八年级英语下册重点语法和短语

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八年级英语下册重点语法和短语

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八年级下册重点语法和短语
Unit 1 Will people have robots?
重点语法:一般将来时态的应用
          do/does 的一般将来时态形式:(shall/will) do
          do/does 的一般将来时态的被动语态:(shall/will) be done
一般将来时态的肯定句、否定句、疑问句形式:
肯定句例句:People will have robots in a few years.
否定句例句:People (will not/won't) have robots in a few years.
一般疑问句例句:Will people have robots in a few years?
特殊疑问句例句:What will people have in a few years?
重点短语:won't = will not
          they'll = they will
          she'll = she will
          he'll = he will
          I'll = I will
          fall in love with(sb./sth.) 爱上(某人/某物)
          be able to do sth. 能够做某事
          come true 实现
          in the future 未来
          hundreds of 数以百计的
          thousands of 数以千计的
          look for(sb./sth.) 寻找(某人/某物)
          will → would 情态动词 will 的原形和过去式
          may → might 情态动词 may 的原形和过去式

Reading Strategy(阅读方法)
Look at the title and picture, and predict what you will read about. (看着标题和图片,预知你要阅读那些方面的内容。)This helps you get ready to acquire new information. (这样可以帮助你获得一些新的信息。)

Unit 2 What should I do?
重点语法:过去将来时态(将来时态的委婉说法)
          do/does 的过去将来时态形式:(should/would) do
          do/does 的过去将来时态的被动语态:(should/would) be done
过去将来时态的肯定句、否定句、疑问句形式:
肯定句例句:You should write a letter to him.
否定句例句:You shouldn't write a letter to him.
一般疑问句例句:Should I write a letter to him?
特殊疑问句例句:What should I do?
重点短语:keep sb. out 不让某人进入
          What's wrong? = What's the matter? = What's the problem? 怎么了?
          out of style 不时髦的;过时的
          call sb. up 给某人打电话
          pay for sth. 为某事付款
          part-time job 兼职工作
          the same as = be same (to/with) 与……同样
          in style 时髦的;流行的
          get on [well] with sb. = get along [well] with sb. 与某人相处(好)
          didn't = did not
          couldn't = could not
          as ... as possible 尽可能……(eg/ as soon as possible 尽快)
          all kinds of 各种;许多
          on the one hand 一方面
          on the other hand 另一方面
          ask sb. for sth. = ask sb. to do sth. 请求某人做某事
          ask sb. not to do sth. 请求某人不要做某事
          spend (money) on sth. = spend (money) [in] doing sth. 花钱做某事
          sth. cost sb. (money) 某人花钱为了某事
          take sb. sometime to do sth. 花某人时间做某事
          find out 查明
          find sb. doing sth. 发现某人做某事
          be angry with sb. 生某人的气
          be angry at sth. 生某事的气
          the same age as = as old as 与某人年龄一样
          have fight with sb. 与某人打架
          learn to do sth. 学会做某事
          not ... until ... 直到……才……
          compare sth.(A) with sth.(B) 把某事(A)与某事(B)作比较
          it's time for sth. = it's time to do sth. 到该做某事的时间了
          maybe adv. 或许
          may be (情态动词 + 动词原形)可能是
          shall → should 情态动词 shall 的原形和过去式
          pay → paid → paid 动词 pay 的原形、过去式和过去分词

Reading Strategy(阅读方法)
You will learn to use new words better if you use a learner's dictionary. (时刻学着应用新单词来学习比时刻使用字典这种途径方法更好。)A bilingual dictionary sometimes gives the wrong meaning for the situation you want. (在某些你需要的场合下,一本双语字典有时会给你错误的解释。)

Unit 3 What were you doing when the UFO arrived?
重点语法:过去进行时态
          do/does 的过去进行时态形式:(was/were) doing
          do/does 的过去进行时态的被动语态:(was/were) being done
过去将来时态的肯定句、否定句和疑问句形式:
肯定句例句:I was walking down the street when a UFO landed.
否定句例句:I wasn't walking down the street when a UFO landed.
一般疑问句例句:Were you walking down the street when a UFO landed?
特殊疑问句例句:What were you doing when a UFO landed?

动词 when 和 while 的选择:when 后加瞬间动词,while 后加延续性动词。
例句:The boy was walking down the street when the UFO landed.
     =While the boy was walking down the street, the UFO landed.

感叹句
结构:(1) How + adj. + the + 主语 + 谓语动词
     =(2) What + (a/an) + [adj.] + n. + 主语 + 谓语动词
例句:What a beautiful flower [it is]!
     =How beautiful the flower is!
      What beautiful flowers [they are]!
     =How beautiful the flowers are!

重点短语:get out 出去;离开
          take off 起飞
          run away 逃跑;跑掉
          come in 进来
          hear about = hear of 听说
          take place 发生
          as ... as 像……一样(eg/ as old as him 像他一样老)
          anywhere = everywhere = here and there 任何地方
          think about 考虑
          think of 认为
          get up = get out of the bed 起床
          at the doctor's 在诊所
          every day 每一天
          everyday adj. 日常的
          most adj. 大部分
          the most 最多的
          in space 在太空中
          national hero 民族英雄
          all over the world = in the world 全世界

Reading Strategy(阅读方法)
The title can be helpful for you to understand a text. (一篇文章的标题可以帮助你理解整篇文章。)It's also a good idea to read the first sentence of each paragraph before you read. (在阅读整篇文章之前,阅读每段的第一句话也是一个很有效的方法。)

Unit 4 He said I was hard-working.
重点语法:宾语从句
结构:主语 + 谓语动词 + 宾语从句(主语 + 谓语动词 + 宾语/表语)
例句:----I'm good at English. He says. (改为加宾语从句的复合句)
      ----He says I'm good at English.
注意:①主句是一般现在时态,宾语从句的时态不受其影响。
        例句:He says I'm good at English now.
              He says I was good at mathematics when I was young.
      ②主句是过去时态,宾语从句也要用过去时态。
        例句:He said I was good at mathematics when I was young yesterday.
              He said I was good at English now yesterday.
      ③宾语从句是客观真理时永远用一般现在时态。
        例句:Our teacher says 24 hours make a day.
             Our teacher said the sun gives us so many energy yesterday.
      ④动词原形不能作主语,必须用其 -ing 形式。
        例句:She said helping others changed her life.
重点短语:direct speech 直接引语
          reported speech = indirect speech 间接引语
          first of all = at first 首先
          pass on 传递
          be supposed to do sth. 应该做某事
          be good at = do well in 在某方面做得好
          in good health 身体健康
          get over 克服
          open up 打开
          care for = take care of = look after 照料;照顾
          not any more = not any longer = no longer 不再
          have a cold 感冒
          end-of-year exam 年终考试
          get nervous 变得紧张
          forget to do sth. 忘记做某事(该事未做)
          forget doing sth. 忘记做某事(该事已做)
          it's + adj. + [for sb.] + to do sth. 做某事[对某人来说]……(加形容词)
          context 上下文

Reading Strategy(阅读方法)
First read for meaning, not for detail. (首先理解文段的大致意思,不在于文段的细节部分。)You can understand the meaning of a word you don't know from the context. (至于不懂的单词,你可以通过上下文来寻找它的正确释义。)

Unit 5 If you go to the party, you'll have a great time!
重点语法:if 引导的条件状语从句
结构:主句 + if + 条件状语从句
      if + 条件状语从句 + [(comma)] + 主句
注意:在 if 引导的条件状语从句中,主句应用将来时态,状语从句用一般现在时态。
例句:You'll have a great time if you go to the party.
     =If you go to the party, you'll have a great time.
重点短语:take away 拿走
          around the world = all over the world 在世界各地
          make a living 谋生
          all the time = always 一直
          What's the problem? = What's the matter? = What's wrong? 怎么了?
          in order to do sth. 为了做某事
          make sb. do sth. 使得某人做某事(to 省略,该结构是一个不带 to 的不定式。)
          make sb. adj. 使得某人……(加形容词)
          make sb. done 使得某人被做
          be famous for 为……而出名
          be famous as 作为……而出名
          in class 在课堂上
          spend ...(time/money) on sth. = spend ...(time/money) in doing sth. 花……(时间/钱)用于做某事
          see sb. do sth. 看见某人做某事(强调整个过程)
          see sb. doing sth. 看见某人做某事(强调偶然性)
          say → said → said 动词 say 的原形、过去式和过去分词
          tell → told → told 动词 tell 的原形、过去式和过去分词
          eat → ate → eaten 动词 eat 的原形、过去式和过去分词
          speak → spoke → spoken 动词 speak 的原形、过去式和过去分词

Unit 6 How long have you been collecting shells?
重点语法:现在完成进行时态
          do/does 的现在完成进行时态形式:have/has been doing
          do/does 的现在完成进行时态的被动语态:have/has been being done
现在完成进行时态所应用的场合:
①某事从过去发生一直持续到现在都在做
②过去发生的动作对现在造成影响
例:我已上了三年初中。
    I have been in Junior School for 3 years.
    自从那次他与我谈过心后,我天天都在进步。
    I have been making progress since he talked with me that time.
现在完成进行时态的肯定句、否定句和疑问句形式:
肯定句例句:I have been skating for five hours.
否定句例句:I haven't been skating for five hours.
一般疑问句例句:Have you been skating for five hours?
特殊疑问句例句:How long have you been skating?
注意:瞬间动词不能和一段时间连用。
例句:你借这本书已经多长时间了?
      How long have you been keeping this book?
重点短语:run out of 用完;用尽
          by the way 顺便说说
          be interested in doing sth. 对某事感兴趣
          more than 比……多
          far away 在远处
          would like to do sth. = want to do sth. = feel like doing sth. 想要做某事
          send sb. sth. = send sth. to sb. 把某物赠送给某人
          in fact 实际上
          room 房间(用于可数名词);空间(用于不可数名词)
          common → more common → the most common 形容词 common 的原级、比较级和最高级

Reading Strategy(阅读方法)
Let your eyes "scan" the text quickly to find details that you're looking for. (在阅读文章之前,用眼睛“横扫”整篇文章,快速寻找你需要的文章要点。)You can find information quickly without reading the whole text. (这样你就不用细读整篇文章,就能寻找到你需要的一些信息。)

Unit 7 Would you mind turning down the music?
重点语法:mind [one's] doing sth. 介意(某人)做某事
重点短语:not at all 一点也不
          turn down 调节使音量变小
          right away = in a minute = at once 立刻;马上
          wait in line 排队等候
          cut in line 插队等候
          hasn't = has not
          keep ... down 压低声音;使缓和
          at first = first of all 首先
          take care 当心;小心
          take care of = care about = look after 关心;照顾
          break the rule 违规
          obey the rule 遵守规定
          put out 熄灭
          pick sth. up 捡起某物
          wait for sb. 等候某人
          depend on 依赖;依靠
          get back = return 要回
          mean → meant → meant 动词 mean 的原形、过去式和过去分词

Reading Strategy(阅读方法)
As we read, we need to find "topic sentences".(在我们阅读的时候,我们需要寻找“主题语句”,也就是和文章中心最相关的语句。) These sentences usually gives us a "summary", or overall meaning of each paragraph and help us understand what the paragraph is about.(这些语句通常会给我们一些文章的“概要”,或者每个文段的全部意思,来帮助我们理解段落大意。) After the topic sentence comes more detail and explanation.(当“主题语句”出现后,该段的一些解释和细节也就会随之出现。)

Unit 8 Why don't you get her a scarf?
重点语法:询问别人为什么要做或者不做某事
          why don't you do sth. = why not do sth.
          例句:Why don't you get her a camera? = Why not get her a camera?
          what about = how about
          例句:How about some tennis balls? = What about some tennis balls?
重点短语:fall asleep 入睡
          give away 赠送;分发
          hear of = hear about 听说
          take an interest in = be interested in 对……感兴趣
          make friends with 与……交友
          make progress 取得进步
          keep → kept → kept 动词 keep 的原形、过去式和过去分词
          feed → fed → fed 动词 feed 的原形、过去式和过去分词
          fall → fell → fallen 动词 fall 的原形、过去式和过去分词
          hear → heard → heard 动词 hear 的原形、过去式和过去分词

Reading Strategy(阅读方法)
To understand the important ideas from the text, we must "summarize".(为了了解文段最主要的意图,我们必须要进行总结。) Do this by answering "who, what, where, why" questions as you read.(在阅读时,常注意回答时间、地点、人物这些基本要素问题,达到总结的目的。)

Unit 9 Have you ever been to an amusement?
重点语法:现在完成时态
          do/does 的现在完成时态形式:(have/has) done
          do/does 的现在完成时态的被动语态:(have/has) been done
          现在完成时态主要强调过去发生的事情对现在的影响。
例句:我去年去过美国,那是我第一次出国。
      I have ever been to America. It's the first time for me to go abroad.
重点短语:have a great time = have a good time = have fun = enjoy oneself 玩得高兴
          on board 在船上
          end up doing sth. 结束做某事
          all year round = all over the year 终年
          understand → understood → understood 动词 understand 的原形、过去式和过去分词

Reading Strategy(阅读方法)
After reading, write down three or more things you have learned. (在阅读整篇文章之后,把你学到的三样或更多事物写下来。)We always remember things better if we take time to reflect. (如果我们花时间去思考一些问题的话,那么我们就能更容易地记住一些事情。)

Unit 10 It's a nice day, isn't it?
重点语法:反意疑问句
反意疑问句由肯定陈述句加否定问句构成,或者由否定陈述句加肯定问句构成。
例句:He's a student, isn't he?
      She's not his mother, is she?
回答反意疑问句时,要根据事实来回答。若事实是肯定的,则必须用 yes 回答。若事实是否定的,则必须用 no 回答。
例句:你还没有准备好,对吧?
      You're not ready, are you?
      是的,我没有准备好。
      No, I'm not.
      不,我准备好了。
      Yes, I am.

重点短语:look through 浏览
          come along 出现;发生
          get along 相处
          at least 至少
          at most 至多
          a thank-you note 感谢信
          forget → forgot → forgotten 动词 forget 的原形、过去式和过去分词
          little → less → least 形容词 little 的原级、比较级和最高级
          many/much → more → most 形容词 many/much 的原级、比较级和最高级

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