高二英语上册第9单元复习知识点:Saving the earth

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高二英语上册第9单元复习知识点:Saving the earth

文 章来源 莲
山 课 件 w w w.
5Y k J. c oM

高二英语上册第9单元复习知识点:Saving the earth


(一)单元内容介绍与分析:

学习材料:听力”(Listening)部分提供了一段演说词,谈到了地球所面临的问题。第一部分要求学生通过听弄清说话者的观点,并根据所听内容预测下文;第二部分要求学生列出说话人的观点等,然后预测下文。

“阅读”(Reading)部分是一篇关于“地球峰会”的介绍性文章。文章介绍了2002年在南非首都约翰内斯堡召开的“地球峰会(The Earth Summit)”的基本情况,包括会议召开的背景、会议的主题以及与会者所讨论的主要问题和提出的解决办法等。通过对该文章的阅读,可以丰富学生有关本单元主题的语言和信息。

“综合技能”部分设计了听、说、写的活动,以写为主线。听的内容是“地球峰会”上的两篇发言。在听的基础上,要求学生陈述他们的观点。写的活动包括听中补充提纲,听后写要点、提纲以及说后写段落,环环相扣,层层深入。

“语言学习”:掌握有关倒装句的几个常用结构。

(二)词汇学习:

运用构词知识理解下列单词:

ecology;environmentalist;sustainable;killer;equality;fairness;responsibility;cooperation;willingness;incorrect

(三)重点词汇与短语的用法:

1. issue:问题;争议;发行;分配,期刊

You will attend the meeting and discuss the issue.

I just got a rise, so money is no longer an issue.

Unemployment is not the issue-the real problem is the decline in public morality.

The article will appear in the next month's issue.

The post office issued the stamps last week.

2. content:内容;目录;容量;满足;满意

Without reading the text, try to predict its content.

The content of your essay is excellent, but it’s not very well expressed.

注意表达“满足,满意”的短语:

be content with sth.

be content to do sth.

He is content with life.

John seems content to sit in front of the television all night.

3. access:接近;进入;接近……的方法;到达……的权利

20% of the people on earth do not have access to clean drinking water.

The house is in the center part of the town with good access to the shops.

Hospitals should give patients the right of access to their medical records.

All the branch managers can access the data bank of the general office.

4. responsibility:责任;责任心;职责

Rich countries have a responsibility towards poor countries and must do whatever they can to help others.

Taking care of family is a big responsibility.

注意构词形式:responsibility的形容词形式为responsible;常见短语是:be responsible for:替/对……负责。

She is my student, and I must be responsible for her.

5. in harmony with:与…协调/和谐;反义词out of harmony with

With better education, people will be able to build a better Society in harmony with nature and perhaps put an end to the death and sufferings caused by the big three.

His tastes are in harmony with mine.

Bob and I worked together in harmony for years.

6. put an end to:结束

We must put an end to this foolish behaviour.

The chief task of the moment is to put an end to the terrible pollution in the rivers.

 

(四)辨析下列单词(近义词)

1. affect / effect

affect:动词:影响;感动;侵袭

effect:名词:影响,效果;常见短语:have an effect on sb./ sth.

What we do is important because it affects the environment.

All the people in the room were affected to tears.

The medicine has little effect on the old man.

2. defend / protect / guard

defend:用武力或其他措施保护人们不受损害。辩护。

protect:用各种安全防御措施尽力照顾某人不受损害。

guard: 留心守望,警戒

Make sure that you are ready to answer questions and defend your argument.

It is the duty of every Chinese citizen to defend motherland.

Clothes protect us from cold.

Tow big dogs guard the farm.

(五)重,难点句的解释与分析

1. One of the main themes Of the summit was “sustainable development’,or the question of how we can continue developing the world without damaging the environment.

其主题之一是“可持续发展”,也就是如何在不破坏环境的情况下使世界继续发展的问题。

(1)句中or意为“也就是:即”,用于补充说明上文的内容。例如:

The company is paying the rent or at least Contributing to it

or的用法很多,除了上述的意思外,常见的还有:

Don’t put anything plastic in the oven or it will probably start melting.

Are you going with your parents or by yourself ?

(2)without doing结构在句子中作状语,表示“在没发生……情况下”。

They left the school in a hurry, without saying goodbye to anyone.

2. Air pollution alone causes almost three million deaths.

仅空气污染就造成了近三百万人死亡。

(1)alone在此是副词,用在名词或代词后面,表示“只,只有;仅仅”。

He alone is not responsible for it.

Money alone cannot make you happy.

alone还可以解释“单独地;独自地”。

He likes to go it alone in everything.

alone作形容词时,解释“单独的; 唯一的:独一无二的”,在句子作表语。

I am not alone in this opinion.

(2)deaths:可数名词:死亡的人数。不可数名词指:死亡。

3. If we are to develop the world successfully, we must make sure that everyone is able to take part in the new world we create.

如果我们要成功地开发世界,就必须确保人人都能够参与我们创造的新世界。

be +to do sth这个结构常常表示安排,命令、职责、义务、目的、用途,可能性、命中注定等含义。例如:

We are to meet at the school gate.

You are to be back by 10 o'clock.

The prize is to honour him for his great discovery.

4. Richer countries have a responsibility towards poorer countries and must do whatever they can to help others.

富国对于穷国负有责任,他们必须尽可能地帮助其他国家。

do whatever one can相当于do what one can,只是前者的语气更强。

(六)阅读材料中的典型倒装句:

1. Without international cooperation, developing countries cannot prosper, nor will sustainable development be possible.

没有国际合作,发展中国家合作就不可能繁荣,可持续发展也就不可能实现。

由nor,neither,not,hardly,seldom, never等表示否定意思的词位于句首时,句子采用部分倒装结构。部分倒装类似一般疑问句结构。

Never have I met him.

Seldom have we seen such big melons.

Hardly had she entered the house when she heard the dog barking.

2. Only by changing the way we live can we save the earth.

只有我们改变自己的生活方式,才能拯救地球。

由“only+状语”结构位于句首,句子也需采用部分倒装结构。

Only in this way can you work out the maths problem.

Only when Tom returns this afternoon will the meeting began.

3. Had I known that air conditioners cause so much pollution, 1 would never have bought one.

要是我以前知道空调会造成大量的污染,我就不会买它了。

这是一个含有虚拟语气结构的句子,其中条件句的引导词if被省略,按照倒装句的规则,采用部分倒装句。原结构是

If I had known that air conditioners cause so much pollution, 1 would never have bought one.

4. A better understanding of the environment is necessary, as is the willingness to act.

更好地了解环保是必要的,行动的愿望也是必要的。

as相当于so:通常表达“……也是一样”可以说:as / so is(was ; does; do; did….)+主语。

He believed, as did all his family, that God would bless them.

文 章来源 莲
山 课 件 w w w.
5Y k J. c oM
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