量.
Scots adj. Scottish, from or belonging to  Scotland. 苏格兰人的.
scream n. & v. to let out a high ,loud noise, shout, cry out, loud high sound made with your voice.尖叫.
screen n. a covered frame that hides, protects, or separates幕,荧光屏
sea n. any large body of salt water, smaller than an ocean 海,海洋
by sea = on a ship
seaman n. a sailor on a ship or in the navy 海员,水手
seamanship  航海技术
seal n. a large sea animal that eats fish and live in cold area  海豹
seashell  n. the shell of some types of sea animal 海贝,贝壳
seaside n.海滨
search  v. try to find by looking, seek.搜查,探索.
n. an act of  搜查,探索.
in search of  寻找,寻求.
season  n. one of the four periods of year.季节
seaweed  n. a common plant that grows in the sea.海草,海藻.
seat  n. thing to sit on .座位.
have a seat 坐下   take a seat 就座
vt.  cause or help to sit 使坐下
be seated 就座 坐下
second num. next after the first  第二的
n. person or thing that is second 第二个(人,物) equal to 1/60 of a minute 秒  second-hand  第二手的  旧的
secret adj. & n. kept from knowledge of others; known only to a few, sth. kept hidden or known only to a few  秘密的; 隐蔽的, 秘密
secretary n. a person with the jobs of preparing letters, keeping records, arranging meetings, etc. for another  秘书;  书记
section n. one of the parts that sth. is divided into; group of people 段; 部分; 部门
see vt. look at, understand, find, visit  看  理解  会见  看望
see sb. off   为某人送行
seed n. thing from which anything grows   种子
seek v. look for , try to get, ask for  玩弄;  试图 ; 探寻
seize vt. take hold of suddenly, grasp, take by force   夺取;  捉;  占有
seldom adv. rarely, not often  很少 ; 不常
sell v. exchange for money or other payment   卖  售
sell out 卖完
semicircle n. half a circle  半圆
send v. cause to do, cause to be carried 派; 派遣; 发射; 寄发
send up 发射; 把...送上去
send out发出; 派遣
send for派人去叫/请
senior adj. older, having a higher position or rank 高级的 较高的
sense  n. good understanding and judgement, a feeling 感觉 意识
make sense 有意义.
sentence   n. a group of words that forms a statement, command, etc.
usu. contains a sub. and a verb句子
n.& vt. to give a punishment to , a punishment for a criminal found guilty in court宣判 判决
make a sentence with… 用 ...造句
Sentence sb.  to death.宣判某人死刑
Separate  adj. apart, not joined ,not shared with another分离; 单独的; 独立的
adv.  separately 分离地 个别地 独立地
vt. put apart, go apart, keep apart分开;分离;分隔
separate…from…  把...同...分开
separation n. 分离 隔离
September  n. the ninth month of the year九月
serious adj. Thoughtful, grave, bad 严重的; 严肃的
adv. seriously
serve vt. work for or in 服务; 服役
servant  n. person employ in a household or any service仆人; 佣人; 服务者
service n. the act of serving.服役 服务
set  n. a group of things 一套;一副;装置;设备
a set of  一套
v. put  ,go down  , make ready  放  ( 日,月)落  准备
set…free  释放
set…on fire 放火烧
set an example 树立榜样
set fire to 点火; 放火; 引起
set off 出发;引爆
set out 出发;着手
set up 建立 创立 竖立
settle v. determine, decide, arrange 决定;安排;安家
n. settlement  住宅区; 部落
settler  移居者
settle down 安家; 落户
several  adj. being more than two or three but not many几个;数个;个别的
sew v. fasten with stitches  缝纫;缝制
sex n. the activity in which a male and a female join the sexual organs to create a baby or for pleasure; female nature of a person 性; 性别
shade n. slight darkness, sth. to reduce or block light  阴凉处; 树阴
shadow n. darkness caused by sth.; preventing light from entering a place  阴影; 影子
shake v. to move up and down or from side to side with quick repeated movements 摇动; 震动
shall v. aux. ( used with I and we to express the simple future) 将要 ( to make a suggestion or ask a question that you want other person to decide) ……好吗
shame n. painful feeling of having done something wrong, improper, or silly; a disgrace dishonor  羞愧 耻辱
It` s a shame that…       What a shame!
shape n.& vt.  the appearance or form of sth. that is seen  形成;形状
form , take shape  造成某形; 成型
share  n. vt. portion, part 部分; 份 use together, divide into parts 分享;分担
sharp adj. having a thin edge or point of sth. that cuts things easily.( sound )   loud, short and sudden.(difference) clear and definite锋利的;尖的;清楚的;明显的
shave v. to cut off hair very close to the skin , especially from the face剃; 刮( 胡须等 )
sheep n. ( pl. sheep )a grass-eating farm animal that is kept for its wool and its meat  羊
sheet n. a large piece of thin cotton that you put on a bed to lie on. a thin flat piece of sth. such as paper, glass or metal床单;薄片;薄板
shelf n. a long flat narrow board fixed to a wall for storing things on  架子
shine v. send out light, glow发光; 照耀to look bright and shiny使发光(亮)
ship n. & v. a large boat for carrying goods or people across the sea. to send
or carry sth. by ship船; 轮船; 运送
shirt n. garment for the upper part of a man` s body  (男)衬衣
shock n. v. unexpected unpleasant feeling to make someone feel very surprised
震动 冲击 震惊
shoe n. an outer covering for a person` s foot鞋
shopn. a store, a place where things are sold商店
vi. to visit stores to look at or buy sth.购物
shop assistant  售货员
shopping   购物
shore n . the land along the edge of a large stretch of water岸
short adj. not long ,not tall, to be insufficient短的; 矮的; 不足
short wave    短波
should v. aux. used as a past form of shall, used to talk about duty, obligation and similar ideas 将; 应该
shoulder  n. the part of the body to which an arm or foreleg is attached肩膀
shout v.& n. call or cry loudly and vigorously 呼; 喊; 叫
a long call expressing anger 叫; 喊
shout at      对…大声叫
show  v. let be seen, be in sight, point out ,make clear to显露; 出现; 指示; 说明
show sb. around  领某人参观
show sb. out     把…送出去
n. display, entertainment  展览 表演 放映
on show  展出
shower n. a short fall of rain, act of washing  阵雨;  淋浴
shut v. close  关闭
ant. Open
shut up  闭嘴 ; 住口
shy adj. bashful, uncomfortable in company  害羞;  胆小的
adv. shyly
sick adj. in poor health, ill 患病的;  恶心的
syn. ill     ant. Healthy
sickness n.疾病
side  n. surface or line bounding a thing   边 ; 面
side by side  肩并肩地
by the side of… 在……旁边
sigh  v. to breathe in or out to make a long sound  叹气
sight  n. ability to see, act of seeing 视力  thing you see  风景;  情景
phr. lose one` s sight  丧失视力
sign  n. any mark used to mean, represent sth.;  gesture intended to express an idea  符号;  手势;  迹象
v. make a gesture  做手势   write name on  签名
n. signature   签名
silence n. absence of sound or noise 寂静;   无声
adj. silent  无声的; 无对话的
in silence   沉默地
silk n. fine thread produced by the silk worn and made into thread for sewing and into cloth   丝; 丝绸
silly adj. foolish, stupid, not clever傻的; 糊涂的
syn. foolish ,stupid     Ant. bright, clever
silver n. a shiny, valuable metal used to make jewelry , coins, etc.银
similaradj. almost the same but not exactly the same类似的
adv. similarly  类似地
simple adj. easy to do or understand容易的; 朴素的
adv. simply 简单地
since prep. adv. conj. from then till now自从…以来; 以后
because, as.由于; 既然
sincerely adv. in a sincere way真诚的
adj. sincere
sing v. make music with the voice歌唱
n. singer 歌手; 歌唱家
single adj. only one 单独的; 单一(个)的
sink v. go down沉 落下move lower; change worse沉落; 消沉
sister n. a female relative with the same parents姐妹
sit v. rest on a lower part of the body; be seated 坐
size n. amount of space; a thing takes up; one of a series of measures  大小;  尺寸; 型号
situation  n. location, place, circumstances  位置;  场所;  情形
skate vi. move on skates 滑冰
skill n. ability gained by practice, knowledge, etc. 技能;  技巧
adj. skilled 熟练的;  有技能的
skin n. the covering of the body in persons, animals, fruits, etc.  皮肤;  皮
skirt n. woman s or girl` s garment that hangs from the waist.  裙
sky n. the covering over the world  天空
slave  n. person who is the property of another 奴隶
slavery  n. system of having slaves  奴隶制
sleep vi. & n. rest body and mind; the natural resting state of unconsciousness of body  睡眠;   睡
adj. sleepy   欲睡的;    困倦的
go to sleep  入睡;  睡着
slightly adv. to a slight degree, a bit , rather 少许;  一点
adj. slight  轻微的;  少量的
slow adj. & adv. not fast or quick   behind time , not clever  慢的;  缓的;  不聪明
adv. slowly
ant. fast  ,quick
small adj. not large  little, not important  小的;  少的;  不重要的
ant. big  ,large
smart adj. intelligent  , quick, fashionable  灵巧;  伶俐的
smell v.& n. have or use the sense of nose, to notice, examine, discover, have an unpleasant smell,; sense of smelling  闻;  嗅; 散发气味; 发出臭气; 嗅觉; 气味
adj. smelly 有臭味的
smile vi. show pleasure, favor, kindness by an up ward curve of the mouth 微笑
n. an expression of the face for amusement, happiness微笑; 笑容
smooth adj. even, like glass, silk or still water光滑的; 平滑的
adv. smoothly 平滑地
vt. smooth 使平滑
snake n. a long ,slender crawling animal without limbs 蛇
snow n.& v. water frozen into white soft pieces, that fall from the sky in cold weather.   ( of snow )to fall雪; 下雪
so adv.( used to describe how big, tall etc. or that.)
conj. (used to give the reason why something happens) 那么; 如此; 非常; 因此; 所以
so…that 如此…以致
so that  以致 以便 结果是
so as to  以便 为的是
so long as 只要
so/as far as  (表示程度 范围)就… 尽…      远至…
soap n. substance used for washing.肥皂
social adj. concerning human society and its organization or quality of people’s lives.
社会的 社交的
socialism n. 社会主义
socialist adj. n. 社会主义的(者)
sock  n. a piece of clothing made of soft material that you wear on your foot
短袜
soft  adj. not hard, not rough, gentle and without much force软的; 光滑的
adv. softly
Ant. hard. rough
soil n. the top covering of the earth in which plants grow, gound土地; 土壤
soldier n. man serving in an army.士兵 战士
solid   adj. n. not liquid or gas.固体 固态 固体的
solve  v. to find or provide a way of dealing with a problem, work out, settle
解决 解答
some adj. certain, but not known or  named, a number of, any某些; 若干; 少许; 任何一个
pron. a certain number or quantity若干; 少数
somebody/someone  pron.某人; 有人
something  pron.    某事某物
sometimes adv. 有时
somewhere  adv.某处 在某处
son n. a male child 儿子
song n. something to sing歌
soon  adv. in a short time, early  不久;  早;  快
as soon as   一……就……
sooner or later 迟早
sorry adj. feeling pity, regret , sympathy  抱歉;  遗憾
sort  n. kind , class , person or thing of a certain kind or quality 种类;  类别
soul  n. the spiritual part of a person, energy of mind or feeling  灵魂;  精华;  心灵
sound  n. v. what is or may be heard, a sensation in the ear,; seem when heard  声音听起来
soup n. liquid cooked food often containing small pieces of meat or vegetables 汤
south n. adj. direction to the right as one faces the rising sun; belonging to the south part; towards the south 南;南方;南方的;在南方
southern adj. 南方的; 南部的
sow v. plant or scatter seeds on a piece of ground  播种
space  n. unlimited room or place expending in all direction太空; 空间
in space  在空间
spaceship   宇宙飞船
spare adj. not needed for use, free空闲的; 多余的
spare time
speak v. Say words ,talk; make  a speech 说话
special adj. of a particular kind, not ordinary or usual.
特别的 特殊的 专门的
adv. specially
speech  n. a talk, the ability to speak 讲话 演讲
speed   n. rate of movement; distance divided by time of travel速度
speed up  加快速度
spell v. to name in order to form ( a word ) 拼写
spelling n. 拼写; 拼写法
spend   v. to give out in payment, to pass or use.渡过 花费(时间 金钱)
syn. lost , take
spend … on sth.
spend … in doing sth.
spirit  n. a person apart from the body, one’s mind or soul, ghost  精神 妖怪 精灵
adj. spiritual 精神的
splendid adj. brilliant, very good辉煌的 壮丽的 极好的
adv. splendidly
split v. divide into groups or more parts, break or tear   撕开;切开
spoken adj. the form of language that you speak rather than write 口语的
spoon  n. a thing used for eating, cooking or serving food 勺子
sport n. form of amusement or a play; game  游戏; 运动
pl. sports 运动会
have sports  进行体育活动
spread v. move further apart, stretch out , scatter 伸展;开展;伸出;传播
spring n. season after winter  春天  春季
spy n. & v. person who , in time of war, tries to get information about the enemy; to  watch secretly  间谍
square  n. & adj. ( a figure ) with four equal sides and four equal angles 正方形的
square kilometers 千米
squirrel  n. a small animal with a long furry tail that climbs trees and eats nuts 松鼠
stage  n. a particular time or state , theatre, acting  舞台  时期  阶段
stair  n. ( usu. pl. ) one of the series of steps for going from one level or floor to another  阶梯的一段;  楼梯;  阶梯
stand  v. be on one’ s feet 站
stand for  代表;  象征
standard  n. adj. a level of quality , skill, or achievements, accepted as normal or usual  标准(的)
stare  v. to look fixedly with wide-open eyes, gaze 盯; 凝视; 盯着看
stare at … 盯着…看
start  v. begin , set out, begin to move  开始; 着手; 出发
starve  v. die from lack of food, to suffer from great hunger 饿死;挨饿
starvation n.
state  n. a country , a condition in which a person or thing is  国家; 州  状态;  状况
station  n. place to stand in a regular stopping place as on a railway line  站 所 车站
stay  n. v. remain; live for a while 停留  暂住
stay up  挺立  站住
steady adj. not moving , not changing, continuous 稳固的; 平稳的
adv. steadily  稳定地;  稳固地
steal  v. take something that doesn’t belong to one  偷窃
steal sth. from sb.
steam  n. water in the state of gas by boiling  气;  蒸汽
steel  n. iron in a hard strong form containing some carbon or other metals  钢
steep  adj. a road ,hill ,etc. that is steep slopes at high angle  险峻的;  陡峭的
step  n. & v. the act of putting one foot in front of the other so as to move along; to walk 脚步;  脚步声;  行走
stick  n. branch of a tree  杖  棍  棒
v. to push(in), put into, be fixed with a sticky substance阻;粘贴
stick to   坚持  粘住
still  adj. & adv. without motion, without noise, at this or that time, yet   静止不动; 寂静; 仍然; 还
stomach  n. the part of the body for receiving and digesting food  胃; 腹部; 肚子
stone  n. solid mineral material, a piece of rock  石头
stop v.& n. cease moving ,a place on a road where buses stop for passengers  停止; 阻止; 停车站
stop doing  sth.    停止做某事
stop to do sth.    停止某事去做另一件事
stop sb. from doing sth. 阻止某人做某事
store n. & v. place where goods are kept for sale, supply, put away for future use 商店; 供给; 积蓄
storm n. a strong wind with rain, snow or thunder or lightening风暴; 狂暴天气
story n. account of some happening or group of happening.故事 小说
straight adj. & adv. in a straight form or position.直的 直地
strange adj. unusual and queer, not known, seen, or heard of before 奇怪的; 陌生的
stranger n. 陌生人
strength n. power, quality of being strong力量; 力气; 强力
vt. strengthen 加强 增强
strict adj. severe严格的
adv. strictly 严格地
be strict with   对…要求严格
strike v. hit, beat打; 击; 敲
n. a time when no work is done because of disagreement ,as over pay or working conditions  罢工
strong adj. having much force or power健壮的; 强大的; 坚固的
strongly   adv.   强烈的
strength     n.   力量
strengthen  vt.   增强
struggle n. & v. a hard fight or bodily effort  斗争;  奋斗               to make violent movement when fighting against a person or thing 斗争
struggle against  同…… 作斗争
struggle to one’s feet 努力站起来
studio  n. a room where TV and radio programs are made and broadcast 工作室; 演播室
study v. try to learn, examine carefully 学习;  研究
n. effort to learn by reading or thinking, a room to study in  读书;  书房;  学习
stupid  adj. not clever , not interesting 愚蠢的  无趣味的
subject  n. something thought about, discussed, studied, etc.科目; 学科
succeed  v. turn out well, have success , come next after  成功;  继续    succeed in doing something 干……成功
success n. 成功  successful adj.   successfully adv.
such  adj. adv. of that kind, of the kind  这样的;  那样的;  那么
pron. such a person or thing  这样的人( 事)
such as… 例如……
suck  vt. to draw into the mouth by using the tongue, lips and muscles at the side of the mouth  舔食
sudden adj. happening, done, etc. unexpectedly 突然的
adv. suddenly 突然地
suffer  v. have or feel pain, grief, etc.受苦 遭受
n. suffering     痛苦 苦难
suffer from   遭受
sugar n. a sweet substance obtained chiefly from sugar cane or sugar beets糖
suggest v. to say or write ( an idea to be considered ) to give signs of建议; 暗示
suggestion n.建议
suit  n. set of clothes  衣服
v. be suitable, be fit for 适合
suit…to 使合适
suitable  adj.合适的
suitcase n. a large box with handle, used for carrying things when you travel  手提箱; 衣箱
summary n. a short statement that gives the main information about sth.                   摘要; 概要
summer n. the warmest season of year.夏天
sunburnt adj. having skin that is red and painful for spending too much in the sun  晒黑的
sun n. the brightest object in the sky 太阳
Sunday n. the first day of the present week星期天
sunglasses n. dark glasses that you wear to protect your eyes when the sun is bright  太阳镜
sunrise  n. the time when the sun first appears in the morning  日出
sunshine n. a word meaning the light and heat that comes from the sun 阳光;  日光
sunny  adj. having bright sunlight   晴朗的;  阳光充足的
sunset  n. the time of the day when the sun disappears and night begins  日落
supper  n. an evening meal  晚餐
supply  n. & v. quantity ready for use, stock  供给物; 储藏量                   furnish, provide , make up for  供给; 供应; 补充
support v. hold up, keep up, help , provide shelter, clothing, etc.  支持; 支撑;  维持
suppose v. consider as possible, think  假定  以为
syn. think  feel  guess
sure  adj. free from doubt, confident, safe  确实的; 无疑的; 一定的
be sure to do something  一定做……
make sure  务必; 务请
surface  n. the outside of anything  表面
table  [teibl] n.1. 桌子;餐桌:a piece of furniture with a flat top supported by legs (辩析)to be at table 在吃饭 to be at the table 在桌子旁边. 2. 表;目录:a railway time-table 火车时刻表.
tail [teil]  n. the movable part growing at the back of a creature's body 尾巴
tailor ['teil[] n. a person who makes clothes裁缝  at the tailor's 在裁缝店
take [teik] vt. & vi. (took, taken) 1. to hold with the hand 拿;取
2. to carry to another place 拿走;带走; 带去
3. 做(和名词连用, 表示与该名词意义相关的动作)
4. 花费(时间) (辩析)spend “花费”,在主动语态句中只能用人作主语,其宾语一般是金钱或时间名词。cost 可指花费金钱、时间、力气等,只能用事物作主语,不能用被动语态,一般用双宾语。take 与表示时间的名词连用时,主语可以是it ,也可以是人或活动。例:It took him three years to write the book. /He took three years to write the book./ The book took him three years to write;
5. 吃,喝,服用
6. 乘车(船)
take along 随身带着;
take a walk/rest 散步/休息,
take an interest in 对......产生兴趣;
take away 拿走;
take down 取下, 记下;
take off 脱掉衣服, 起飞;
take out 取出 ;
take food/medicine 吃食物/药 ;
take the train/a boat/a bus 坐火车/船/公共汽车;
take sb. back to 使某人回想起 ;
take sides in 站在 ...... 一边 ;
take up  占去,  占据, 开始,  从事某项活动;
take pride in 以 ...... 为自豪, 对 ...... 感到得意;
take  it easy 放心好了,  别着急 ;
take the place of 代替 ; 发生。(辩析)
take place 往往强调所发生的事情事前已有安排,因此常可作“举行”。例:When will
the football match take place? happen 是普通名词,表示具体事物的发生,往往带有意外和偶然性。
tale [teil] n. a story 故事, 传说 ;A Tale of  Two Cities 双城记; a folk tale 民间故事 ;a fairy tale 童话故事能。(辩析) tale 一般指传说或幻想的故事。story 最常用,它可指口头或文字、真实或虚构的故事。
talk [t :k] n., vt. & vi. to say something; speak to give information 谈话, 聊天, 讲话, 演讲;
talk about/of 谈论, 谈到 ...... ;
talk to 对......说 ;
talk with 和......说 ;
have a talk (with sb.) 和某人谈话 。
tall [t :l] adj. having a greater than average height 高的, (同义词)high。 (辩析)tall指从某物或某人的顶端到底部的长度,反义词是short。如:a tall pole 一根高高的电杆; high指高度,强调的是从地面或某基准面向上到某点的距离,反义词是low。如: a high mountain 高山/ a high tower 高塔 /The shelf is too high for me to reach. 这个架子太高了,我够不着。
tank [t  k] n. a container for holding liquid 储水箱; 储水容器
tap [t p] n. a thing which controls the flow of  liquid (自来水、煤气等的)龙头
tape [teip] n. narrow material in the form of a band 录音带
tape-recording n. 录音
task [ta:sk] n.a piece of work that must be done 任务
taste [teist] n. 味道quality of substances made known by putting some on the tongue; v. 尝味道; 有......味道be aware of the taste of sth.
tax [t ks] n. the money which you pay to the government 税; 税款 v. 交税; 收税
taxi [‘t ksi] n. a car which you can hire for a short journey 出租车 take a taxi乘出租车 by taxi乘出租车
tea [ti:] n.a drink made with water and the dried leaves of a plant茶;leaves of a plant for making such a drink 茶叶
teach [ti:t ] vi. & vt. (taught, taught) to show somebody how to do something 教, 讲授
teacher [ti:t  ] n. a person who teaches 教员
team [ti:m] n. a number of people who play a game together 队, 组
tear [ti ] n. a drop of salty liquid from the eye 眼泪(常用复数)
tear [t ] vt. (tore, torn) to pull apart or into pieces 撕开,  撕裂
tear down 拆除, 拆毁
tear open 撕开
teachnical [‘teknikl] adj. having to do with some special art of skill; having to do with machines 技术的, 工艺的
technique [‘teknik] n. skill 技艺
telegram [‘teligr m] n. a message which is sent by telegraph 电报
telegraph [‘teligra:f] n. a way of sending messages by radio or wire 电报
telephone/phone [‘telif n] n. an instrument for speaking to a person who is a long way away 电话
v. 打电话
television/TV [teli’vi n] n. a method of showing films, shows, pictures, etc. over  a distance 电视机
tell [tel] v. (told, told) 1. to express in words 讲述, 说; 告诉 tell lies 说谎 2. to command, to order 吩咐, 命令 tell sb. to do sth. 吩咐某人做某事
temperature [‘temprit  ] n. how hot or cold a thing is  温度
take one's temperature 给某人量体温
ten [ten] num. the number 10  十
tens of  thousands 好几万
tennis [‘tenis] n. a game played by two or four players with a soft ball which they hit over a net 网球
tense [tens] 1. n. verb form showing the time of action or state (语法)时态
2. adj. anxious; excited because something uncommon in going to happen 紧张的
tent [tent] n. a shelter made of thick cloth which can be carried 帐篷
term [t :m] n.a part of year at school, three of four months during which students attend classes 学期
terrible [ter[bl] adj.1. causing great fear 可怕的
2. very bad 严重的, 极坏的, 很糟的 (同义词) horrible
test [test] v. to find out how good something is, to examine 考, 测验, 试验
n. examination 考试 have a test 进行测验/试验 (辩析)test指小考或考查, examination指正式的考试
text [tekst] n. main body of a book of printed page 课文; 文本; 课本;  textbook textbook [‘tekstbuk] n. 课本; 教科书
than [ n] conj. introducing the second part of a comparison 比
thank [   k] v. to say that you are grateful 感谢
n.(仅用复数)感谢 thank to 由于; 幸亏
that [  t] adj. & pron. (contrasting with this, these)那; 那个 conj. (引导名词性从句)
the [ i:  ] art.1. (指特定的人或物)这(那)个; 这(那)些
2. (用在序数词、形容词和副词的最高级之前)
3. (用在某些专有名词之前)
4. (用在世界上独一无二的事物前) the moment 一......就......
the more ... the ... 越...... 越...... ; 愈....... 愈......
the Nobel Prize 诺贝尔奖
the Sleeping Beauty Castle 睡美人城堡
the States 美国
the Union 联邦
the War of Indepence 独立战争
the World Service 国际广播
theatre/theater [‘ i t ] n. a building where we go to see a play 剧院; 戏院
their  pron. belonging to them他们/她们/它们的
theirs [   z] pron. that or those belonging to them  他们/她们/它们的
them [ em] pron. 他们/她们/它们
themselves [  m’selvz] pron. 他们/她们/它们自己
then [ en] adv.1. at that time 那时; 当时now and then有时; 不时
2. after that 然后; 后来; 接着
3. 那么
there adv. 1. in or to that place; not here 在那儿; 往那儿
2. (作引导词)表示“存在”
therefore [‘   f :] adv. and so, because of that 所以;因此
these [ i:z] adj. & pron. 这些
they [ ei] pron. subject form, pl. of he, she , it 他们
thick [ ik] adj. 1. some distance from one side to the other; not thin 厚的;
2. heavy, with parts close together 浓重的; 密集的 (反义词) thin
thief [ i:f] (pl. thieves) n. a person who steals 小偷; 窃贼
thin [ in] adj. 1. not thick 薄的; 细的
2. not fat 瘦的
3. not thick, with parts not close together 稀淡的; 稀疏的
thing [ i ] n.1. any object, when you do not know or use its name 东西
2. (pl.) ( 个人的)物品; 用品
3. affair 事件; 事情
think [ i k] (thought, thought) v. 1. to use the mind 想; 思索
2. to believe that something is probably true 料想; 以为
3. to have opinion 认为 think about 考虑(是否去做) think of  想起 thinking
n. 思索; 见解; 想法
third [  :d] num. next after the second 第三
thirsty [‘  :sti] adj. wanting to drink 渴
thirteen [  :’ti:n] num. the number 13 十三
thirty [‘  :ti] num. the number 30 三十
this [ is] adj. & pron. the one here 这; 这个
those [  uz] adj. & pron. 那些
though [  u] conj. in spite of the fact that; although 虽然; 尽管
thought [  :t] n. the act or way of thinking; an idea or opinion 想法; 思想
thousand [‘ aus nd] num. the number 1000 一千
thousands of 成千上万的
thread [ red] n. very thin string made of cotton, silk or wool used with a needle  线; 棉线; 丝线; 毛线
three [ ri:] num. the number 3 三
through [ ru:] prep. 1. from one side to the other (指空间)穿过; 通过
2. from beginning to end (指时间)从头到尾
3. because of 由于; 因为
adv. 1. the way to some place 到底
2. from one end or side to the other 通过; 穿过
throughout [ ru(:)’aut] prep. right through; through or in every part 从头到尾; 自始至终
prep. through or in every part of 遍及; 贯穿
throw [ ru:] (threw, thrown) v. to send through the air 投, 掷, 抛, 扔
throw at 向......扔去
throw away 扔掉
throw up吐出(食物); 呕吐
Thursday [  :zdi]  n. the fifth day of the week 星期四
thus [  s] adv. in this way; in the same way; so 如此; 这样; 因而
ticket [‘tikit] n. a small piece of paper which shows that you have paid for something 票; 券
tidy [‘taidi] adj. neat; clean; with everything in the right place 整洁的; 整齐的
tie [tai] n. a long piece of cloth with which men wear round the neck with a shirt 领带
v. to make a knot, to fix with rope or string (用带、绳、线等)系, 拴, 扎, 缚
tiger [‘taig ] n. a fierce wild animal like a large cat 虎
tight [tait] adj. & adv. not loose; fixed well; fitting closely 紧的; 牢固的; 紧贴的 (反义词) loose
till [til] prep. up to 直到......为止
conj. up to the time when 直到......为止 (till基本上与until相同, 但句首一般不用till,  而用until)
time [taim] n. 1.时间; 一段时间; 2.时期; 3. 时刻; 钟点 4. 次; 回
v. 测定...... 的时间; 记录......的时间
all the time 一直; 始终
at the same time 同时
at a time 每次; 一次
at one time 以前; 曾经
from time to 间或; 时常
have a good time 玩得很高兴; 过得很愉快
in time 及时
on time 准时
time and time again 多次; 不断地
in modern times 现代; 近代
tin [tin] n. 1. a white metal 锡
2. a container made of  this metal to preserve food (保藏食物的)罐头
tiny [‘taini] adj. very small 很小的
tip [tip] n. 1. a small amount of money you give to a waiter, porter, etc. 小费
2. the end of something 梢; 末端;尖端
v. give tip to sb. 给小费
tire [‘tai ] v.make or become weary, in need of rest, or uninterested 使疲劳
tired [‘tai d] adj.1. in need of rest 疲乏的
2. having had too much of  厌倦的
title [‘taitl] n. the name of a book, painting, etc 标题; 题目
to [tu:, tu,] prep. 1. in the direction of; towards 向; 到
2. 表比较间接关系
3. (表示钟点)在......之前
to one's astonishment 令某人吃惊的是
to one's surprise 令某人惊奇的是
to one's delight 令某人高兴的是
to the point 中肯; 扼要
tobacco [t ‘ba:k ] n. the dried leaves of a plant which people smoke in pipes and cigarettes 烟草; 烟叶
today [t ‘dei] adv. & n. this day 今天
together [t ‘ge  ] adv. in the same place ; in company with 共同; 一起
toilet [‘t ilit] n. a place where there is a lavatory and a place to wash 盥洗室; 厕所
tomato [t ‘ma:t u] n. (pl. tomatoes) a kind of soft, round, red fruit 西红柿
tomorrow [t ‘m r u] adv. & n. the day after today 明天
ton [t n] n. a large measure of weight (重量单位)吨
tongue [t  ] n. the part of the mouth which helps you eat, speak and taste 舌头; 舌  mother tongue 母语
too [tu:] adv. 1. also; as well 也, 还
2. more than enough 太, 过于
too… to… 太...... 以致于不能
tool [tu:l] n. any instrument such as an axe, hammer, etc. which is held in the hands 工具
tooth [tu: ]  n. (pl. teeth) one of the white things in the mouth with which we bite our food 牙齿
top [t p] n. the highest part or point 顶部, 最高处
adj. highest 顶上的; 最高的 on top of 在......的上面
total [‘t utl] adj. complete, whole 总的; 完全的; 整个的
n. complete amount 总数
touch [t t ] v. 1. to leave no space between; to put one's hand, fingers, etc. on or against something 碰到, 接触; 触摸
2. reach 够着
n. the action of touching 接触; 触摸
keep in touch with 与......保持联系
tour [tu ] n. a journey to visit many different places 游览; 观光
v. to travel around to see a city , country, etc. 游览; 观光 (辩析)journey: 指长时间长距离的陆地旅行,有时指海、空旅行。例:We are going to make a long journey to Xinjiang. 我们打算长途旅行到x疆去。travel: 指到远方去或长期旅行,多用复数。它和journey 不同之处在于,它没有直接向某处去的含义。例:Is he back from his travel yet? 他旅行回来了吗?trip: 着重为公出差或旅游的短途旅行,在日常用语中,常与journey 互换使用。例:He is going on a trip. 他要外出旅游。tour 指为考察、观光等巡回各地的旅行。例:a tour around Europe 环游欧洲
toward(s) [t ‘w :d(z)] prep. in the direction of 向; 朝
tower [tau ] n. a very tall building or part of a building 钟楼; 塔
town [taun] n. an area where a lot of people live, not the country 镇; 城镇
toy [tau[] n. a thing for children to play with 玩具
track [tr k] n. 1. a line of marks left by a person, thing or animal 踪迹
2. a path or road 小径, 路, 轨道
tractor [‘tr kt ] n. a motor vehicle used for pulling farm machines 拖拉机
trade [treid] n. 1. buying and selling things 商业; 贸易; 生意; 交易
2. a job for which some training is needed 行业; 手艺; 工作
v. buy and sell; engage in trade 交易; 经商 (辩析)business 日常用语,含义较广,泛指“做生意”,常有以利润为主的含义,例:What business are you in? trade 最普通的用词,一般不同的商业机构之间的商品交易或表示各种特殊商品的贸易和对外贸易。例:Japan does a lot of trade with China.
traffic [‘tr fik] n. cars, buses, etc. moving in the roads 交通
train [trein] n. several carriages joined together on the railway 列车; 火车
v. to teach; to practise 培养; 训练
trainer ['trein ]n. a person who trains 训练人; 教练
training ['treini ] n. training or being trained 训练; 培训
training centre 训练中心
translate [tr ns’leit] v. to change from one language into another 翻译
translate ... into... 把......译成......
transport v. [tr ns’p :t] to carry something from one place to another 运输; 输送
n.[‘tr nsp :t] the act of moving or carrying something 运输
travel [‘tr vl] v. (traveled, traveling) to go from one place to another 旅行
n. the act of travelling 旅行
treasure [‘tre  ] n. a collection of precious things 金银财宝; 珍宝
treat [tri:t] v. 1.  to behave towards 对待
treat ... as ... 把......当作......
2. to give medical help to 医治; 治疗
treatment [‘tri:m nt] n. medical care from a doctor 治疗
tree [tri:] n. a large plant from which we get wood 树
trick [trik] n. practical joke 恶作剧
play a trick on 捉弄
trip [trip] n. a short journey 远足; 旅行
have a good trip 旅行愉快
trouble [‘tr bl] n. sadness, difficult, worry 烦恼; 困难; 麻烦
v. to worry, to disturb 烦恼; 扰乱
in trouble 处于困难(苦恼)中
trousers [trauz z]n.(pl.) a garment which covers the legs, usually worn by men 裤子, 长裤
truck [tr k]n. a large car for carrying heavy loads by road 卡车
true [tru:] adj. 1. correct, right, not a lie 真的, 真实的
2. faithful 忠诚的
come true 实现
trust [tr st] v. to believe in a person or thing  信任; 相信
n. belief in the honesty, etc. of a person 信任
truth [tru: ] n.  what is true 真实; 实际情况, 真相; 真理
try [trai]v. 1. to do what one can; to make an attempt 试图; 尝试;验想办法
2. to see if  you like something, or if something works 试
try on 试穿
try one's best 竭尽全力
try out 试验
Tuesday [‘tju:zdi] n. the third day of the week 星期二
turn [t[:n] v. 1. to go around; to make something go round 转; 使转动
2. to change direction 转变方向
3. to change to 变成 (辩析) turn:强调变化结果。有成为完全不同的事物的含义。例:The milk turned sour. 牛奶变酸了。turn还常用于颜色的变化。例:The trees turn green. 树变绿了。grow: 有逐渐变成新的含义,强调变化过程。例:The trees is growing tall. 那棵树逐渐长高了。become, get, go 通常表示变化的过程已经完成。其中become 比较正式,get和go较口语化。例:Tom becomes ill.汤姆病了。He has got poor.他变穷了。The food must have gone bad. 食物一定变坏了。
n. a chance or duty to do something in a particular order of time or place 依次序轮流得到的机会; 轮到的责任
turn down 关小; 调低
turn ... into... 变成; 变得; 把...... 变成......
turn off 关掉(自来水、电灯、收音机等)
turn on 开;旋开(电灯、无线电等)
turn over 翻到; 翻身; 翻(书页)
turn to 翻到; 转向; 求助于
turn up到达; 出现
twelfth [twelf ] num. 第十二
twelve [twelv] num. the number 12 十二
twentieth [tweti ] num. 第二十
twenty [twenti] num. the number 20 二十
twice [twais] adv. two times 两次; 两倍
two [tu:] num. the number 2 二
type  [taip] v. to use a typewriter 打字
n. a kind; a sort; an example of a group 型; 类别; 典型 (辩析) kind表示种类时,指性质相同的东西;type主要指类型、样式;sort 指种类基本相似的东西,讲话时意思较含糊。
type-writer [‘taip’rait ] n. a machine for writing 打字机
typist [‘taipist] n. a person who type 打字员
ugly adj.  unpleasant to see 丑陋的,难看的
UK  n.  abbrev.. United Kingdom (of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) (大不列颠及北爱尔兰) 联合王国
umbrella n.  an arrangement of cloth over a folding frame with a handle, used for keeping rain off the head 伞,雨伞
unable adj.  not able; without the power, knowledge, time, etc., to do something 不能的;无能为力的;不胜任的;没时间做的
uncertain adj. 1. not certain; doubtful 不确定的;不明确的;可疑的
2. undecided or unable to decide 未作决定的;无法断定的
be uncertain about   对...不确定
uncle n.  the brother of one’s father or mother, or the husband of one’s aunt伯父;叔父;舅父;姑丈;姨丈
under  adv.  in or to a lower place; below 在下;往下;少于
prep.  1.  directly below; covered by 在...下面,在...底下;被...遮掩着
2.  less than;
syn. below 少于;低于;在...以下
ant. over
3.  working for; controlled by 为...工作;受...支配
underground  also tube BrE; subway AmE  n.  a railway system in which the trains run in passages under the surface of the ground 地下铁道
understand  v.  1. to know or get the meaning of (something) 懂;理解;明白
2. to know or feel closely the nature of (a person, feelings, etc.) 领会,了解(人,感情等)
3. fml or polite(正式;雅) to have been informed; have found out(a fact) 获悉;得知;发觉
understanding  n.  the act of understanding; power to judge 理解,了解,领会;理解力,判断力
underwater  adj.& adv.  (used, done, etc.) below the surface of the water 在水下的,在水中(使用,进行)的;在水下,在水中(使用,进行)
undivided  adj.  complete 完整的,未分割的;专一的
unfair  adj.  不公平的;不公正的
unfold  v.  1.  to open from a folded position 展开,摊开,打开
2.  to make or become clear, more fully known, etc. 显露,表露
unhealthy  adj. 1.   not generally in good health 不健康的;有病的
2. not likely to give good health 对健康不利的;对身心有害的
3.  unnatural 非自然的;反常的;怪异的
uniform  n.  a certain type of clothing which all members of a group wear, esp. in the army, a school, or the police(尤指军人,学生,或警察的)制服
union  n.   1.  the act of joining or state of being joined into one 联合;合并;结合
2. (often cap.) (常大写) a group of countries or states joined together 联邦;联盟
3.  a club or society, esp. a TRADE UNION  协会;联合会;(尤指)工会
unit  n.  1.  a thing or group regarded as being a complete whole 单位;单元(指被视作一个整体的事物或团体)
2.  an amount or quantity taken as a standard of measurement (作为计数或计量标准的)单位
3.  a piece of furniture, storage apparatus, etc., which can be fitted with others of the same type 一套用具(如家具、贮藏用具等)
unite  v. 1. to join together into one (使)联合;(使)团结;(使)合并
2.  to act together for a purpose (为一定目的而)联合行动,一致行动
united  adj.  1  joined in a state of love, agreement, etc. 团结的,和睦的
2 with everyone concerned having the same aim 一致的,统一的
3  (cap. In names) (作名称时
大写) joined in a political organization结合于一个政治组织内的
universe  n. (often cap.) (常大写) all space and the matter which exists in it 宇宙;世界;天地万物
unknown  n.& adj.  (a person or thing) whose name, value, or origin is not known(人或事物的名称、价值或起源)未知的,未被发现的,不了解的;未知的人(或事物)
university   n.   大学
unless conj.  if not; except if  如果不;除非
unpleasant adj.  not pleasant; causing dislike; not enjoyable; unkind 使人不愉快的;讨厌的;不合意的;不和善的
-unpleasantly  adv..  -unpleasantness  n.
unreserved adj.   without limits or reservations 无限制的,无保留的;充分的;坦白的
unrest n.  不安;骚动
unsold adj.  未销售的
unsuccessful adj.   不成功的;失败的
until also till(亦作till)- prep.& conj.   up to the time when, up to as late as 直到…为止;在…以前
not…until…    直到......之前;不到......(不)
unusual adj.  not usual; rare; not common; interesting because different from others 不平常的;罕见的;与众不同的;独特的
up adv.  1  from below towards a higher place; away from the floor, the ground, or the bottom 向上;向更高处;离开楼面(地面,底部)
2       in a high place 在上;在高处
3  into an upright or raised position 趋向直立或竖起姿势
adj.  1  directed or going up 向上的
2  (of a road )being repaired (道路)正在修理的
prep. 1  to or in a higher place in; upwards by way of  向...面; ;在...上面;由...向  上
2        along; to or at the far end of 沿着;向...的远端;在...的远端
3        against the direction of(the current of a river) 逆着(河流)的方向  (<反>down)
4  up and down:
a.  higher and lower on 沿...上(去)下(来)
b. backwards and forwards along 沿...来   回
upon  prep.   在......上面
upstairs adv.& adj.   at, to, or on the upper floor(s) of a building 在楼上(的);往楼上(的)
upwards also upward AmE(亦作upward <美>)- adv.
1 going up 向上,上升
2 with a particular side facing up (某一面)朝上地
uranium n.  a heavy white metal that is a simple substance(element)
and gives out radioactivity 铀(放射性元素)
us pron. (object form of WE)  (WE的宾格)
use n.  1  the act of using or state of being used 用;使用;应用;利用
2 the ability or right to use something 运用能力;使用权
3 the purpose or reason for using something 使用目的;用途;用处
4 the usefulness or advantage given by something 效用;好处;价值
use  v.  used, using  1  to employ for a purpose; put to use 用;使用;利用;应 用
2to finish; consume 消费;消耗;耗尽
3 derog (贬)to treat (someone) with consideration only for one’s own advantage(为私人利益)利用(他人);自私地对待(某人)
v.  used, BrE negative short forms usedn’t,  usen’t (<英>否定缩略形式 usedn’t, usen’t )
(used in the past tense only, to show that something happened always or regularly)(仅用于过去式中,表示某事过去经常或有规律地发生)
make use of   利用;借用
use one’s head  动脑筋;仔细考虑
USAGE  1  Used to and would are both used of things that happened always or regularly in the past, but would is not used at the beginning of a story用法: Used to和would 都用以表
示事物过去经常或有规律地发生,但在开始叙述时不用would: We used to swim ev.ery day
When we were children. We would run down to the lake and jump in… 我们小时候天天去游泳。我们常跑到湖边,跳进水里...
2  The usual question form of used to is Did(n’t)
sl: use/used to,  but Used/Usen’t she to are also possible. used to 的常用疑问形式是
Did(n’t)she use/used to, 但也可用Used/Usen’t she to. in the NEGATIVE, She used not to/usen’t to and She didn’t used/use to are all possible, but She never used to, which expresses the same idea, is probably more common. 在否定句中,She used not to/usen’t to 和She didn’t used/use to 两者都可用,但意思相同的She never used to 也许用得更为普遍
used 动词use的过去式
used to  过去常常
be used to 习惯于
useful adj. 1 effective in use 有用的;有效的;有益的  2  helpful 有帮助的
useless adj. not of any use 无用的;无效的;无益的
–uselessly adv.
–uselessness  n.
usual adj.  happening most often; customary 通常的,平常的,惯常的
as usual  as generally has happened before  象往常一样;照例
usually adv.  often; generally  通常,经常,惯常
vacation [v  'kei  n] n.  A time of rest, amusement, and recreation away from one's job or school Am. E    假期,休假
syn.  holiday  Am. E 可指传统节日,也可泛指休息日,常用复数表示长时间休息
leave  因事,因病请假
valley ['v  li] n.  The land lying between two lines of hills or mountains  山谷,河谷
various [v'  ri s] adj.  different; several, number of  各种各样的,不一样的
variously, variety, vary
ant.  different  不同的,不一样的
valuable ['v  ljuble] adj.   1. worth a lot of money 贵重的,值钱的
2.  very useful 宝贵的,有价值的
valuably adv.
value n; invaluable adj.  千金难买的。
ant.  valueless 毫无价值的。
value ['v lju:] n.  1.  the degree of usefulness of something 重要性,用途,益处
2.  the worth of something in money  价值
3.  worth compared with the amount paid  值得. 合算
valuable, valueless
syn.  worth , price
of  value  有价值的
variety [v 'r I ri] n.   1.  the stare of varying; difference of condition or quality 变化,多样性
2.  a group or collection containing different sorts of the same thing or people 种种,各种各样
a variety of 种种的, 多种多样的。
vast [va:st] adj.   1.  very large and wide 巨大的, 广阔的
2.  great in size or amount  巨额的, 大量的。
vaster, vastest, vastly, vastness
syn.  giant, huge
vegetable ['ved it bl] n.  a (part of a ) plant that is grown for food 蔬菜, 菜
very ['veri] adv.  especially , to a great degree 很,十分,非常
very well
verb [   :b] n.  a word or phrase that tells what someone or something is , does, or experiences 动词。
verbs, verbal adj. 口头的。
Venus ['vi:n s] n.  the planet second in order from the sun, and next to the earth 金星,太白星
victory ['vikt ri] n.  (常与in, over连用) (an) act of winning or state of having won 胜利,战胜,克服
video ['vidi u] n.  & adj.  connected with or used in the showing of picture by television; an instrument which record picture and sound 电视的,视频的,录象带
a video, videos
videophone ['vidi nf un] n.  a phone that has picture showing while telephoning 可视电话
view [vju:] n.  1. (与of 连用)  (a picture or photograph of) something seen from a particular place 风景,景色
2. sight 视力,视野
3. a personal opinion , belief or idea 意见,观点,见解
a view , views , viewer (收视率,观众)
syn.  scene , scenery
in one's view  在某人看来,依某人见解
in view      在视野之内
in view of    由于,鉴于
with a view to doing
viewer ['vju: ] n.  a person watching TV 电视观众,观看者
village ['vilid ] n. a collection of houses and other buildings in a country area, smaller than a town 乡村,村庄
villager ['vilid  ] n.  a person who lives in a village 村民,乡下人
vinegar ['vinig ] n.  an acid tasting liquid  醋,食用醋
violence ['vai l ns] n.  very great force in action or feeling; use of bodily force to hurt or harm 猛烈,剧烈;暴动,暴力行为
violent ['vai l nt] adj.  using, showing or produced by great damaging force 猛烈的,激烈的。
more/most violent, violence, violently
violin [,vai’lin]n.  a four-stringed musical instrument 小提琴。
violinist 小提琴家, violins
visit [visit] v.  to go and spend time in (a place) or with (a person) 拜访,访问,游览;to go to make an official examination 视察,巡视;
n.  an act or time of visiting   参观,访问,探望。
a visit, visits, visitor
pay a visit to
visitor [visit] n.  a person who visits 访问者,参观者,来宾,游客
pay a visit to
vocabulary [v 'k bjul ri] n.1. all the words known to a particular person 词汇
2. a list of words, usu. in alphabetical order 词汇表
voice [v is] n. 1. the sounds produced by people when speaking and singing 声音
2. an opinion 意见
3. 语态
voices, voiced (loud-voiced) 大嗓门的
at the top of one’s voice; very loudly 高声的
raise one’s voice: to speak louder 提高嗓门
vote [v ut] v. 1. to express one’s choice officially 投票,选举,表决
2. to agree ,by a vote, to provide (sth. ) 议决
n.  an act of making a choice or decision by means of voting 投举,表决,选举。
votes, voted, voting, voter (投票人)
voting Rights Bill 选举权法案
volleyball ['v lib :l] n.  a game in which a large ball is struck by hand 排球
voyage [v id ] n.  a long journey made by boat or ship 航行 航海
a voyage, voyages, voyager (航行者)
Bon voyage ! 旅途愉快!
wait [weit] vi. to not do something or go somewhere
until something else happens, someone
arrives etc.
等,等候.
n. [singular] a period of time in which you
wait for something to happen, someone to
arrive etc. 等候.
wait for (prep) 等候.
wait on (prep) 服侍,侍候.
waiting room 候诊车,候车室.
waiter n.(餐厅)服务员.
waitress n. 女服务员.
wake [weik] v. (woke, waked or woken) to stop sleeping or
to make someone stop sleeping. 醒,醒来.
wake up 醒来,叫醒.
Syn. awake
walk [w :k] 1. vi. to move along putting one foot in front
of the other. 走,步行
2. vt. to walk in order to get somewhere, across
a particular area or distance. 走过,走遍
3.     to walk for pleasure and exercise especially
in the country side. 散步.
n. [C] a journey that you make by walking, especially for exercise or
enjoyment 步行,散步
go out for a walk  出去,散步
have a walk/take a walk  散步
wall [w :l]  n.[C] 1. an upright flat structure made of stone or  brick that divides
one area from another  围墙,城墙
2. one of the sides of a room or building(房间,楼房)的墙
3. the side of something hollow, such as a pipe or tube
间隔层,内壁,哭壁.
want [w)nt] v. (not usually in progressive)
1. vt. to have a desire for something.要,想要.
2. vt. to need something.  需要,必要.
want to do sth. 想做某事
want sb to do sth   想让某人做某事.
3. n.[C, U] something that you need but do not have  需要
物+want+动名词   ...需要...
syn. need
war [w  :] n. 1.[C] a particular period of time when countries fight with soldiers
and weapons 战争
2.[C, U] a struggle over a long period of time to control something
harmful  斗争
3.[C, U] a situation in which a person or group is fighting for power,
influence, or control 竞争
at war   在交战
syn. battle
warm [w):m] adj. 1. slightly hot, especially pleasantly  暖和的,温暖的
2. friendly in a way that makes you feel comfortable
热情的,亲切的.
warm up  暖起来
warm-blooded  adj. (动物的)热血的
warm-hearted  adj.   热情的,亲切的
syn. hot
ant. cool
warn [w  :n] vi. & vt. 1. to tell someone that something bad or dangerous may happen,
so that can avoid it or prevent it  警告
2. to tell someone about something before it happens so that
they are not worried or surprised by it  预先通知
warn sb. not to sth.  告诉某人别做某事
warn sb. against doing sth.  告诉别人别做某事
warn sb. of sth.  告诫某人可能有
warning n.  警报,警告,预先通知
wash [w  ] 1. vt. to clean something using soap and water  洗
2. vi. to clean yourself with soap and water 洗
washing n. [U] 洗 eg. do some washing
wash away   冲走
waste [weist] n. 1.[sing. U] things such as money or skills that should be used and
are not or that are  not used effectively  滥用
2. unwanted materials   废物,垃圾
vt. not use sensibly  滥用,浪费
adj. waste materials, substances etc are unwanted because the good part of
them has been removed.  无用的,废弃的
a waste of money/time/effort   浪费(金钱、时间、力气)
syn.  rubbish, refuse
ant.  save
watch [w t ] vi. vt.  to look at and pay attention to  something that is happening
观看,注视
n. 1. [C] a small clock that you wear on your wrist or carry in your pocket
手表,怀表
2. [sing. U]  the act of watching something carefully in order to warn
people of any danger  看守,守卫
keep watch   守望,值班,放哨
on watch   守望,值班
watch over  登看,监视
syn.  look
water ['w :t  ]  n. [U] 1. the colorless liquid that falls as rain, fills lakes and
rivers, and is necessary for life to exist 水
2. an area of water such as a lake, river, etc.  水域
vt.  to pour water on an area of land, a plant etc, especially in order to
make things grow.
浇水,灌溉
vi.  eyes water  流泪
vt.  to give an animal to drink.
使(牛、马等)饮水
fresh water 淡水
boiling water   沸水
wave [weiv] n. [C] 1. a line of raised water that moves across the surface of the
sea  波浪
2. a movement of your hand or arm from side to side   挥手
3. the form in which some types of energy such as light and sound
move   波
long-wave   长波
short wave   短波
vi. to move your hand or arm from side to side in order to greet someone or
attract their attention  挥手
vt. make something move  使波动
way [wei] n. 1. method  方法,手段
2. manner  方式
3. road/path   道路
4. direction  方向
5. distance  路线,路途,路程
by the way  顺便说,顺便问一下
get in one's way  妨碍某人
on one's way to  往...去的路上
on the way   在途中,在路上
in this way  用这种方法
This way, please.  请这边走
make one's way  前进,行进
we [wi:] pron. [used as the subject of a sentence] I and one or more other
我们(作主格)
weak [wi:k] adj. 1. not physically strong  弱
2. not having much ability or skill in a particular activity
or subject  差的,薄弱的
3. easily influenced by other people because you cannot make
decisions by yourself  软弱的,儒弱的
weakness  n. [U]  虚弱,脆弱 [C]  弱点
syn. feeble, frail
ant. strong
wealth [wel ]n. 1. [u] a large amount of money and possessions 财富,财产
2. a large number or amount of experience etc. 丰富(经验),大量
a man of great wealth  有钱人
wealth  adj.  富的
syn. rich
ant. poor
wear [w  ] v. (wore[w :], worn [w :n])
1. vt. to have something such as clothes, shoes, or jewellery on your
body 穿,戴
2. vi  to become thinner or weaker after continuous use
磨损,变旧,穿破,用坏
n. [U]  damage caused by continuous use over a long period
磨损,损耗
wearing   使人疲乏的
weary   疲倦的,困乏的
wear out  穿旧,使筋疲力尽
syn. dress
ant. undress
weather ['we  ] n. [sing. U]  the temperature and other conditions such as rain,
sun, and wind 天气
vi.,vt.  if rock, wood etc weathers, or if wind, sun rain etc weathers them,
they change colour or shape over a period of time
使经受风吹雨打,使褪色侵蚀,风化
syn. climate
wedding ['wedi ] n. [c]  a marriage ceremony, especially one with a religious service
婚礼
wedded   已结婚的,结婚的
wedding-breakfast  喜宴(在婚礼后蜜月旅行前举行)
wedding-cake  结婚蛋糕
wedding-day  婚礼日;结婚纪念日
wedding march  婚礼进行曲
wedding ring  结婚戒指
wedding bell  结婚的钟声
Wednesday['wenzdi] (written abbreviation Wed or Weds)
n.[C, U] the day between Tuesday and Thursday
In Britain. Wednesday is considered the third day of the week and
in the U.S.A it is considered the fourth day of the week
星期三
on Wednesday = each Wednesday
week[wi:k] n.[C]1. a period of seven days and nights. usually measured in Britain
from Monday to Sunday and in the US from Sunday to Saturday
星期、周;
2. any period of seven days and nights
(从任何时候算起)连续七天
3. the part of the week when you go to work usually from Monday to
riday 工作周  eg. working-week
weekend  n.[c]周未
weekly adj. 每周的
weigh[wei] v. 1.[Linking Verb] to have a particular weight 重若干,称分量
2. vt.  to use a machine to find out what something or someone weighs
称...重量,掂估...的分量
3. vt.  to consider something carefully so that you can make a decision
about it  掂量,考虑、权衡
weight  n.[u] 重量、重、体重
weighty  adj. 重的、重要的
welcome['welk m] vt.  1. to say hello in a friendly way to someone who has just
arrived   欢迎
2. to accept an idea, suggestion etc happily
高高兴兴地接受(建议,观点)
adj.  1. someone who is welcome is gladly accepted in a place 受欢迎的
2.    something that is welcome is pleasant and enjoyable, especially
because it is just what you need or want   可喜的、来得正好的
n.[C]  a greeting you give to someone when they arrive   欢迎,迎接
You are welcome  不用谢
well[wel]  adv.[better, best] 1.  satisfactorily  好,令人满意地
2.  in a thorough way  完全地,充分地
interjection (感叹词)
1.   used before a statement or question to emphasize it
哎呀,好,那么
2.   used to pause or give yourself time to think before saying something
[用于停顿或给自己时间思考]  喔,噢,这个
adj.[better, best]    healthy  健康的
n.[C]  a deep hole in the ground from which people take water  井
well-known['wel'noun]  出名的,众所周知的
sink a well = dig a well
as well 也
as well as 又;和...一样好,除了...而外还,不仅...而且
do well in  学得好
well-done  干得好
syn. fine
ant. ill, sick
west[west] n.[sing. U] the direction towards which the sun goes down, and which is
on the left of someone who is facing north  西部,西方
adj.[only before noun]  in the west or facing the west  西部的,西方的
adv.  toward the west  向西
westerner[west n ] n.[c]  西方人
wet[wet] adj.  1.  covered in or full of liquid  湿的,水分,液体
2.  rainy  多雨的
v.[wet or wetted]  to make something or somebody wet   把...弄湿
the wet  n. 湿气,水份,潮湿,雨天
what[w t]   pre-determiner, determiner, pron.
1. used when asking questions about a thing or person
(疑问代词)什么
2. used especially in indirect questions to talk about things or
information (关系代词)所...的事物(或人)
3. spoken used at the beginning of a statement to emphasize what you are
going to say(主语从句,表强调)所...的
adj.  spoken used at the beginning of a sentence to show that you think
something is very good very bad etc.  多么,何等
adv.  used especially in questions to ask to what degree or in what way
something matters 在哪一方面,到什么程度
int.  used to show that are angry/surprised by what someone has said
[表惊讶,气愤等]什么
whatever  adj.  不管什么,无论什么
what about = how about...  怎么样
pron.  不管什么,无论什么
syn. no matter what
wheat[wi:t] n.[U] 1.  the grain that bread is made from 谷物(做面包)
2.  the plant /that this grain grows on 小麦
wheel[wi:l] n.[U]  1.  one of the round things under a car, bus, bicycle, etc that
turn when it moves  车轮
2.     a flat round part in a machine that turns round when the
machine operates 机轮
v. to push/move someone or something that is an object with wheels
滚动,推动
wheelchair ['wi:l tf  ]n.  轮椅
when[wen] adv. conjunction
1.  at what time  什么时候
2.  at the time that  当...的时候
pron. since when used in questions to mean since what time    自...时候起
whenever [wen'ev ] conj.  每当,无论何时
syn.  no matter when
where[w  ] adv. conj. 1.  at,to,or from a particular place or position
去(往)哪里,从哪里
2.  in, towards,or from a particular situation or at a
particular situation or at a particular point in a
speech, argument etc.
在那里,往那里,在...地方,到...地方
wherever[w  'ev ] adv.  任何地方, 无论何处
syn. no matter where
whether['we  ] conj.  1.  used when talking about a choice you have to make or about
two different possibilities 是否
2.  used to say that something definitely will or will not
happen whatever the situation is.   不管...还是...
whether...or  <1>是...还是
<2>或者...或者,不是...就是
<3>不管...还是
whether or no  不管怎样,无论如何
syn. if
which[witf] determiner. pron. adj.
1.       used to ask or state what people or things you mean when a choice
has to be mad   哪一个;哪些
2.       use to show what specific thing or things you mean
(限定关系代词) 那一个,那一些
3.       used especially in written language after a comma, to add more
information about a specific thing or things, or about the first part
of the sentence  (非限定定语从句)  那一个,那一些
whichever[witf`ev ] determiner. pron.  无论哪个,无论哪些
while[wail] conj. 1.  during the time that something is happening
在(当)...的时刻;
2.  something happens at the same time as something else
和...同时
3.  used to emphasize the difference between two situations,
activities etc(强调不同)而,当...却
4.  used to show that you partly agree with, or accept something
but not completely(表让步)虽然,尽管
n.  a period of time, especially a short one    一会儿,一段时间
after a while  过了一会儿
in a short while  不久
once in a while  有时,偶尔
syn. as, when
whisper['wisp ]  1. vi. vt.  to speak or say something very quietly, using your
breath rather than your voice   耳语,低语
2. vt.  to say or suggest something privately or secretly
低声地讲,私下说  (后跟that 从句)
n.[C] 1. a very quiet voice, when you are whispering.  低语,耳语,私语
2. a piece of news or information  that has not been officially
announced  谣传,暗示,秘密话
in whispers  低声说话
white[wait] adj. 1. having the colour of milk, salt or snow  白的,白色的
2. looking pale, because of illness, strong emotion etc.
苍白的
n. 1.[U] the colour of milk, salt, and snow  白色
2.[C] someone who belongs to a pale-skinned race  白种人
3.[c + of] the white part of your eye  眼白
ant. black
who[hu:] pron. 1. used in questions to ask what person or people
(疑问代词,连接代词,引导名词性从句和否定式)谁
2. used in a question or statement to show what person or people you
are talking about (关系代词引导定语从句)谁
3. used especially in written language after a comma, to add more
information about a person or people
(关系代词,引导非限定语从句)谁
whose  adj.  谁的
whom  pron  谁(宾格)
whoever pron.  无论谁
syn. no matter who
whole[houl] adj.  all of something  整个的
syn. entire, all, total
ant. part
n.  the whole of all of something especially something that is not a
physical object.  整个
as a whole  通盘,作为整体
on the whole  总的来说
why[wai] adv. conj. for what reason  (疑问副词,关系副词,连接副词)为什么?
Why not?
a). used to make a suggestion  (表建议)建议为什么
b). used to show that you agree with
c). suggestion or idea  (对建议,观念)表示同意,  为什么不呢?
int. especially AME used to show that you are surprised or annoyed
(表惊异,不耐烦等)噢...
wide [waid] adj. 1. measuring a large distance from one side to the other
宽阔的
2. including or involving a large variety of different people,
things, or situations 广阔的 广泛的
3. wide difference/gap/variation etc. a large and noticeable
difference 开得很大的
adv. opening or spreading as much as possible   宽阔地 广大地 广泛地.
syn. broad
ant. narrow
wife [waif] (pl. wives[waivz]) n. [C] the woman that a  man is married 妻子
ant. husband 丈夫
wild [waild] adj. 1. Plants/animals : living in a natural state, not changed or
controlled by humans  野生的,野的
2. emotions: feeling or expressing strong uncontrolled emotions,
especially anger, happiness, or excitement
狂热的,疯狂的,发怒的
3. behaving in an uncontrolled, sometimes violent way
失去控制的,放荡的,任性的
wildlife [waildlaif] n. 野生动植物(总称)
ant. tame(驯服的)  domestic(家养的)
will [w:l] (modal verb) 1. used to express the simple future tense(将来时) 将要
2. used to show that you are willing or ready to do something
(表意志,意愿,建议等) 愿意,  乐意......
3. used to ask someone to do something
(客气提问)是否愿意
4. used like "can" to show what is possible
(表示功能)能,行
n. 1.[C, U] determination to do something that you have decided to do, even
if this is difficult 意志 决心 毅力(可与不定冠词连用)
2.[C] a legal document that says who you want your money and property to
be given to after you die 遗嘱
v.       to try to make something happen by thinking about it very hard
意欲,决心要, 主观促成
willing ['wili ] adj 乐意的,愿意的.
willingly ['wili li] 乐意地.
willingness['wili nis] n. [U] 意愿 愿望.
win [win] v.(won, won) 1.(I.T) to be the best or first in a competition, game,
election etc. 获胜  羸得
2. vt. to get something as a prize for winning in a
competition or game 获得(奖)
3. vt. to get or achieve something that you want because of
your efforts or abilities (经努力)达到,到达
n.[C]  a success or victory, especially in sport 胜利,羸
winner n. 获胜者
syn. gain
ant. lose
wind [wind] n. [C,U] moving air, especially when it moves strongly or quickly in
a current 风
get/have wind of: to hear or find out about something secret or private,
especially if you learn it accidentally or unofficially
风声,传说
[U] your ability to breathe without difficulty    呼吸,气息
wind [waind] v. (wound, wound) 1. to turn or twist something repeatedly, especially
around something else 缠绕 绕
2. if a road, track, river etc winds, it has many
smooth bends and is usually very long 迂回 蜿蜒
window ['windou] n. [C] 1. an opening in the wall of a building, car etc that lets
in light and air, and is usually covered with glass
窗中
2. one of the separate areas on a computer screen where
different processes or programs  are operating
(计算机)窗口
3. a short period of time that is available  for a particular
activity (为完成特定活动时的)有效时限
wine [wain] n. [C, U] 1. an alcoholic drink made from grapes, or a type of this drink.
葡萄酒
2. an alcoholic drink made from another fruit or plant
果子酒
vt. to entertain someone well with a meal, wine etc  (请...)喝酒
wing [wi ] n. [C] 1. one of the parts of a bird's or insect's body that is
used for flying 翅膀
2. one of the large flat parts that stick out from the side of
a plane and help to keep it in the air   机翼
3. one of the parts of a large building  边房 侧厅
v. 1. especially literary to fly 飞行
2. wing its way 飞速行进 使飞
winter ['wint ] n. [C, U] the season after autumn and before spring 冬天(季)
v. to spend the winter somewhere 过冬
wipe [waip] v. 1. to rub a surface with a cloth in order to remove dirt,
liquid etc. 擦净
2. to remove dirt, liquid or marks by wiping 擦去,去除,消灭
3. to try to forget an unhappy or upsetting experience
忘记,挥去(不高兴,悲伤)
n.[C] a wiping movement with a cloth. 擦,揩
wipe off 擦去
wire [wai ] n. 1.[U] thin metal in the form of a thread  金属线
2.[C] a piece of metal like this, usually covered in plastic, used
for taking electricity from one place to another  电线
v. 1.also wire up to connect wires to something,
especially in an electrical system.给...装电线
2.to fasten two or more thing together using wire.
用金属丝缚...
3.to send money electronically from one bank to another (线)电汇
a live wire 通电电线
wise [waiz] adj. 1. wise decisions and judgements are based on good sense and
experience; sensible  明智的
2. someone who is wise makes good decisions, gives good advice
etc, especially because they have a lot of experience of life
英明的,有见识的
v. wise up
1.[I] to realize the unpleasant truth about a situation.知道,了解
2.wise sb. up to: to make someone realize the unpleasant truth about
a situation.  使某从了解...
be/get wise to 知道,了解.
syn. bright, clever
ant. unwise. foolish
wisdom [wizd m] n. [u] 智慧
wish [wi ] v.  1.want something impossible 希望
2.want to do sth. 希望做某事
3.to say that you hope someone will have good luck, a happy life,
etc.  祝愿
n.[C]  1. desire 愿望
2. thing you want 希望
wish every success 祝...成功
with [wi ] prep. 1. near someone or something or in someone's presence
与...在一起
2. having, possessing, or showing a particular thing, quality or
feeling 具有,带有
3. by means of something or using it (表手段或方法)用
ant. without [wi' aut]
within [wi 'in] prep. adv. 1. inside a certain area and not beyond it
在...范围以内,不超过
2. during a certain period of time 在...期间
3. before a certain period of time has passed
syn. in    在...里面
woman [`wum n] n. (pl. women) 1. [C] an adult female person 妇女
2. a rude way of addressing a woman when you are angry
annoyed etc.  (生气时的粗鲁用语)女人
wonder [`w nd ] v. 1. [I.T] to think about something that you are not sure about
and try to guess what is true will happen etc. 想知道
2. [I.T] to feel surprised and unable to believe something.
诧异 感到疑惑
n.[U] a feeling of surprise and admiration for something very beautiful or
new to you. 奇迹,奇观
make wonders 创造奇迹 No wonder 不足为奇
wonderful [`w nd ful] adj 极好的.精彩的
wood [wud] n. 1. [C, U] the material that trees are made of 木头, 木材
2. [C] also the woods. a small forest 小森林,树林
syn. forest
woodcutter[`wud.k t ][c](pl. woodcutters) 樵夫,伐木工
wooden [`wudn] adj. 木的,木制的
wool [wul] n.[u] 1.the soft thick hair that sheep and  some goats have on the body.
羊毛
2.material made from wool 羊毛衣
3.thread made from wool that you use for knitting clothes
羊毛线
pull the wool over sb's eyes 蒙蔽某人
woolen [`wul n] adj. 羊毛的.羊毛制的
word[w :d] n. 1. [C] language/sth. you say or write  词,单词
2. talk/discussion  谈话
3. information/news  消息,信息
vt. to use words that are carefully chosen  in order to express something
用言词表达
have a word with sb.  和某人说句话.
in a word   总而言之
in other words 也就是说;换句话说.
keep one's word  信守诺言
work[w :k] v.  1. do a job  工作 劳动
syn. labour
2. (vi.) if a machine or piece of equipment works, it does what it
is supposed to do  运转
n. 1.[U] a job you are paid to do or an activity that you do regularly
to earn money. 工作劳动
syn. job
2.[U] something that you produce as a result of doing your job or doing
an activity. 成果,产品
at work   在工作
out of work  失业
work hard at  努力学习
work out 算出,解决
worker n. 工人
workable  adj. 可使用的,可操作的
workforce n. 劳动力.
workmate  n. 同事,工友.
works n. 作品,著作
world[w :ld] n. our planet/everyone on it 地球
syn. earth
adj. existing in or affecting the whole world 世界的
world famous  世界著名的
worldwide['w :ldwaid] adj.  世界范围的
worry['w ri] v. 1. v. be anxious  担心,担扰,发愁
2.make sb. anxious  使某人担扰
n. 1. [C] a problem that you are anxious about or are not sure how to
deal with  烦恼,心烦
2. [U] the feeling of being anxious about something  担心,扰虑
worry about  为...而担心
worse[w :s] adj.  1.[the comparative of bad] not as good as someone or something
else or more unpleasant or of a lower standard
坏, 更差,更恶劣.
2.[comparative of ill] more ill them before (病情)更重的.
adv. [comparative of badly]
1. in a more severe or serious way than before  更坏,更糟
2.to a lower standard or quality or less successfully  更低,更差
n.[U] something worse  更坏的事
from bad to worse  越来越糟
ant. better
worst['w :st] adj.[the superlative of bad] (only before now) worse than anything
else of the same kind or worse than at any time before
最坏的,最差的.
n. the worst: the person, thing, situation, state, part etc that is
worse than all others of the same kind or worse than at any time
before  最坏者
adv. [the superlative of badly] most badly 最坏地
v. [T usually passive] to defeat someone
in a fight, competition, or argument  击败,胜过
worth[w : ]  adj. be worth. to have a value in
money.  值...的, 有...的价值的.
be worth doing  ...值得...
It's worth doing sth.  做某事是值得的.
It's worth sb's while to do sth.  值得某人做...
syn. value
ant. worthless(无价值的)
would[wud] v.[modal verb] 1.used instead of "will" to describe what someone has said,
asked etc 将要(过去)
2. used to describe what someone used to do a lot or what
used to happen a lot  过去,常常,习惯
3.used instead of "will" with a past tense verb or to show
what is likely or possible  (表推测) 大概
4.Would you...? used to express a polite request
(语气委婉) 愿
would rather 宁愿...
wound[wu:nd] n. [C] 1. an injury, especially a cut or hole made in your skin by a
weapon such as a knife or a bullet.  伤口,创伤
2. a feeling of emotional or mental pain that you get when
someone says or does something unpleasant to you
(感情上的)痛苦,  (名誉的)损伤.
vt.  1. to injure someone, especially by making a cut or hole in their
skin using a knife, gun etc.  使受伤,伤害
2. to make someone feel unhappy or upset (在感情等方面)伤害
wounded['wu:ndid] adj. 受伤的.
write[rait] v. (wrote, written) [I.T] to produce a new book, poem song etc.
syn. copy    写,书写
write to: to write a letter to sb.  写信给...
write down:  写下,记下.
writer['rait ] n. 作者,作家,记者.
syn. author.
wrong[r  ] adj. 1. not correct 不对的,错误的
2. not suitable  不适当的.
3. not moral  不道德的,犯罪的,邪恶的.
adv. not in the correct way  错,不对
n.  1.[U] behaviour that is not morally right.  坏事,错事,邪恶.
2.[C] an action, judgement, or situation that is unfair
不公正,冤屈.
v.  to treat or judge someone unfairly  冤枉, 委屈
There's something wrong with ...                    ......出毛病了.
be wrong with   不顺心,出毛病.
do wrong  做错事,做坏事.
X-ray [’eks’rei] n. X射线, X光
yard [j  :d] n. 院子
year [j  :] n. 年
year after year年年; 每年
year by year 年年; 每年
yellow [’jel  u] adj. & n. 黄(色)的; 黄色
yes [jes] adv.  是; 好; 同意
yesterday [’jest  di] adv. & n.  明天
yet [yet] adv.  1. 到目前为止; 还
2. 仍然
you [ju:] pron.  你; 你们(主格;宾格)
young [j   ] adj. 年轻的; 年幼的
your [j  :] pron. 你的; 你们的
yourself [j  :’self] pron. 你自己
yourselves [j  :’selvz] pron. 你们自己
youth [ju:  ] n.  青春; 青年
zero  n. 1. the number 0 零
2. nothing 无
zero growth 零增长
zebra  n. horse-like African animal with broad black and white lines
斑马
zone  n. area 某种特性的地区
zoo  n. park where wild animals are kept for sh

 

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